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Rubber seed oil (RO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can improve milk production and milk FA profiles of dairy cows; however, the responses of digestion and ruminal fermentation to RO supplementation in vivo are still unknown. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of RO and flaxseed oil (FO) supplementation on nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and rumen FA profile of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 8 weeks, including basal diet (CON) or the basal dietary supplemented with 4% RO, 4% FO or 2% RO plus 2% FO on a DM basis. Compared with CON, dietary oil supplementation improved the total tract apparent digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre and ether extracts ( P < 0.05). Oil treatment groups had no effects on ruminal digesta pH value, ammonia N and microbial crude protein ( P > 0.05), whereas oil groups significantly changed the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile by increasing the proportion of propionate whilst decreasing total VFA concentration, the proportion of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate ( P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in VFA proportions between the three oil groups (P > 0.05). In addition, dietary oil supplementation increased the total unsaturated FA proportion in the rumen by enhancing the proportion of trans-11 C18:1 vaccenic acid (VA), cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with RO and FO could improve nutrients digestibility, ruminal fermentation and ruminal FA profile by enhancing the VA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA and ALA composition of lactating dairy cows. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of RO in livestock production.
The antimicrobial use (AU) option within the National Healthcare Safety Network summarizes antimicrobial prescribing data as a standardized antimicrobial administration ratio (SAAR). A hospital’s antimicrobial stewardship program found that greater involvement of an infectious disease physician in prospective audit and feedback procedures was associated with reductions in SAAR values across multiple antimicrobial categories.
Cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) play an important role as keystone invertebrates in various marine ecosystems, as well as being a valuable fisheries resource. At the World Malacological Congress, held 21–28 July 2013 in Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal, a number of cephalopod experts convened to honour the contribution of the late Malcolm R. Clarke, FRS (1930–2013) to cephalopod research. Endorsed by the Cephalopod International Advisory Council (CIAC), the meeting discussed some of the major challenges that cephalopod research will face in the future. These challenges were identified as follows: (1) to find new ways to ascertain the trophic role and food web links of cephalopods using hard tissues, stable isotopes and novel concepts in theoretical ecology; (2) to explore new approaches to the study of cephalopod morphology; (3) to further develop cephalopod aquaculture research; (4) to find new ways to ascertain cephalopod adaptation and response to environmental change; (5) to strengthen cephalopod genetics research; and (6) to develop new approaches for cephalopod fisheries and conservation. The present paper presents brief reviews on these topics, followed by a discussion of the general challenges that cephalopod research is bound to face in the near future. By contributing to initiatives both within CIAC and independent of CIAC, the principle aim of the paper is to stimulate future cephalopod research.
The waters off north-west Scotland are known to provide important habitat for the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Between October 2008 and April 2011, systematic land-based surveys were carried out to assess the seasonal occurrence, group size and group behaviours of both species in a study area located off Melvaig, near Gairloch. Data were collected on 47 separate days, with a total of 4543 minutes of survey effort (in sea states ≤3) recorded during the spring months and 8204 minutes of effort during the autumn. A total of 189 sightings of marine fauna were recorded, comprising 126 cetacean sightings, 50 seal sightings and 13 sightings of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus). Six species of cetacean were identified, with most sightings comprising harbour porpoise (N = 72) or minke whale (N = 38). Harbour porpoise abundance was higher in autumn than in spring and there was a variation between years in numbers of minke whales sighted. In porpoises, sea state and cloud cover both influenced sightings and increasing sea state influenced survey area. Foraging behaviour was exhibited in 13% of harbour porpoise sightings and 34% of minke whale sightings. Results demonstrate a regular occurrence of harbour porpoises and minke whales in nearshore waters off Gairloch. Densities are comparable to boat surveys in the region and so support the use of land-based watches as a potential longer-term monitoring method for these species in coastal waters. Given the regular use of this area by these two European Protected Species, as well as the occurrence of a range of human activities potentially affecting them in the region, it may be appropriate to consider protecting this area for their conservation.
Magnetic microstructure, that is the configuration of domains and domain walls in a magnetic material, is of both fundamental interest and of crucial importance for device applications. For example, the ultimate density of magnetic information storage is limited by the sharpness of a domain boundary. The magnetic microstructure of a thin film or surface depends sensitively on its physical structure which is strongly affected by sample preparation or growth. High resolution magnetization imaging is necessary to determine the domain configuration that occurs for a particular sample preparation and the changes that take place under external perturbations such as applied magnetic field, stress or temperature.
Iron on GaAs(110) comprises an interesting system not only due to small lattice mismatch, 1.4%, but also because of the magnetic properties of the overlayer. In the present work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to investigate bcc Fe films in the 0.1 Å to 20 Å thickness range, grown at 300 K and 450 K substrate temperatures. STM images show Volmer-Weber growth with the formation of 3-D Fe islands 20–30 Å in diameter for 0.1–1 Å deposition at 300 K, increasing to 40–50 Å for thicker films. Iron island sizes at low coverage and thin film roughness at higher coverages both show significant dependence upon growth temperature.
The habitat preferences and niches of eight cetacean species inhabiting eastern tropical Atlantic waters between Angola and Gabon (1°N–11°S latitude) were examined. A total of 2873 cetacean sightings, recorded between January 2004 and June 2009, was assigned to 10 × 10 km grid cells and linked to four ecogeographical variables (EGVs): water depth, seabed slope, sea surface temperature (SST) and relative frontal strength. Classification trees revealed that the habitat preferences (in terms of the habitats sampled) of most species were primarily determined by SST (for Bryde's whale, sperm whale, short-finned pilot whale and common dolphin) and water depth (for Risso's dolphin, bottlenose dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin). Seabed slope was the most important EGV describing the presence of the striped dolphin. A principal component analysis was used to compare the niches of the species with respect to the four EGVs. Nineteen species pairs (68%) differed significantly in median principal component (PC) score for the first PC axis, suggesting differences in their niche centres for that axis. Sixteen species pairs (57%) differed significantly in PC score variance suggesting differences in the niche widths along the first PC axis. Water depth and SST were the most important variables for the first PC axis. Together, these results suggest that cetacean species inhabiting the eastern tropical Atlantic exhibit interspecific variation in their habitat preferences, and so differ in the niches that they occupy. These differences are most likely related to variation in prey species and foraging strategy.
Loess accumulated on a Bull Lake outwash terrace of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6) age in southern Jackson Hole, Wyoming. The 9 m section displays eight intervals of loess deposition (Loess 1 to Loess 8, oldest), each followed by soil development. Our age-depth model is constrained by thermoluminescence, meteoric 10Be accumulation in soils, and cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages. We use particle size, geochemical, mineral-magnetic, and clay mineralogical data to interpret loess sources and pedogenesis. Deposition of MIS 6 loess was followed by a tripartite soil/thin loess complex (Soils 8, 7, and 6) apparently reflecting the large climatic oscillations of MIS 5. Soil 8 (MIS 5e) shows the strongest development. Loess 5 accumulated during a glacial interval (~ 76–69 ka; MIS 4) followed by soil development under conditions wetter and probably colder than present. Deposition of thick Loess 3 (~ 43–51 ka, MIS 3) was followed by soil development comparable with that observed in Soil 1. Loess 1 (MIS 2) accumulated during the Pinedale glaciation and was followed by development of Soil 1 under a semiarid climate. This record of alternating loess deposition and soil development is compatible with the history of Yellowstone vegetation and the glacial flour record from the Sierra Nevada.
A successful method for abating PFC (perfluorinated compounds) emissions from semiconductor manufacture is presented. The method involves use of a novel thermal technique combining an inwardly fired burner with a built-in wet scrubber for removal of combustion products. The Edwards High Vacuum Thermal Processor Unit (TPU) is a Point of Use abatement device designed to destroy PFC and process gases.