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The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.
Social functioning (SF) difficulties are ubiquitous among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR), but it is not yet clear why. One possibility is suggested by the observation that effective SF requires adaptive emotion awareness and regulation. Previous reports have documented deficits in emotion awareness and regulation in individuals with schizophrenia, and have shown that such deficits predicted SF. However, it is unknown whether these deficits are present prior to the onset of psychosis or whether they are linked to SF in CHR individuals.
We conducted a cross-sectional comparison of emotion awareness and regulation in 54 individuals at CHR, 87 with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls (HC). Then, within the CHR group, we examined links between emotion awareness, emotion regulation and SF as indexed by the Global Functioning Scale: Social (Cornblatt et al. 2007).
Group comparisons indicated significant differences between HC and the two clinical groups in their ability to identify and describe feelings, as well as the use of suppression and reappraisal emotion-regulation strategies. Specifically, the CHR and schizophrenia groups displayed comparable deficits in all domains of emotion awareness and emotion regulation. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that difficulties describing feelings accounted for 23.2% of the SF variance.
The results indicate that CHR individuals display substantial emotion awareness and emotion-regulation deficits, at severity comparable with those observed in individuals with schizophrenia. Such deficits, in particular difficulties describing feelings, predate the onset of psychosis and contribute significantly to poor SF in this population.
A high variation in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration in first milked quarter colostrum has been reported, but BSA quarter colostrum variation is not known. The occurrence of serum albumin in milk has been attributed to increased blood-milk barrier penetration. Reports of serum albumin binding to the Fc Receptor of the neonate, the receptor thought to be responsible for IgG1 transcytosis, suggested that a correlation with the appearance of IgG1 in colostrum of dairy cows was likely. The objective of the study was to establish the quarter colostrum concentration and mass of immunoglobulins and serum albumin. First colostrum was quarter collected within 4 h of parturition from healthy udders of 31 multiparous dairy cows. Individual quarter colostrum weight was determined and a sample of each was frozen for subsequent analysis. Concentrations of immunoglobulin G1, G2, and BSA were measured by ELISA and total mass of components was calculated. In addition, colostrum was also analysed for L-lactate dehydrogenase activity. Analysis of concentration and mass of BSA, immunoglobulin G1, G2 established that the quarter variations were different by cow, quarter and quarter within cow. Partial correlations corrected for colostrum weight indicated that BSA and IgG2 concentration and mass are closely correlated while that of BSA and IgG1 concentration and mass exhibited no correlation suggesting that BSA and IgG1 may have different transport mechanisms. Interestingly, immunoglobulin G1 and G2 concentration and mass exhibited strong correlations suggesting that also some unknown mechanism of immunoglobulin G2 appearance in colostrum is occurring. Finally, no measured protein exhibited any correlation with the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in colostrum.
There are only a small number of prospective studies that have systematically evaluated standardised diagnostic criteria for mental disorder for more than a decade. The aim of this study is to present the approximated overall and sex-specific cumulative incidence of mental disorder in the Zurich cohort study, a prospective cohort study of 18–19 years olds from the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, who were followed through age 50.
A stratified sample of 591 participants were interviewed with the Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences of Psychological Disturbances for Epidemiology, a semi-structured interview that uses a bottom-up approach to assess the past-year presence of 15 psychiatric syndromes. Seven interview waves took place between 1979 and 2008. Approximated cumulative incidence was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods.
Rates of mental disorder were considerably higher than those generally reported in cross-sectional surveys. We found rates ranging from 32.5% for major depressive disorder to 1.2% for Bipolar I disorder. The cumulative probability of experiencing any of the mental disorders assessed by age 50 was 73.9%, the highest reported to date. We also found that rates differed by sex for most disorders, with females generally reporting higher rates of mood, anxiety and phobic disorder, and males reporting higher rates of substance- and alcohol-related disorders.
These findings confirm those of other long-term prospective studies that indicate the nearly universal nature of disturbances of emotion and behaviour across the life span. Greater community awareness of the normative nature of these experiences is warranted. An important area of future research is study long-term course and stability to determine who among those with such disturbances suffer from chronic disabling mental disorders. Such longitudinal studies may aid in directing services and intervention efforts where they are most needed.
Optical components such as lenses, glass windows, and prisms are subject to Fresnel reflection due to the mismatch between the refractive indices of the air and glass. An optical interface layer, i.e., antireflection (AR) layer, is needed to eliminate this unwanted reflection at the air/glass interface. Nanostructured broadband and wide-angle AR structures have been developed using a scalable self-assembly process. Ultra-high performance of the nanostructured AR coatings has been demonstrated on various substrates such as quartz, sapphire, polymer, and other materials typically employed in optical lenses. AR coatings on polycarbonate lead to optical transmittance enhancement from approximately 90% to almost 100% for the entire visible, and part of the near-infrared (NIR), band. The AR coatings have also been demonstrated on curved surfaces. AR coatings on n-BK7 lenses enable ultra-high light transmittance for the entire visible, and most of the NIR, spectrum. Nanostructured oxide layers with step-graded index profiles, deposited onto the optical elements of an optical system, can significantly increase sensitivity, and hence improve the overall performance of the system.
The effects of WO3 doping in 4,4’-bis-9-carbozyl biphenyl (CBP) were studied through detailed electrical device characterization. A series of hole-only devices have been fabricated, where the doping level was varied from 10-40mol% and the doped CBP thickness was varied from 5-40 nm. It was found that, to achieve effective doping for improved hole injection and transport, the doping level should be greater than 20mol% and the doped layer should be at least 10 nm thick. It was also found that an energy barrier exists at the doped and undoped CBP interface, resulting in an additional voltage drop. This finding was explained by a large downward shift of the Fermi level in WO3-doped CBP, which causes band bending and depletion at the interface. Finally, simplified green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with CBP as the hole transport and host material were fabricated. With a WO3-doped hole transport layer, the OLEDs attained brightness above 105 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm2, and exhibited an improved reliability under constant-current stressing as compared to undoped OLEDs.
The role of ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNB) in altering the frequency dependence of the capacitance of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films has been investigated. A cost effective spin coating deposition process was used to integrate the oxide heterostructures onto silicon substrates. This study showed that the frequency stability of the CCTO/LNB structure was much improved when the crystallization conditions and physical dimension of each layer were optimized. To integrate this structure with current silicon technology, heterostructures of CCTO and LNB thin films were fabricated on HF terminated Si using chemical solution deposition. It was found that the order of deposition of the two layers was important for the structural quality of the heterostructures with the CCTO layer followed by the LNB layer being the preferred structure. In addition to improvement of the capacitance variation with frequency, the heterostructures also provide a path to tuning the frequency of operation.
To examine the association of breakfast consumption with objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness.
The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Cross-Sectional Study. Breakfast consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls and by a ‘Food Choices and Preferences’ questionnaire. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed/agility) were measured and self-reported. Socio-economic status was assessed by questionnaire.
Ten European cities.
Adolescents (n 2148; aged 12·5–17·5 years).
Breakfast consumption was not associated with measured or self-reported physical activity. However, 24 h recall breakfast consumption was related to measured sedentary time in males and females; although results were not confirmed when using other methods to assess breakfast patterns or sedentary time. Breakfast consumption was not related to muscular fitness and speed/agility in males and females. However, male breakfast consumers had higher cardiorespiratory fitness compared with occasional breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers, while no differences were observed in females. Overall, results were consistent using different methods to assess breakfast consumption or cardiorespiratory fitness (all P ≤ 0·005). In addition, both male and female breakfast skippers (assessed by 24 h recall) were less likely to have high measured cardiorespiratory fitness compared with breakfast consumers (OR = 0·33; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·59 and OR = 0·56; 95 %CI 0·32, 0·98, respectively). Results persisted across methods.
Skipping breakfast does not seem to be related to physical activity, sedentary time or muscular fitness and speed/agility as physical fitness components in European adolescents; yet it is associated with both measured and self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness, which extends previous findings.
Antimicrobial drug shortages continue to increase, with few new therapeutic options available. Nationally, proposals have been offered to alleviate drug shortages; however, these recommendations are unlikely to effect change in the near future. Thus, antimicrobial stewardship leaders in acute care hospitals must develop a prospective management strategy to lessen the impact of these shortages on patient care. Herein, we describe several resources available to aid professionals in antimicrobial stewardship and healthcare epidemiology to manage drug shortages. An effective approach should include prospectively tracking shortages and maximizing inventory by appropriately managing usage. Several tenets should underpin this management. Alternative agents should be rationally chosen before the inventory of the primary agent has reached zero, ethical considerations should be taken into account, and timely notification and communication with key stakeholders should occur throughout the prescribing and dispensing process.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
This study aimed to identify the course of unmet needs by patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and to determine associated variables.
We investigated baseline assessments in the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) and also follow-up interviews at 6 and 12 months. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify patient groups based on individual differences in the development of unmet needs. Multinomial logistic regression determined the predictors of group membership.
Four classes were identified. Three differed in their baseline levels of unmet needs whereas the fourth had a marked decrease in such needs. Main predictors of class membership were prognosis and depression at baseline, and the quality of life and psychosocial intervention at follow-up. Depression at follow-up did not vary among classes.
We identified subtypes of patients with different courses of unmet needs. Prognosis of clinical improvement was a better predictor for the decline in unmet needs than was psychopathology. Needs concerning social relationships were particularly persistent in patients who remained high in their unmet needs and who lacked additional psychosocial treatment.
To compare food consumption during television (TV) viewing among adolescents who watched >2 h/d v. ≤2 h/d; and to examine the association between sociodemographic variables (age, gender and socio-economic status (SES)) and the consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks during TV viewing.
The data are part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional survey. Data on time watching TV, types of foods and drinks consuming during TV viewing and parental SES (parental education, parental occupation and family affluence) were measured by questionnaires completed by adolescents. Binary logistic regression tested the association between energy-dense foods and drinks and (i) sociodemographic variables and (ii) TV time.
Ghent (Belgium), Heraklion (Greece), Pecs (Hungary) and Zaragoza (Spain).
Girls (n 699) and boys (n 637) aged 12·5–17·5 years.
Boys reported more frequent consumption of beer and soft drinks whereas girls selected more fruit juice, water, herbal infusions and sweets (all P ≤ 0·05). Watching TV for >2 h/d was associated with the consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks. Girls whose mothers achieved the lowest education level had an adjusted OR of 3·22 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·72) for the consumption of energy-dense drinks during TV viewing v. those whose mothers had the highest educational level.
Excessive TV watching may favour concurrent consumption of energy-dense snacks and beverages. Adolescents from low-SES families are more likely to consume unhealthy drinks while watching TV.
An antigenic scheme for Citrobacter koseri was described previously and consisted of 14 ‘O’ antigens. Three additional antigens are now added to the scheme and type strains for these antigens are designated. Their origins and their biochemical and serological reactions are described.