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The goals of the present study were to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, sleep problems and the risk of developing heart disease in a Canadian community sample.
Baseline data were from the CARTaGENE study, a community health survey of adults aged 40–69 years in Quebec, Canada. Incidence of heart disease was examined in N = 33 455 participants by linking survey data with administrative health insurance data. Incident heart disease was identified using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 9th or 10th edition (ICD-9 and ICD-10) diagnostic codes for heart disease. Sleep problems were assessed with diagnostic codes for sleep disorders within the 2 years preceding the baseline assessment. Average sleep duration was assessed by self-report. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
In total, 2448 (7.3%) participants developed heart disease over an average follow-up period of 4.6 years. Compared to those without depressive symptoms and with no sleep disorders, those with elevated depressive symptoms and a sleep disorder (HR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.83–3.69), those with depressive symptoms alone (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.25–1.57) and those with sleep disorders alone (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.73) were more likely to develop heart disease. Test of additive interaction suggested a synergistic interaction between depressive symptoms and sleep disorders (synergy index = 2.17 [95% CI 1.01–4.64]). When sleep duration was considered, those with long sleep duration and elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to develop heart disease than those with long sleep alone (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.37–2.28; and HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.99–1.36, respectively).
Depression and diagnosed sleep disorders or long sleep duration are independent risk factors for heart disease and are associated with a stronger risk of heart disease when occurring together.
Photoelectric diodes with aluminum photocathod.es have been calibrated in the energy range from 0.1 keV to 1 keV with a multielement Henke X-ray tube system using regenerative monochromatic filters. The calibration is performed at six energies: (1) Be - (0.109 keV) , (2) C - Kα (0.277 keV), (3) Ti – Lα1, 2 (0.452 keV) , (4) Fe – Lα1, 2 (0.705 keV), (5) Cu – Lα1, 2 (0.930 keV), and (6) Al – Kαl, 2 (1.487 keV). Several different 99.9%, (1000 series) aluminum foils were calibrated for use as cathodes. In addition, the average energy per electron ion pair, W, has been measured for methane at these same energies.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with lifetime prevalence in the United States of 17%. Here we present the results of the first prospective, large-scale, patient- and rater-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the clinical importance of achieving congruence between combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing and medication selection for MDD.
1,167 outpatients diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate response to ≥1 psychotropic medications were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) arm or PGx-guided care arm. Combinatorial PGx testing categorized medications in three groups based on the level of gene-drug interactions: use as directed, use with caution, or use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring. Patient assessments were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 and 24. Patients, site raters, and central raters were blinded in both arms until after week 8. In the guided-care arm, physicians had access to the combinatorial PGx test result to guide medication selection. Primary outcomes utilized the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and included symptom improvement (percent change in HAM-D17 from baseline), response (50% decrease in HAM-D17 from baseline), and remission (HAM-D17<7) at the fully blinded week 8 time point. The durability of patient outcomes was assessed at week 24. Medications were considered congruent with PGx test results if they were in the ‘use as directed’ or ‘use with caution’ report categories while medications in the ‘use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring’ were considered incongruent. Patients who started on incongruent medications were analyzed separately according to whether they changed to congruent medications by week8.
At week 8, symptom improvement for individuals in the guided-care arm was not significantly different than TAU (27.2% versus 24.4%, p=0.11). However, individuals in the guided-care arm were more likely than those in TAU to achieve remission (15% versus 10%; p<0.01) and response (26% versus 20%; p=0.01). Remission rates, response rates, and symptom reductions continued to improve in the guided-treatment arm until the 24week time point. Congruent prescribing increased to 91% in the guided-care arm by week 8. Among patients who were taking one or more incongruent medication at baseline, those who changed to congruent medications by week 8 demonstrated significantly greater symptom improvement (p<0.01), response (p=0.04), and remission rates (p<0.01) compared to those who persisted on incongruent medications.
Combinatorial PGx testing improves short- and long-term response and remission rates for MDD compared to standard of care. In addition, prescribing congruency with PGx-guided medication recommendations is important for achieving symptom improvement, response, and remission for MDD patients.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Assurex Health, Inc.
I. De Pater, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
M. R. Showalter, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
H. B. Throop, Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona, USA,
J. A. Burns, Cornell University Ithaca, New York, USA
The polar mesopause region (80-100 km) is the coldest region of the Earth's atmosphere and is expected to be sensitive to global change. Reported increases in observations of polar mesospheric clouds over the last 100 years have been postulated to be related to decreased temperatures (associated with tropospheric warming) and increased water vapour at mesospheric altitudes (a result of increased methane concentrations in the troposphere). The temperature of this region can be monitored by spectroscopic techniques utilising hydroxyl (OH) emissions which originate near 87 km. The Australian Antarctic Division, Atmospheric and Space Physics group has been analyzing OH (6-2) band spectra recorded with a Czerny—Turner scanning spectrometer at Davis Station, Antarctica (68.6° S, 78.0° E) to optimise temperature determinations for climate change studies. A number of difficulties were encountered, some of which have been overcome and all of which can be overcome. The mid-winter average temperature of the OH layer for May-July 1990 has been measured as 224 ±2 K. The equivalent value for 1996 is 215±2 K. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed.
In an earlier report, two of us (Bowers and Ensley, 2003, National Election Studies Technical Report, www.umich.edu/~nes) provided a general framework for understanding the particular strategy outlined by Fogarty et al. (in this issue). Fogarty et al.'s strategy is to make the face-to-face variables more like the random digit dial (RDD) telephone variables by trimming the ends in order to reduce the variance of the face-to-face (FTF) variables. Perhaps some scholars will want the FTF variables to look like the RDD variables, but that would be a fix for a specific research question. Given the significant differences in the representativeness of the samples, the processes of survey nonresponse, and the quality and character of the responses between data taken from a National Area Probability sample in person and data taken from an RDD telephone sample, research questions involving comparisons with other years in the 50-year time series will require different remedies.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of an evidence-based assessment (EBA) model to establish a multimodal set of tools for identifying students at risk for perceived post-injury academic problems. Methods: Participants included 142 students diagnosed with concussion (age: M=14.95; SD=1.80; 59% male), evaluated within 4 weeks of injury (median=16 days). Demographics, pre-injury history, self- and parent-report measures assessing symptom severity and executive functions, and cognitive test performance were examined as predictors of self-reported post-injury academic problems. Results: Latent class analysis categorized participants into “high” (44%) and “low” (56%) levels of self-reported academic problems. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed significant discriminative validity for self- and parent-reported symptom severity and executive dysfunction and self-reported exertional response for identifying students reporting low versus high academic problems. Parent-reported symptom ratings [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=.79] and executive dysfunction (AUC=.74), and self-reported ratings of executive dysfunction (AUC=.84), symptoms (AUC=.80), and exertional response (AUC=.70) each classified students significantly better than chance (ps<.001). Hierarchical logistic regression indicated that, of the above, self-reported symptoms and executive dysfunction accounted for the most variance in the prediction of self-reported academic problems. Conclusions: Post-concussion symptom severity and executive dysfunction significantly predict perceived post-injury academic problems. EBA modeling identified the strongest set of predictors of academic challenges, offering an important perspective in the management of concussion by applying traditional strengths of neuropsychological assessment to clinical decision making. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1038–1049)
The Chalk River Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry System has reached a state of reliable measurement of 14C using 2 to 5mg elemental carbon prepared by Mg reduction of CO2. For two comparisons of a near-modern unknown with the NBS oxalic acid standard we obtain a total error of ∼±4.5%, consisting of a random system error of about ±3.5% combined with the statistical counting error. Measurements have been made on 70 samples in 30 days of running time during the past year. Samples included deep rock carbonates, cosmogenic 14C in meteorites, charcoal from earthquake fault zones, collagen of bone artifacts and fossil beetle-fragments.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic association between depressive symptoms and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).
The sample was comprised of 2886 participants aged ⩾50 years who participated in three clinical assessments over an 8-year period (21% with prediabetes and 7% with diabetes at baseline). Structural equation models were used to address reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels and to evaluate the mediating effects of lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors.
We found a reciprocal association between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels: depressive symptoms at one assessment point predicted HbA1c levels at the next assessment point (standardized β = 0.052) which in turn predicted depressive symptoms at the following assessment point (standardized β = 0.051). Mediation analysis suggested that both lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors might mediate the association between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels: depressive symptoms at baseline predicted lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors at the next assessment, which in turn predicted HbA1c levels 4 years later. A similar association was observed for the other direction: HbA1c levels at baseline predicted lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors at the next assessment, which in turn predicted depressive symptoms 4 years later.
Our results suggest a dynamic relationship between depressive symptoms and HbA1c which might be mediated by both lifestyle and cardiometabolic factors. This has important implications for investigating the pathways which could link depressive symptoms and increased risk of diabetes.
Depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease are common and frequently co-morbid, with significant impact on health outcome. Nevertheless, management is complex and often suboptimal. The existence of clinical subtypes would support stratified approaches in both research and treatment.
Five hundred and thirteen patients with Parkinson's disease were assessed annually for up to 4 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to identify classes that may conform to clinically meaningful subgroups, transitions between those classes over time, and baseline clinical and demographic features that predict common trajectories.
In total, 64.1% of the sample remained in the study at year 4. LTA identified four classes, a ‘Psychologically healthy’ class (approximately 50%), and three classes associated with psychological distress: one with moderate anxiety alone (approximately 20%), and two with moderate levels of depression plus moderate or severe anxiety. Class membership tended to be stable across years, with only about 15% of individuals transitioning between the healthy class and one of the distress classes. Stable distress was predicted by higher baseline depression and psychiatric history and younger age of onset of Parkinson's disease. Those with younger age of onset were also more likely to become distressed over the course of the study.
Psychopathology was characterized by relatively stable anxiety or anxious-depression over the 4-year period. Anxiety, with or without depression, appears to be the prominent psychopathological phenotype in Parkinson's disease suggesting a pressing need to understanding its mechanisms and improve management.
We sought to analyse the variation in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus over three recent time points and characterise ductal ligation practices in preterm infants in the United States, adjusting for demographic and morbidity factors.
Using the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 2003, 2006, and 2009, we identified infants born at ⩽32 weeks of gestation with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus and ligation code. We examined patient and hospital characteristics and identified patient and hospital variables associated with ligation.
Of 182,610 preterm births, 30,714 discharges included a patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis. The rate of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis increased from 14% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). A total of 4181 ligations were performed, with an overall ligation rate of 14%. Ligation rate in infants born at ⩽28 weeks of gestation was 20% overall, increasing from 18% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). The ligation rate varied by state (4–28%), and ligation was associated with earlier gestational age, associated diagnoses, hospital type, teaching hospital status, and region (p<0.001).
The rates of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis and ligation have increased in the recent years. Variation exists in the practice of patent ductus arteriosus ligation and is influenced by patient and non-patient factors.
Background: In the 1990s, heavy kava use in Aboriginal communities was linked to reports of unusual neurological events which were often described as ‘fits’ or ‘seizures’. Kava use has also been associated with extra-pyramidal movements. We now raise the possibility that kava toxicity and kava withdrawal may be associated with grand mal seizures. This paper describes some of ’these “seizure” episodes’ in kava drinkers. Nine communities and associated homelands in the eastern Arnhem Land (Miwatj) region (Northern Territory, NT) including 7001 Aboriginal people of whom 4217 were over 15 years. Twenty-one kava users experienced 32 “seizure” episodes for which the date of occurrence and other data was recorded in notes in community health clinic files dating from the 1980s up to 1999 in a sample of the Miwatj population. Kava, alcohol, tobacco, cannabis use and petrol sniffing, year in which “seizure” occurred, notes of kava toxicity or withdrawal. Kava toxicity effects were suspected in 15 and withdrawal effects in six of 32 “seizure” episodes. In seven episodes impaired consciousness and abnormal movements were adequately documented to suggest grand mal seizures. The maximum number of “seizures” experienced was three and three individuals experienced this number between 1990 and 1999. One was a heavy kava user. Six other individuals experienced two “seizures” each and five of these were heavy users. Sixteen individuals experienced 19 “seizures” during 1994-1997 when kava supply may have reached its peak. Fifteen of the 21 individuals experiencing “seizures” were heavy users described locally as dja[aw'marama. The clinical data and the coincidence of peak supply with records of “seizures” suggest kava toxicity and withdrawal seizures may both occur with heavy kava use. Further systematic analysis is warranted to confirm this and to assess kava's effects with respect to possible confounders such as alcohol.
Becoming widowed is a significant event. There is considerable evidence that surviving partners report substantial changes in their wellbeing and mental health. Changes can occur prior to partner's death as an anticipatory effect and consequently during the period after partner's death. For most, declines in wellbeing and mental health dissipate over time. However, there is a limited long-term evidence to compare age-normative trajectories in mental health and wellbeing with the trajectories of those who transition into widowhood.
Participants (n = 652) were older adults (aged 65–94 years at baseline) from the 16-year Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing project who were either married or de facto (n = 577), or recently widowed (n = 75). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) examined the immediate and long-term impact of widowhood. GEE piecewise regression analyses examined the trajectories of wellbeing and mental health in those who transitioned into widowed with time centered at time of partner's death. Analyses were stratified by gender.
For both men and women, becoming widowed was strongly related to a strong decline in positive affect post partner's death. Otherwise, no long-term impact of widowhood on negative affect or depressive symptomology was reported.
The impact of widowhood reports differential impacts on different indicators of wellbeing and mental health, which were inconsistent between men and women.
There is limited evidence on the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, aims and methods of the Africa Focus on Intervention Research for Mental health (AFFIRM) collaborative research hub. AFFIRM is investigating strategies for narrowing the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa in four areas. First, it is assessing the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions by conducting randomised controlled trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. The AFFIRM Task-sharing for the Care of Severe mental disorders (TaSCS) trial in Ethiopia aims to determine the acceptability, affordability, effectiveness and sustainability of mental health care for people with severe mental disorder delivered by trained and supervised non-specialist, primary health care workers compared with an existing psychiatric nurse-led service. The AFFIRM trial in South Africa aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of a task-sharing counselling intervention for maternal depression, delivered by non-specialist community health workers, and to examine factors influencing the implementation of the intervention and future scale up. Second, AFFIRM is building individual and institutional capacity for intervention research in sub-Saharan Africa by providing fellowship and mentorship programmes for candidates in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Each year five Fellowships are awarded (one to each country) to attend the MPhil in Public Mental Health, a joint postgraduate programme at the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University. AFFIRM also offers short courses in intervention research, and supports PhD students attached to the trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. Third, AFFIRM is collaborating with other regional National Institute of Mental Health funded hubs in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, by designing and executing shared research projects related to task-sharing and narrowing the treatment gap. Finally, it is establishing a network of collaboration between researchers, non-governmental organisations and government agencies that facilitates the translation of research knowledge into policy and practice. This article describes the developmental process of this multi-site approach, and provides a narrative of challenges and opportunities that have arisen during the early phases. Crucial to the long-term sustainability of this work is the nurturing and sustaining of partnerships between African mental health researchers, policy makers, practitioners and international collaborators.
Two seasons of work have now been conducted by British and French survey teams, in conjunction with members of the Libyan Antiquities Department, under the charge of Dr. Abdullah Shaiboub. The objectives of the survey are to locate, survey and analyse the extensive remains of the ancient agricultural settlements that can be found in the wadis of the hinterlands of Tripolitania and the Sirtica. Within the framework established by the Department in cooperation with Unesco lies the archaeological aim of recording the evidence for periods when extensive areas of the pre-desert were, for whatever reasons, cultivated in ways that are not similarly practised today. In the longer term the programme is designed to locate those areas where modern farming might be re-established. Archaeology is thus brought into line with the aims of the modern world.
For the purposes of this report we intend to concentrate on the period which we call the Romano/Libyan in which the great majority of those farming settlements flourished. The prehistoric evidence is in any case mainly of the palaeolithic period, on which there is a separate section.
The preferred zone of settlement in Tripolitania has traditionally been the well watered coastal plain and the adjacent limestone hills of the Tarhuna Gebel as far south as the town of Beni Ulid, for these regions have more than 200 mm of rain a year, regarded as the threshold for settled farming without irrigation. Prehistoric settlement concentrated here, and mixed farming has probably characterised this zone from the fourth millennium b.c. In the Roman period the coastal cities like Sabratha and Leptis Magna were supported by prosperous farms on the plain and in the Gebel. In the Islamic period, too, the same region was densely settled.
The final season of the three-year programme to survey the central Tripolitanian pre-desert examined the region to the west of the regions of the Wadis Sofeggin and Zem Zem, casting important light on the route between the interior of Libya and the coast during the prehistoric and Roman periods. In particular, a detailed account is given of the archaeological sites of the Bir Scedua Basin and of the Severan fort at Gheriat el-Garbia.
This article describes the interdisciplinary methods developed by the UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey in connection with the study of ancient agriculture. These methods combine the techniques of settlement archaeology with those of the earth sciences and palaeoeconomics. The interactive nature of the enquiry does not resolve all the questions, but it can help to re-shape those questions and suggest new lines of enquiry. The example of the Wadi Mansur is used here to demonstrate the application of both conventional and new techniques and the contribution this can make to our appreciation of ancient land use in an arid zone. This provisional statement of results describes the geomorphology of the wadi, the settlement archaeology, ceramic dating evidence, palaeoeconomic data (including palynological evidence), wadi wall technology and typology.
A fourth season of work was carried out in the Spring of 1984. The centrepiece of the programme was the investigation of the well-preserved farm in the Wadi el-Amud (Lamout). The main farm buildings were excavated, faunal and botanical samples were collected systematically from within and between them, the field systems and sluices were examined in detail and investigations begun on the geomorphological and hydrological context. This report presents the basic description of the archaeological data resulting from excavation and survey; a second report will present the results of the various laboratory studies which were generated by the field work.
Gender differences in depression are well established. Whether these differences persist into late life and in the years preceding death is less clear. There is a suggestion that there is no increased likelihood of depression in late life, but that there is an increase in depressive symptomology, particularly with proximity to death. We compared trajectories of probable depression and depressive symptomology between men and women over age and distance-to-death metrics to determine whether reports of depressive symptoms are more strongly related to age or mortality.
Participants (N = 2,852) from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project had a mean age of 75 years (SD = 5.68 years) at baseline and were observed for up to 16 years prior to death. Multi-level regression models estimated change in depressive symptomology and probable depression over two time metrics, increasing age, and distance-to-death.
Increases in depressive symptomology were reported over increasing age and in the years approaching death. Only male participants reported increased probable depression in the years preceding death. Models that utilized distance-to-death metrics better represented changes in late-life depression, although any changes in depression appear to be accounted for by co-varying physical health status.
As death approaches, there are increases in the levels of depressive symptomology even after controlling for socio-demographic and health covariates. In line with increases in suicide rates in late life, male participants were at greater risk of reporting increases in depressive symptomology.