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The correction of aberrations in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has simultaneously improved both spatial and temporal resolution, making it possible to capture the dynamics of single atoms inside materials, and resulting in new insights into the dynamic behavior of materials. In this article, we describe the different beam–matter interactions that lead to atomic excitations by transferring energy and momentum. We review recent examples of sequential STEM imaging to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of single atoms both within materials, at dislocations, at grain and interface boundaries, and on surfaces. We also discuss the effects of such dynamic behavior on material properties. We end with a summary of ongoing instrumental and algorithm developments that we anticipate will improve the temporal resolution significantly, allowing unprecedented insights into the dynamic behavior of materials at the atomic scale.
The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006.
Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment.
Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of severe role impairment among chronic physical and mental disorders.
These results suggest lower prevalence of mental disorders in Japan than that in Western countries, although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors and unmet need for treatment were similar to those in other countries. Greater lifetime prevalence for males and greater persistence for females seems a unique feature of Japan, suggesting a cultural difference in gender-related etiology and course of disorders. The treatment rate in Japan was lower than that in most other high-income countries in WMH surveys.
One of the difficulties in analyzing atomic resolution electron microscope images is that the sample thickness is usually unknown or has to be fitted from parameters that are not precisely known. An accurate measure of thickness, ideally on a column-by-column basis, parameter free, and with single atom accuracy, would be of great value for many applications, such as matching to simulations. Here we propose such a quantification method for annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy by using the single electron intensity level of the detector. This method has the advantage that we can routinely quantify annular dark field images operating at both low and high beam currents, and under high dynamic range conditions, which is useful for the quantification of ultra-thin or light-element materials. To facilitate atom counting at the atomic scale we use the mean intensity in an annular dark field image averaged over a primitive cell, with no free parameters to be fitted. To illustrate the potential of our method, we demonstrate counting the number of Al (or N) atoms in a wurtzite-type aluminum nitride single crystal at each primitive cell over the range of 3–99 atoms.
We demonstrated high-resolution element-specific diffraction microscopy using a hard X-ray beam focused by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors. Coherent diffraction patterns of an Au/Ag nanoparticle were measured at incident X-ray energies around the Au LIII absorption edge. By calculating the difference between the intensities of reconstructed images obtained at different energies, an image of the Au element could be derived. From the difference image, it was suggested that the replacement reaction progresses from the corners of Ag cubic particle.
The genealogy and diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene were investigated for Ostrinia furnacalis in Japan. A preliminary examination of mitochondrial lineages in China and the Philippines was also made. Two lineages (A and B) were found in the COII gene. Lineage A was frequent throughout the Japanese main islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu), while the frequency of lineage B varied among these islands. No clear patterns of geographical population structure were found. Population genetic features suggested that the O. furnacalis population harboring the lineage A mitochondria expanded in the recent past, while lineage B showed weak signals of a population expansion. It is not clear whether the two lineages of mtDNA evolved in separate or identical geographical regions. We discuss two hypotheses regarding the two lineages of mtDNA: a cryptic race/species hypothesis and a selective sweep hypothesis.
Three kinds of Fe-based model alloys, Fe-0.02wt%Cu, Fe-0.6wt%Cu, and Fe-1.2wt%Cu were irradiated with 2MeV electrons at 250°C. After the irradiation, the hardness was measured by using a micro Vickers hardness tester at room temperature. It was found that the hardness change by electron irradiation is proportional to the product of the copper concentration and the square root of electron fluence. The result is discussed in terms of the dispersion strengthening by Cu precipitates.
CeO2 thin films were irradiated with 200MeV Xe ions. Effects of the irradiation were studied by using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement at SPring8 synchrotron radiation facility. EXAFS spectra for the irradiated thin films near the Ce K-edge show that the coordination number for oxygen atoms around Ce atom decreases and that the Ce-O Debye-Waller factor increases by the irradiation. The atomic distance between oxygen atom and Ce atom does not vary within the accuracy of EXAFS measurement. The effect of high density electronic excitation on the structure of CeO2 is discussed.