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Unilateral total facial palsy is a debilitating condition that can affect an individual's physical, social and emotional wellbeing. When this occurs bilaterally, the severity of impact is extreme, with significant cosmetic disfigurement and functional morbidity. A variety of facial reanimation techniques have been used for unilateral facial weakness of varying House–Brackmann grades, and these are also applicable in bilateral cases. In bilateral cases, it is difficult to gauge successful improvement in comparison to the contralateral side, which also is afflicted.
This paper presents our experience with a bilateral facial paralysis patient who had a complex otological history. The patient, who presented with bilateral debilitating grade VI facial palsy, achieved a good result from bilateral facial reanimation with sequential hypoglossal–facial anastomosis. This is considered a reasonable option in cases of bilateral facial paralysis.
The authors of this paper met at Harvard University in July, 1955, to discuss the theoretical problems which arise in the study of culture contact situations in archaeology. The subject of contacts between cultures is one in which ethnologists have long been interested, and there is a substantial body of literature, both descriptive and theoretical, on contemporary and recent historic situations of this kind. Archaeological interest in the subject is somewhat more recent, but a few excellent reports on specific examples have appeared which we could use as a basis for our discussions. We believe that this paper is only the second attempt to contribute something to this field by generalization from archaeological data (Willeyl953).
Gorham–Stout disease of the skull is a very rare entity. It presents with gradual bone resorption, and proliferation of lymphoid and vascular channels within the bony matrix. This is often a diagnosis of exclusion confirmed with serial imaging and based on radiological evidence.
A case of Gorham–Stout disease of the temporal bone involving the temporomandibular joint, and presenting with sensorineural hearing loss and recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation, is reported. The findings are presented and the literature on this condition is reviewed.
ENT and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of this extremely rare cause of temporomandibular joint dislocation and ear symptoms. Imaging comprising computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is crucial to achieving a diagnosis, which may only become evident after repeated imaging follow up. Symptomatic treatment is advised, with the option of anti-osteoclastic medication and radiotherapy indicated for advanced cases. Surgery is only recommended for complications including involvement of neurovascular structures.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent herpesvirus linked to infectious mononucleosis and several malignancies. This paper aims to study the association between children's early life social environment at 9 months and EBV infection at 3 years of age.
We used data on children included in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. We described the social environment using area-level and material factors as well as socioeconomic position (SEP) at 9 months. EBV was measured at 3 years of age (n = 12 457).
Lower rates of EBV infection were observed in children living in towns and rural areas compared with those living in cities. Lower SEP and overcrowding in the household increased the odds of being infected. Children whose parents were social tenants were more likely to be infected than homeowners. In the overall model, the strength of the association between material factors and EBV infection weakened.
We showed that early life material deprivation was associated with a higher risk of EBV infection among 3-year-olds. Children living in more deprived social conditions may be more likely to become EBV carriers at an earlier age.
Glen’s flow law is a well-established general law for steady-state glacier ice deformation, and many laboratory tests and field measurements have been undertaken which have shown the generality of the law to be correct. In Nature, ice deformation is the response of the glacier/ice sheet to the applied self-weight stress of the ice mass (i.e. ice thickness, gravity and ice density) which produces a stress gradient within the ice column. Detailed experimental analyses of ice samples in the laboratory have until now only been undertaken using uniform stress fields in uniaxial or triaxial tests. Obviously the best method for investigating ice in the laboratory would be if stress gradients similar to those found in Nature could be replicated. In the following paper we describe the physical modelling of two (laboratory-prepared) isotropic, polycrystalline ice models (0.75 × 0.25 × 0.18 m) at enhanced gravity levels (80g) in a geotechnical beam centrifuge. Steel plate was placed on top of the ice model, replicating an overburden of approximately 36 m of ice (at 80g). Thus we were able to model the deformation of the lower 14 m of an ice mass approximately 50 m thick. Models are confined laterally by the Perspex strongbox walls, preventing lateral extension within the sample during testing. Models are unconfined on their downslope ends, rendering longitudinal stresses negligible. Deformation can therefore be treated as simple shear. Samples are instrumented with displacement markers and thermocouples. Values for A and n in the flow law derived from the experiments are reasonable and indicate the potential of this method for ice-deformation studies.
Patients with advanced otosclerosis can present with hearing thresholds eligible for cochlear implantation. This study sought to address whether stapes surgery in this patient group provides a clinically significant audiological benefit.
To assess pre- and post-operative hearing outcomes of patients with advanced otosclerosis, and to determine what proportion of these patients required further surgery including cochlear implantation.
Between 2002 and 2015, 252 patients underwent primary stapes surgery at our institution. Twenty-eight ears in 25 patients were deemed to have advanced otosclerosis, as defined by pure audiometry thresholds over 80 dB. The patients’ records were analysed to determine audiological improvement following stapes surgery, and assess whether any further surgery was required.
The audiological outcome for most patients who underwent primary stapes surgery was good. A minority of patients (7 per cent) required revision surgery. Patients who underwent cochlear implantation after stapes surgery (10 per cent) also demonstrated a good audiological outcome.
Stapes surgery is a suitable treatment option for patients with advanced otosclerosis, and should be considered mandatory, before offering cochlear implantation, for those with a demonstrable conductive component to their hearing loss. A small group of patients get little benefit from surgery and subsequently a cochlear implant should be considered.
To determine signs and symptoms for superior canal dehiscence syndrome caused by the superior petrosal sinus.
A review of the English-language literature on PubMed and Embase databases was conducted, in addition to a multi-centre case series report.
The most common symptoms of 17 patients with superior petrosal sinus related superior canal dehiscence syndrome were: hearing loss (53 per cent), aural fullness (47 per cent), pulsatile tinnitus (41 per cent) and pressure-induced vertigo (41 per cent). The diagnosis was made by demonstration of the characteristic bony groove of the superior petrosal sinus and the ‘cookie bite’ out of the superior semicircular canal on computed tomography imaging.
Pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, aural fullness and pressure-induced vertigo are the most common symptoms in superior petrosal sinus related superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Compared to superior canal dehiscence syndrome caused by the more common apical location of the dehiscence, pulsatile tinnitus and exercise-induced vertigo are more frequent, while sound-induced vertigo and autophony are less frequent. There is, however, considerable overlap between the two subtypes. The distinction cannot as yet be made on clinical signs and symptoms alone, and requires careful analysis of computed tomography imaging.
This paper reports three cases of severe post-stapedectomy granuloma, emphasising the variable presentation of this devastating complication and the challenges of its management.
A retrospective review was conducted of three cases of post-stapedectomy granuloma requiring surgical debulking between 2010 and 2015. Clinical symptoms, serial imaging, histopathology and post-operative outcomes were considered.
Intra-operatively, extensive granulation tissue with erosion of the otic capsule was found. There was spread along the VIIth and VIIIth cranial nerves to the cochlear nucleus in one patient. Post-operative clinical improvement was demonstrable, corroborated by diminution of contrast enhancement on serial magnetic resonance imaging. Facial nerve function recovered, tinnitus amelioration was variable and some otalgia persisted. Post-operative complications included grade IV facial weakness and late Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis, which all resolved.
To the authors’ knowledge, this paper reports the only case of post-stapedectomy granuloma tracking to the brainstem. Otalgia was present in all our cases, and may be deemed a red flag symptom of progressive bony destruction and otic capsule involvement. Although granuloma remains rare, it should be considered in any patient with worsening otological symptoms following stapes surgery.
To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial.
Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members.
Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case.
Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018).
Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance
Cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea is a rare entity. Only a few cases of spontaneous bilateral cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea have been reported. In all cases, there was a definite time interval between the two (left and right) presentations.
To raise awareness and report on the very rare entity of bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea.
This paper reports the case of a bilateral, synchronous, spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea in a 44-year-old female. The patient had grommets surgically inserted on two separate occasions for treatment of otitis media with effusion, and received several courses of oral and topical antibiotics. Five years following the patient's initial presentation, a suspicion of concurrent bilateral cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea was raised. The otorrhoea sample collected proved to be cerebrospinal fluid. Cross-sectional imaging revealed bilateral defects in the tegmen tympani of the skull base. She underwent staged middle fossa craniotomies to repair the defects.
Careful observation of the middle-ear fluid characteristics following myringotomy can allow for prompt diagnosis.
Various variables that might influence the rapid and sustained virological response to recombinant PEG-IFN-α-2a were explored in Iraqi HCV-infected patients with haemoglobinopathy. Forty-three patients were evaluated for the relationship between rapid virological response (RVR), IL-28B polymorphism, viral load, liver enzyme levels, blood group, ultrasound findings, or HCV genotype and the sustained virological response (SVR) achievement. The overall RVR was 55·81% while the overall SVR was 53·49%. SVR in patients that achieved RVR was 82·61% (P = 0·0004). A significant association was found between initial alanine transaminase levels and viral load with SVR achievement (P = 0·025) and (P = 0·004), respectively. Thirty-two (74%) out of 43 of our samples were host genotyped at the IL-28B locus as CC, a significant association was found between CC group and SVR achievement (P = 0·04). Of our samples, 23/43 (53%) were typed as HCV genotype 4, 10/43 (23%) as genotype 1, 9/43 (20·9%) as genotype 3 and 1/43 (2·3%) as genotype 2. A significant association was found between genotype 3 and SVR achievement (P = 0·006). Multivariate analysis showed that only RVR achievement independently associated with SVR in the Iraqi population (P = 0·00). These results can be used to classify the patients requiring the more expensive new direct-acting antiviral drugs.
Since the development of intratympanic aminoglycoside in the 1950s, otologists have been able to chemically ablate the vestibule. We present the results of using low-dose intratympanic gentamicin to treat Ménière's disease.
A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent low-dose intratympanic gentamicin therapy over seven years. Data on gender, age, number of procedures, pure tone audiometry and symptom control were analysed.
In all, 38 patients underwent low-dose intratympanic gentamicin therapy. These comprised 25 females and 13 males, with an average age of 58.4 years. Hearing was preserved in 87.5 per cent of patients, with no significant difference before and after treatment (p = 0.744). In all, 85.7 per cent of patients had complete or substantial symptom control (classes A and B, respectively).
Low-dose intratympanic gentamicin therapy was effective in controlling the symptoms of Ménière's disease patients, while preserving hearing.
We present the first experimentally determined oscillator strengths for the Pb ii transitions at 1203.6 Å and 1433.9 Å, obtained from lifetime measurements made using beam-foil techniques. We also present new detections of these lines in the interstellar medium from an analysis of archival spectra acquired by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations of the Pb ii λ1203 line represent the first detection of this transition in interstellar gas. Our experimental f-values for the Pb ii λ1203 and λ1433 transitions are consistent with recent theoretical results, including our own relativistic calculations, but are significantly smaller than previous values based on older calculations. Our new f-value for Pb ii λ1433 (0.321 ± 0.034) yields an increase in the interstellar abundance of Pb of 0.43 dex over estimates based on the f-value listed by Morton. With our revised f-values, and with our new detections of Pb ii λ1203 and λ1433, we find that the depletion of Pb onto interstellar grains is not nearly as severe as previously thought, and is very similar to the depletions seen for elements such as Zn and Sn, which have similar condensation temperatures.
To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization.
Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers.
Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members.
The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36–84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses.
A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):786–793
This study investigated whether patients who remain symptomatic more than a year following idiopathic facial paralysis gain benefit from tailored facial physiotherapy.
A two-year retrospective review was conducted of all symptomatic patients. Data collected included: age, gender, duration of symptoms, Sunnybrook facial grading system scores pre-treatment and at last visit, and duration of treatment.
The study comprised 22 patients (with a mean age of 50.5 years (range, 22–75 years)) who had been symptomatic for more than a year following idiopathic facial paralysis. The mean duration of symptoms was 45 months (range, 12–240 months). The mean duration of follow up was 10.4 months (range, 2–36 months). Prior to treatment, the mean Sunnybrook facial grading system score was 59 (standard deviation = 3.5); this had increased to 83 (standard deviation = 2.7) at the last visit, with an average improvement in score of 23 (standard deviation = 2.9). This increase was significant (p < 0.001).
Tailored facial therapy can improve facial grading scores in patients who remain symptomatic for prolonged periods.
The aim of this paper was to propose a guideline for the management of intrinsic facial nerve tumours based on our practice and findings in the literature.
A retrospective review of intrinsic facial nerve tumours over the last 15 years was performed. Parameters measured included age, presenting symptoms, pre- and post-treatment hearing and House–Brackmann grading, tumour position, treatment and duration of follow up.
A total of 15 patients presented with intrinsic facial nerve tumours over the study period. The most common presenting complaint was facial symptoms (93.3 per cent), followed by hearing loss (46.7 per cent). Three patients with stable facial nerve function (House–Brackmann grades II–III) were treated conservatively. Twelve patients underwent surgery to treat progressive or recurrent symptoms. Facial function was maintained or improved in 60.0 per cent of patients and hearing was preserved in 66.7 per cent.
We propose that all stable tumours associated with good facial function of grade III or below should be treated conservatively. For symptomatic or progressive lesions, tailored surgery depending on the tumour site and hearing level should be offered to preserve native nerve function and facial musculature. For patients with prolonged paralysis, tumours can be monitored and other forms of facial reanimation and support offered.
The major mechanism of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) is modification of target proteins in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, most commonly the gyrA and parC subunits. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for PSA with and without gyrA or parC mutations.
Two adult academic acute-care hospitals
Case 1 study participants had a PSA isolate on hospital day 3 or later with any gyrA or parC mutation; case 2 study participants had a PSA isolate on hospital day 3 or later without these mutations. Controls were a random sample of all inpatients with a stay of 3 days or more.
Each case group was compared to the control group in separate multivariate models on the basis of demographics and inpatient antibiotic exposure, and risk factors were qualitatively compared.
Of 298 PSA isolates, 172 (57.7%) had at least 1 mutation. Exposure to vancomycin and other agents with extended Gram-positive activity was a risk factor for both cases (case 1 odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.13; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03–1.26; case 2 OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.14; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.25, respectively).
Exposure to agents with extended Gram-positive activity is a risk factor for isolation of PSA overall but not for gyrA/parC mutations. FQ exposure is not associated with isolation of PSA with mutations.
The spread of Protestant Christianity to Indonesia and Sri Lanka in the early modern period involved large-scale translation projects and, from the beginning of the eighteenth century, the publication of metrical psalms in languages spoken by local communities: Portuguese, Malay, Tamil and Sinhala. Selected psalms from the Genevan Psalter, as well as complete versions, were translated and published in South and Southeast Asia on several occasions in the eighteenth century, representing the earliest printing of Western staff notation in Jakarta and Colombo. These psalters were issued in numerous editions, and some were prefaced with a short explanation of the musical scale. Christian communities in Indonesia and Sri Lanka appear to have used the psalters regularly in religious devotions and services. This article explores the processes involved in the translation, production and distribution of these psalters, considering musical and cultural aspects of their adoption into local communities.
To compare the efficacy of two modes of delivery of information for patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery: website and printed leaflet.
A two-centre, prospective, single-blinded, randomised, controlled trial was conducted, comparing mode of information delivery. Adult patients were randomly allocated to receive pre-operative information regarding functional endoscopic sinus surgery, either via a website or a printed leaflet. Primary outcomes, measured by questionnaire, were: readability, usability and recall of complications.
Fifty-eight patients were recruited. Fifty met the inclusion criteria, of which 40 were analysed in the study (20 patients per group), meeting the power criteria set. There were 18 male and 22 female patients, ranging in age from 21 to 76 years (mean, 47 years). Patients found both the printed leaflet and the website readable, and were satisfied with the usability of both modes. There were similar rates for recall of complications in both study arms.
Patient information on functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be provided either as a printed leaflet or a website, with similar rates for usability, readability and recall of complications. These findings could help tailor the provision of pre-operative information for patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery, based on patient preference.