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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
The scientific advances that underpin economic growth and human health would not be possible without research investments. Yet demonstrating the impact of research programs is a challenge, especially in areas that span disciplines, industrial sectors, and encompass both public and private sector activity. All areas of research are under pressure to demonstrate benefits from federal funding of research. This exciting and innovative study demonstrates new methods and tools to trace the impact of federal research funding on the structure of research, and the subsequent economic activities of funded researchers. The case study is food safety research, which is critical to avoiding outbreaks of disease. The authors make use of an extraordinary new data infrastructure and apply new techniques in text analysis. Focusing on the impact of US federal food safety research, this book develops vital data-intensive methodologies that have a real world application to many other scientific fields.
Leptin is a signalling factor involved in the regulation of body weight and is synthesised predominantly by adipocytes. In humans, there is a positive correlation between plasma concentration of leptin and body mass index (kg/m_a3) and subcutaneous fat (Considine et al., 1996; Lonnqvist et al., 1995). In vitro adipocytes obtained from women secrete more leptin than those of men (Casabeill et al., 1998). Furthermore, testosterone inhibits the expression of the leptin gene in the rat (Wu-Peng et al., 1999). The aim of this study was to examine whether gender, age and body conformation influenced plasma leptin and thyroid hormone concentrations in the horse. Materials and method Pre-slaughter body weight and height were recorded in a random group of mares (n=5), geldings (castrated males: n=7) and stallions (n=3) destined for human consumption. Their age was estimated by dental examination. Immediately post-mortem, a jugular vein blood sample was collected into a heparinised tube, which was centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 10 minutes. Plasma was stored in liquid nitrogen until analysed for plasma concentrations of leptin and thyroid hormones using human ELISA (DRG Instruments) and RIA kits (ICN Pharmaceuticals Ltd), respectively. Statistical differences between groups were assessed using General Linear Model, Analysis of Variance. Regression analysis was used to determine whether plasma leptin concentration was related to body conformation and age.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
The small slope magnitude ε. or aspect ratio. of an ice sheet in steady plane motion under gravity user a horizontal plane bed, subject to balancing surface accumulation and ablation. and basal drainage. is determined by the aceunualation magnitude, maximum depth. and the viscous properties of the ice. Horizontal coordinate scaling by a factor ε allows. series expansions in ε for which the leading-order solution is valid ecenschee under some weak restrictions on the ice law and sliding faw. This procedure is now extended to the plane flow problem when the mean bed line is inclined at angle χ to the horizontal and the bed is not flat. The lead order problems for χ of order unity and χ of order t: are distinct. and both are treated, fiir an isothermal sheet. The present analysis is valid only for a maximum bed slope relative to the mean line of order ε or less. The amplitude of it bed profile is ill, wavelength that of’ the ice sheet may therefore be of the same site as the ice sheet depth, which allows treatment of a typical isostatic bed shape.
Steady plane flow under gravity of an axisymmetric ice sheet resting on a horizontal rigid bed, subject to surface accumulation and ablation, basal drainage, and basal sliding is treated according to a power law between shear traction and velocity. The surface accumulation is taken to depend on height, and the drainage and sliding coefficient also depend on the height of overlying ice. The ice is described as a general non-linearly viscous incompressible fluid, and temperature variation through the ice sheet is neglected. Illustrations are presented for Glen’s power law (including the special case of a Newtonian fluid), and the polynomial law of Colbeck and Evans. The analysis follows that of Morland and Johnson (1980) where the analogous problem for an ice sheet deforming under plane flow was considered. Comparisons are made between the two models and it is found that the effect of the third dimension is to reduce (or leave unchanged) the aspect ratio for the cases considered, although no general formula can be obtained. This reduction is seen to depend on both the surface accumulation and the sliding law.
Steady plane flow under gravity of a symmetric ice sheet resting on a horizontal rigid bed, subject to surface accumulation and ablation, basal drainage, and basal sliding according to a shear-traction-velocity power law, is treated. The surface accumulation is taken to depend on height, and the drainage and sliding coefficient also depend on the height of overlying ice. The ice is described as a general non-linearly viscous incompressible fluid, with illustrations presented for Glen’s power law, the polynomial law of Colbeck and Evans, and a Newtonian fluid. Uniform temperature is assumed so that effects of a realistic temperature distribution on the ice response are not taken into account. In dimensionless variables a small paramter ν occurs, but the ν = 0 solution corresponds to an unbounded sheet of uniform depth. To obtain a bounded sheet, a horizontal coordinate scaling by a small factor ε(ν) is required, so that the aspect ratio ε of a steady ice sheet is determined by the ice properties, accumulation magnitude, and the magnitude of the central thickness. A perturbation expansion in ε gives simple leading-order terms for the stress and velocity components, and generates a first order non-linear differential equation for the free-surface slope, which is then integrated to determine the profile. The non-linear differential equation can be solved explicitly for a linear sliding law in the Newtonian case. For the general law it is shown that the leading-order approximation is valid both at the margin and in the central zone provided that the power and coefficient in the sliding law satisfy certain restrictions.
Persistently elevated behavioral inhibition (BI) in children is a marker of vulnerability to psychopathology. However, little research has considered the joint influences of caregiver and child factors that may moderate the continuity of BI in early childhood, particularly genetic variants that may serve as markers of biological plasticity, such as the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). We explored this issue in 371 preschoolers and their caregivers, examining whether parent characteristics (i.e., overinvolvement or anxiety disorder) and child 5-HTTLPR influenced the continuity of BI between ages 3 and 5. Measures were observational ratings of child BI, observational and questionnaire measures of parenting, and parent interviews for anxiety disorder history, and children were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR. Parent factors did not moderate the association between age 3 and age 5 BI; however, child BI at age 3 interacted with children's 5-HTTLPR variants to predict age 5 BI, such that children with at least one copy of the short allele exhibited less continuity of BI over time relative to children without this putative plasticity variant. Findings are consistent with previous work indicating the 5-HTTLPR short variant increases plasticity to contextual influences, thereby serving to decrease the continuity of BI in early childhood.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).