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The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms,
offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for
the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an
excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the
HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus
environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but
has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GÉPI
with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high
multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view one degree in diameter. We
are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15 000 to 30 000, which
should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial
velocities, accurate to 1 km s-1 for fainter stars. The study is led by
GÉPI-Observatoire de Paris with a contribution from Oxford for the study of the
positioner. The financing for the study comes from INSU CSAA and Observatoire de Paris.
The conceptual study will be delivered to CFHT for review by October 1st 2010.
We recently presented (Sbordone et al., 2009a) the largest sample to date of lithium abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) Halo dwarf and Turn-Off (TO) stars. One of the most crucial aspects in estimating Li abundances is the Teff determination, since the Li I 670.8 nm doublet is highly temperature sensitive. In this short contribution we concentrate on the Teff determination based on Hα wings fitting, and on its sensitivity to the chosen stellar gravity.
We present the largest sample available to date of lithium abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) Halo dwarfs. Four Teff estimators are used, including IRFM and Hα wings fitting against 3D hydrodynamical synthetic profiles. Lithium abundances are computed by means of 1D and 3D-hydrodynamical NLTE computations. Below [Fe/H]~−3, a strong positive correlation of A(Li) with [Fe/H] appears, not influenced by the choice of the Teff estimator. A linear fit finds a slope of about 0.30 dex in A(Li) per dex in [Fe/H], significant to 2–3 σ, and consistent within 1 σ among all the Teff estimators. The scatter in A(Li) increases significantly below [Fe/H]~−3. Above, the plateau lies at 〈A(Li)3D, NLTE〉 = 2.199 ± 0.086. If the primordial A(Li) is the one derived from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), it appears difficult to envision a single depletion phenomenon producing a thin, metallicity independent plateau above [Fe/H] = −2.8, and a highly scattered, metallicity dependent distribution below.
The insulin-independent and combined effects of fatty acids (FA; linoleic and oleic acids) and insulin in modulating lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated using a novel protocol avoiding the effects of a complex hormone ‘induction’ mixture. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) plus serum (control) or in DMEM plus either 0.3 mmol/l linoleic or oleic acids with 0.3 mmol/l FA-free bovine serum albumin in the presence or absence of insulin. Cells were cultured for 4 to 8 days and cell number, lipid accumulation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) protein expression were determined. Cell number appeared to be decreased in comparison with control cultures. In both oleic acid and linoleic acid-treated cells, notably in the absence (and presence) of insulin, oil-red O stain-positive cells showed abundant lipid. The percentage of cells showing lipid accumulation was greater in FA-treated cultures compared with control cells grown in DMEM plus serum (P < 0.001). Treatment with both linoleic and oleic acid-containing media evoked higher levels of PPAR-γ than observed in control cultures (P < 0.05). GLUT-4 protein also increased in response to treatment with both linoleic and oleic acid-containing media (P < 0.001). Lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells occurs in response to either oleic or linoleic acids independently of the presence of insulin. Both PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression were stimulated. Both proteins are considered markers of adipogenesis, and these observations suggest that these cells had entered the physiological state broadly accepted as differentiated. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 cells can be induced to accumulate lipid in a serum-free medium supplemented with FA, without the use of induction protocols using complex hormone mixtures. We have demonstrated a novel model for the study of lipid accumulation that will improve the understanding of adipogenesis in adipocyte lineage cells.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
We report high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of a series of high spin (total spin up to S = 10) manganese and nickel complexes which have been shown to exhibit single molecule magnetism, including low temperature (below ∼ 1K) hysteresis loops and resonant magnetic quantum tunneling. A cavity perturbation technique enables high sensitivity oriented single crystal EPR measurements spanning a very wide frequency range (16 to 200+ GHz). Fitting of the frequency and field orientation dependence of EPR spectra allows direct determination of the effective spin Hamiltonian parameters. Studies on a range of materials with varying (approximately axial) site symmetries facilitates an assessment of the role of transverse anisotropy (terms in the Hamiltonian that do not commute with ŝz) in the magnetic quantum tunneling phenomenon.
An observational account of research carried out in July-August 1999 shows that grounded iceberg and related fast-ice distributions, and periodic "break-outs" of fast ice (in winter as well as at other times), have an important impact on the size and behaviour of the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, and a smaller polynya to the east. Analysis of satellite and in situ data shows that a semi-constant "stream" of thick broken-out fast ice and other large floes from the east extends westwards from north of the glacier terminus to form a compact barrier to the net west-northwesterly export of ice formed in the polynya. An annual fast-ice promontory to the west further narrows the outlet path. As a result of this and high ice-production rates, the polynya periodically "back-fills", significantly reducing the open-water area present. Intervening "flush-outs" by synoptic storm events clear the polynya region to some extent before it back-fills again. This cycle continued from mid-March until early October in 1999, when a significant change in the regional ice drift occurred. A preliminary comparison with data from 1998 indicates that the timing and magnitude of the processes may vary interannually. Similar morphological features were also observed in 1963 (on a declassified photoreconnaissance satellite image).
Cryptomonas sp. Φ is an undescribed cryptomonad
used for many studies into the endosymbiotic origin of plastids.
Cryptomonas sp. Φ
was characterized using electron microscopy, DNA sequencing and
karyotyping. DNA sequence data show that Cryptomonas sp. Φ
been confused with the related cryptomonad, Guillardia theta,
which is the organism actually used in most published studies on
cryptomonad endosymbiosis to date. It is proposed that the strain
Cryptomonas sp. Φ be recognized as a distinct species under
Hanusia phi. Although Hanusia phi shares molecular
and karyotypic features with G. theta, it cannot be
assigned to Guillardia because it
does not fit the morphological description of this genus. H. phi
differs from G. theta in periplast structure, configuration of
furrow-gullet system, and cell size. Morphologically, however,
H. phi is very similar to Teleaulax acuta,
Teleaulax merimbula and the diplomorph of Proteomonas sulcata.
The unprecedented combination of spatial resolution and stability achieved by the Solar Oscillations Investigation/Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO has opened up new opportunities for the analysis of solar surface oscillations of high spatial frequencies. In this regime the oscillations are essentially plane waves, amenable to the techniques of ring-diagram analysis of their three-dimensional power spectra. This approach holds the promise of measuring fluid motions and possibly magnetic fields in spatially-resolved structures within the uppermost levels of the convective envelope, a region unresolved by the global modes. Atmospheric g-modes trapped above the photosphere may also be detectable. We review the first results of plane-wave analysis of various types of SOI data and comparisons with the analyses of comparable ground-based datasets.
The process for generating films of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, and PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 by photochemical deposition from metal-organic thin films has been investigated. Films have also been prepared by metal-organic and sol-gel deposition for comparison with the photochemical method. All three methods could produce crystalline films of the target materials. Studies of the heating of the amorphous films prepared by each of the methods indicated that similar crystalline films could be prepared by the different methods. Under some conditions the photochemical methods gave the highest degree of orientation of the crystalline films.
A conventional vertical powder diffractometer has been adapted to allow the collection of high-resolution, single-wavelength diffraction data using Co, Cu or Mo radiation. The major modifications are (i) incorporation of an incident beam focusing monochromator attached to the tube shield, (ii) a variable tilt angle of the tube shield to provide a horizontal beam path through the diffractometer (for ease of alignment), (iii) mounting of the entire diffractometer on a single, very stable base-plate, with micrometer-controlled adjustment of the orientation, (iv) inclusion of a knife-edge, micrometer-controlled focusing slit, and (v) use of a range of Soller slits with acceptance angles down to 1.5° 2φ. The performance of the instrument compares favourably with conventional non-monochromated diffractometer data collected from SRM660 LaB6 and monoclinic ZrO2. In particular, the peaks are more symmetric and have narrower widths, and the peak-to-background ratio is much higher, leading to much superior resolution and profile shapes for structure solution and Rietveld refinement.