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Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. However, there are few evidence-based approaches for managing cognitive impairment in psychosis. The present study aims to examine the cognitive effects of adjunctive NAC treatment in a pooled subgroup of participants with psychosis who completed neuropsychological assessment in two trials of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
A sample of 58 participants were randomized in a double fashion to receive 2 g/day of NAC (n = 27) or placebo (n = 31) for 24 weeks. Attention, working memory and executive function domains were assessed. Differences between cognitive performance at baseline and end point were examined using Wilcoxon's test. The Mann–Whitney test was used to examine the differences between the NAC and placebo groups at the end point.
Participants treated with NAC had significantly higher working memory performance at week 24 compared with placebo (U = 98.5, p = 0.027).
NAC may have an impact on cognitive performance in psychosis, as a significant improvement in working memory was observed in the NAC-treated group compared with placebo; however, these preliminary data require replication. Glutamatergic compounds such as NAC may constitute a step towards the development of useful therapies for cognitive impairment in psychosis.
The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
In this work we describe the method and results of precise solar astrometry made with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), during one complete solar cycle. We measured an upper limit to the solar radius variation, the absolute solar radius value and the solar shape. Our results are 22 mas peak-to-peak upper limit for the solar radius variation over the solar cycle, the absolute radius was measured as 959.28 ± 0.15 arcsec at 1 AU and the difference between polar and equatorial solar radii in 1997 was 5 km and about three times larger in 2001.
We examine the form of the free surface flows resulting from the collision of equal jets at an oblique angle. Glycerol-water solutions with viscosities of 15–50 cS were pumped at flow rates of 10–40 cc/s through circular outlets with diameter 2 mm. Characteristic flow speeds are 1–3 m/s. Figures 2–4 were obtained through strobe illumination at frequencies in the range 2.5–10 kHz.
At low flow rates, the resulting stream takes the form of a steady fluid chain, a succession of mutually orthogonal fluid links, each comprised of a thin oval sheet bound by relatively thick fluid rims (Fig. 1). The influence of viscosity serves to decrease the size of successive links, and the chain ultimately coalesces into a cylindrical stream.
As the flow rate is increased, waves are excited on the sheet, and the fluid rims become unstable (Figs. 2 and 3). Droplets form from the sheet rims but remain attached to the fluid sheet by tendrils of fluid that thin and eventually break. The resulting flow takes the form of fluid fishbones, with the fluid sheet being the fish head and the tendrils its bones. Increasing the flow rate serves to broaden the fishbones.
In the wake of the fluid fish, a regular array of drops obtains, the number and spacing of which is determined by the pinch–off of the fishbones (Fig. 4). At the highest flow rates examined, the flow is reminiscent of that arising in acoustically excited fan-spray nozzles.
Phase mixture models describing the mechanical properties of submicrometer grained metals are presented. In this approach, grain boundaries or cell walls are treated as a separate phase. Two cases are considered: the mechanical response of an ultrafine grained material and the process of grain refinement by equal channel angular pressing. Model predictions with regard to the evolution of the microstructure, strength and texture are verified for Cu.
Is the Solar Radius a constant? Ground experiments show evidence of possible variations in the visual solar semi diameter that are correlated with the solar activity. Those measurements are limited by the Earth's atmospheric turbulance. It is importance to accurately determine the solar radius variations because of their implication for stellar structure and possible relation to the terrestrial climate. Here we report on data from a space experiment (MDI-SOHO) used to detect solar diameter fluctuations. We stabilish a superior limit for changes in the solar radius.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
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