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Pressure ridges impact the mass, energy and momentum budgets of the sea-ice cover and present an obstacle to transportation through ice-infested waters. Quantifying ridge characteristics is important for understanding total sea-ice mass and for improving the representation of sea-ice dynamics in high-resolution models. Multi-sensor measurements collected during annual Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne surveys of the Arctic provide new opportunities to assess the sea ice at the end of winter. We present a new methodology to derive ridge sail height from high-resolution OIB Digital Mapping System (DMS) visible imagery. We assess the efficacy of the methodology by mapping the full sail height distribution along 12 pressure ridges in the western and central Arctic. Comparisons against coincident Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) elevation anomalies are used to demonstrate the methodology and evaluate DMS-derived sail heights. Sail heights and elevation anomalies were correlated at 0.81 or above. On average mean and maximum sail height agreed with ATM elevation to within 0.11 and 0.49 m, respectively. Of the ridges mapped, mean sail height ranged from 0.99 to 2.16 m, while maximum sail height ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 m. DMS also delivered higher sampling along ridge crests than coincident ATM data.
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, acquired by sheep through the action of foraging, are the most pervasive challenge to their survival and reproduction. The eggs of many GI parasite species are deposited on pasture in faeces where they develop into infective stage larvae that contaminate surrounding swards. We test the hypotheses that (1) faeces and hence parasite avoidance behaviour of sheep creates a grazing trade-off between nutrition and parasitism and (2) the relative costs and benefits of the trade-off in relation to animal state of infection (parasitized, non-parasitized, immune) determines their subsequent grazing behaviour.
In grazing systems livestock contact with faeces and the faecal-oral route is a common mode of parasite transmission (Hutchings et al. 2003). Quantifying the faecal-oral route of transmission is thus central to predicting the force of infection of numerous diseases experienced by grazing livestock. Here our overall aim is to quantify the rate of faeces ingestion and thus disease risk by grazing herbivores using the example of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the risk of paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) they pose to ruminants. The study had the secondary aims of determining the effects of level of contamination and sward height on the rate of faeces ingestion.
Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) is a chronic invariably fatal enteritis of cattle caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and has recently been isolated from wild rabbits. One potential route of transmission of M.a.paratuberculosis from rabbits to cattle is the ingestion of rabbit excreta contaminating pasture. Here we (1) determine the prevalence and level of infection in rabbits and their excreta (2) quantify the level of rabbit faeces contaminating cattle pastures and (3) determine the impact of rabbit faeces on cattle grazing behaviour.
We have spectra, colours and morphologies from the CFHT for 240 cluster members and 80 field galaxies over a 7 × 46 arcmin field. The cluster galaxies show strong radial gradients in colour, morphology, and spectrum. The central group has only red early-type galaxies of high central concentration, which must have formed at least 5 Gy ago. The population becomes bluer and shows an increasing fraction of disk morphology and recent star-formation with clustocentric radius, and eventually blends into the field. However, the fraction of blue galaxies is significantly lower than in Butcher-Oemler clusters, and there are only two starburst galaxies (one of which is the cluster cD). Fitting of line measures with stellar population models indicates that star-formation has been truncated in the 15-20% of the cluster galaxies that have strong Hδ absorption, and that these galaxies are not all blue. There is evidence that cluster galaxies are dusty compared with the field. The morphology gradient can be fit with models of disk fading. However, there is a small fraction of interacting and merging galaxies, which must play a part in the population evolution. The cluster is accreting from the field in a non-violent way, including some distinct subgroups. This is different from what is seen at both higher and lower redshift, and if generally true, suggests a high Omega universe.
These results are being published in detail elsewhere.
The best X-ray position (Einstein Observatory HRI - Giacconi et al 1979) for LMC X-3 confirms its identification with the early type star first suggested by Warren and Penfold (1975). Our spectroscopic observations obtained with the CTIO 4–m telescope show the WP star is a slightly reddened B3 V star with mV ≈ 16.9. Large radial velocity variations (Δv ≈ 500 km s−1) reveal an orbital period of 1.7049 days. From the orbital elements (Table 1) one can determine the mass function f(M) = (Mx sin i)3/(Mopt + Mx)2 = 2.3 M⊙, which shows without any assumptions about the mass of the optical star, the orbital inclination, or the mass ratio the unseen X-ray object has a mass >2.3 M⊙. Detailed analysis of the HEAO–1 scanning modulation collimator X-ray data shows that the system does not eclipse, implying that the orbital inclination is ≤ 65°. Assuming the B star mass lies between 4 and 8 M⊙ (an average mass for a normal B3 V star would be about 6–7 M⊙), the mass of the unseen companion must lie between 7 and 13 M⊙ (see Fig. 4a - Hutchings, this volume). Smaller inclinations of course give even higher masses. An important point is that the unseen star must have a mass larger than that of the B star, and thus if it were any kind of normal star it should be easily seen in the spectrum. Thus the X-ray emitting object is a very good candidate for a black hole.
The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012–2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal cases (40/48) involved red foxes, while domestic animals were also diagnosed with rabies. Overall, 80% of the cases were diagnosed in central northern Greece; 75% of the cases were diagnosed in low altitudes (<343·5 m), within a distance of 1 km from human settlements. Median distance from livestock farms was 201·25 m. Most people potentially exposed to rabies (889/1060) presented with dog bite injuries. Maximum entropy analysis revealed that distance from farms contributed the highest percentage in defining environmental niche profiles for rabid foxes. Oral vaccination programmes were implemented in 24 administrative units of the country during 2013 and 2014, covering a total surface area of ~60 000 km2. Rabies re-occurrence in Greece emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance in cross-border areas and in areas with intense human activity.
We present far-UV spectra (910-1190Å) of Sk 80, an 07 supergiant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, observed by the FUSE satellite during its In-Orbit Checkout phase. The spectra reveal many interstellar absorption lines, including H2, and O VI, and several key stellar wind features.
We have been pursuing a program of hot star UV spectroscopy in local group galaxies over several years with HST. We have also obtained WFPC2 images in parallel and pointed exposures with several broad band filters.
• The imaging data have been used to generate colour-magnitude plots of central fields, clusters and halo fields in M31, M33 and NGC 6822. We have compared these with high-mass model isochrones from recent models, to examine the stellar populations that are indicated. M33 contains a substantial young cluster population whose mass and age appear to be related. The western outer wisps of NGC 6822 contain a relatively young population of stars.
• Most of the spectra have been reported and modelled in published papers: we note here the first comparison of stars in NGC 6822 with others from local group galaxies.
• We have also discussed the interstellar extinction in M31 and find it is similar to the Galaxy after allowance for comparable amounts of halo extinction that resembles that of the Magellanic Clouds.
The bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the vector-borne zoonotic disease tularemia, and may infect a wide range of hosts including invertebrates, mammals and birds. Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, or through arthropod vectors. Tularemia has a broad geographical distribution, and there is evidence which suggests local emergence or re-emergence of this disease in Europe. This review was developed to provide an update on the geographical distribution of F. tularensis in humans, wildlife, domestic animals and vector species, to identify potential public health hazards, and to characterize the epidemiology of tularemia in Europe. Information was collated on cases in humans, domestic animals and wildlife, and on reports of detection of the bacterium in arthropod vectors, from 38 European countries for the period 1992–2012. Multiple international databases on human and animal health were consulted, as well as published reports in the literature. Tularemia is a disease of complex epidemiology that is challenging to understand and therefore to control. Many aspects of this disease remain poorly understood. Better understanding is needed of the epidemiological role of animal hosts, potential vectors, mechanisms of maintenance in the different ecosystems, and routes of transmission of the disease.
The occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in spleen and serum samples from Swedish moose (Alces alces) in southern Sweden (island and mainland). Samples were analysed for presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by real-time PCR (n = 263), and for Anaplasma antibodies with ELISA serology (n = 234). All serum samples had antibodies against A. phagocytophilum. The mean DNA-based prevalence was 26·3%, and significant (P < 0·01) temporal, and spatial variation was found. Island moose had significantly (P < 0·001) higher prevalence of A. phagocytophilum DNA than moose from the mainland areas. Two samples were sequenced to determine genetic variation in the 16S rRNA and groESL genes. Genetic sequence similarity with the human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent, equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, and different wildlife-associated A. phagocytophilum variants were observed in the 16S rRNA and groESL genes. Our study shows that moose are exposed to A. phagocytophilum in Sweden, and represent a potential wildlife reservoir of the pathogen.
Tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, persists in many countries. In the UK and Ireland, efforts to control TB through culling of badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, have failed and there is significant interest in vaccination of badgers as an alternative or complementary strategy. Using a simulation model, we show that where TB is self-contained within the badger population and there are no external sources of infection, limited-duration vaccination at a high level of efficacy can reduce or even eradicate TB from the badger population. However, where sources of external infection persist, benefits in TB reduction in badgers can only be achieved by ongoing, annual vaccination. Vaccination is likely to be most effective as part of an integrated disease management strategy incorporating a number of different approaches across the entire host community.
One measure of the surface mechanical properties of materials can be obtained through microhardness data. The success of microhardness in predicting the improvements in wear resistance of ion implanted metals has been mixed. In this paper the cases of N implantation into 304 S.S. and Ti implantation into 52100 bearing steel will be examined. Microhardness data indicates little or no hardness changes whereas large wear rate changes are observed. From these two examples it is clear that the wear mechanism, the chemical nature of the surface, the ductility, and the toughness can be more important than the hardness changes.