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This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
Patients with Chronic Depression present particular challenges to psychological therapists and the evidence base for CBT with this disorder is weak. However, a large multi-centre clinical trial has demonstrated that Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) can be an effective therapy for chronic depression. In CBASP, patients learn how their cognitive and behavioural patterns produce and perpetuate interpersonal problems and how to alter maladaptive patterns of interpersonal behaviour. CBASP focuses primarily on problematic interpersonal situations in the everyday lives of people with chronic depression using a structured intervention called situational analysis. In addition, it places considerable emphasis on the therapeutic relationship as a vehicle for change using a methodology termed disciplined personal involvement. Clinical experience to date suggests that CBASP can be a very effective approach for a difficult to treat disorder.
In this didactic workshop combining opportunities to hear/see actual CBASP therapy carried out individuals will learn about the model and therapy process and key mechanisms of change will be discussed with role-play used where appropriate to illustrate specific techniques. The theoretical model underpinning CBASP and the empirical evidence will be outlined.
We present a passive (unpowered) exoskeleton that assists the back during lifting. Our exoskeleton uses carbon fiber beams as the sole means to store energy and return it to the wearer. To motivate the design, we present general requirements for the design of a lifting exoskeleton, including calculating the required torque to support the torso for people of different weights and heights. We compare a number of methods of energy storage for exoskeletons in terms of mass, volume, hysteresis, and cycle life. We then discuss the design of our exoskeleton, and show how the torso assembly leads to balanced forces. We characterize the energy storage in the exoskeleton and the torque it provides during testing with human subjects. Ten participants performed freestyle, stoop, and squat lifts. Custom image processing software was used to extract the curvature of the carbon fiber beams in the exoskeleton to determine the stored energy. During freestyle lifting, it stores an average of 59.3 J and provides a peak torque of 71.7 Nm.
The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
Poverty brome (Bromus sterilis L.) [sterile or barren brome, syn. Anisantha sterilis (L.) Nevski] is a problematic UK arable weed. There are currently no confirmed cases of glyphosate resistance in any weed species in the United Kingdom or in B. sterilis worldwide. However, there are reports of poor control by glyphosate in this species. Here, we report experiments to confirm the suspected on-farm resistance of B. sterilis populations to glyphosate. Glyphosate screening and dose–response experiments established that glyphosate sensitivity of three UK B. sterilis populations exhibiting poor field control is outside the normal range of sensitivity of 30 sensitive populations and adjacent unexposed populations. Control of sensitive populations ranged from 49% to 82% and for suspected resistant populations from 21% to 30%. Dose–response ED50 values of sensitive populations ranged between 241 and 313 g ai ha−1; corresponding values of suspected resistant populations ranged between 420 and 810 g ha−1, and resistance indices ranged from 1.55 to 4.5. Suspected resistant populations were incompletely controlled at the recommended field rate of glyphosate (540 g ha−1), while adjacent unexposed populations were completely controlled. We conclude that some UK populations of B. sterilis have reduced glyphosate sensitivity and are in the process of evolving resistance. This is the first reported case of reduced glyphosate sensitivity in any UK weed species and in B. sterilis worldwide. This, coupled with increasing glyphosate use, highlights the need for increased vigilance and monitoring for glyphosate resistance in the United Kingdom.
Studies have linked ethnic differences in depression rates with neighbourhood ethnic density although results have not been conclusive. We looked at this using a novel approach analysing whole population data covering just over one million GP patients in four London boroughs.
Using a dataset of GP records for all patients registered in Lambeth, Hackney, Tower Hamlets and Newham in 2013 we investigated new diagnoses of depression and antidepressant use for: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black Caribbean and black African patients. Neighbourhood effects were assessed independently of GP practice using a cross-classified multilevel model.
Black and minority ethnic groups are up to four times less likely to be newly diagnosed with depression or prescribed antidepressants compared to white British patients. We found an inverse relationship between neighbourhood ethnic density and new depression diagnosis for some groups, where an increase of 10% own-ethnic density was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduced odds of depression for Pakistani [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.93], Indian (OR 0.88, CI 0.81–0.95), African (OR 0.88, CI 0.78–0.99) and Bangladeshi (OR 0.94, CI 0.90–0.99) patients. Black Caribbean patients, however, showed the opposite effect (OR 1.26, CI 1.09–1.46). The results for antidepressant use were very similar although the corresponding effect for black Caribbeans was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.07).
New depression diagnosis and antidepressant use was shown to be less likely in areas of higher own-ethnic density for some, but not all, ethnic groups.
Although the military is considered to be a stressful occupation, there are remarkably few studies that compare the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) between the military and the general population. This study examined the prevalence of probable CMD in a serving UK military sample compared to a general population sample of employed individuals.
Data for the general population was from the 2003 and 2008 collections for the Health Survey for England (HSE) and for the serving military from phases 1 (2004–2006) and 2 (2007–2009) of the King's Centre for Military Health Research (KCMHR) cohort study. Probable CMD was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The datasets were appended to calculate the odds of CMD in the military compared to the general population.
The odds of probable CMD was approximately double in the military, when comparing phase 1 of the military study to the 2003 HSE [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–2.7], and phase 2 to the 2008 HSE (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0–2.6) after adjustment for sex, age, social class, education and marital status.
Serving military personnel are more likely to endorse symptoms of CMD compared to those selected from a general population study as employed in other occupations, even after accounting for demographic characteristics. This difference may be partly explained by the context of the military study, with evidence from previous research for higher reports of symptoms from the GHQ in occupational compared to population studies, in addition to the role of predisposing characteristics.
Community-onset methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) became a prominent cause of infection in North America in 2003, with a peak in the epidemic noted by multiple groups in the USA between 2005 and 2007. We reviewed rates of MRSA in two hospitals in Vancouver, Canada, to observe changes in epidemiology from 2003 to 2011. Episodes of emergency department (ED) MRSA bacteraemia and wounds were extracted from the laboratory database, with rates calculated per 10 000 ED visits. All cases were assumed to be community onset, as they were diagnosed in the ED. A peak in ED MRSA bacteraemias occurred in 2005, at 7·8/10 000 ED visits. By 2011, rates of ED bacteraemia declined significantly to 3·3/10 000 ED visits (P⩽0·03). MRSA wound rates peaked at 82·2 cases/10 000 ED visits in 2007 with a subsequent significant decline to 34·3 cases in 2011 (P = 0·04). We have demonstrated a significant decline in CO-MRSA within our population, consistent with reports from the USA, suggesting a substantial change in the epidemiology of CO-MRSA in certain North American cities.
The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home- and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress.
In previous studies an association between deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and an overall increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in UK armed forces has not been found. The lack of a deployment effect might be explained by including, in the comparison group, personnel deployed on other operations or who have experienced traumatic stressors unrelated to deployment.
The sample comprised 8261 regular UK armed forces personnel who deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan or other operational areas or were not deployed. Participants completed the PTSD CheckList – Civilian Version (PCL-C) and provided information about deployment history, demographic and service factors, serious accidents and childhood experiences.
Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–2.2] or elsewhere (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–2.0) was unrelated to PTSD although holding a combat role was associated with PTSD if deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9–3.9). Childhood adversity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.0), having left service (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9–4.0) and serious accident (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.0) were associated with PTSD whereas higher rank was protective (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.12–0.76).
For the majority of UK armed forces personnel, deployment whether to Iraq, Afghanistan or elsewhere confers no greater risk for PTSD than service in the armed forces per se but holding a combat role in those deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is associated with PTSD. Vulnerability factors such as lower rank, childhood adversity and leaving service, and having had a serious accident, may be at least as important as holding a combat role in predicting PTSD in UK armed forces personnel.
Injection drug users (IDUs) have an elevated risk for carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cutaneous injection-related infections are common in IDUs but detailed studies are few. Based on a subsample of 218 individuals from a community-recruited cohort of IDUs at a supervised injection facility, we investigated the microbiology and related antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from 59 wounds. Twenty-seven percent of subjects had at least one wound and 25 (43%) were culture positive for S. aureus alone [14 MRSA and 11 (19%) methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates]. Sixteen of 18 MRSA isolates were classified as community associated (CA) by the presence of genes encoding for PVL. MRSA and MSSA occurred in mixed infection with other organisms on three and six occasions, respectively. All CA-MRSA isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, vancomycin and linezolid but only 13% were susceptible to clindamycin compared to 63% of MSSA isolates. The frequency of CA-MRSA is a cause for concern in wound infection in the IDU setting.
In these experiments comparisons were made between the magnitude of the interaction of ‘pure’ strains and strain crosses of poultry with two types of environments—location effects and a restricted-feed versus a full-feed rearing programme. The ‘pure’ strains were closed flocks of White Leghorns that had been selected for increased egg production, while the strain crosses were the reciprocal crosses of all combinations of these pure strains. Data from four separate experiments in four consecutive years used for this study involved 8320 laying birds. Six traits of the adult laying birds were used for these analyses.
It was expected that the ‘pure’ strains would differ in performance amongst themselves to a greater extent than the strain crosses, and for the two traits, body-weight at housing and sexual maturity, this was found to be the case in three out of four years. These two traits were affected to the greatest extent by the rearing treatment. Also, the genotype-environment interaction variance was found to be significant and of important magnitude relative to the genetic variance for these two traits. Where the environmental effect was found to be smaller, the interaction variance made up a smaller proportion of the genetic variance.