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Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
In a survey of 471 patients, we collected self-reported weight and height data and asked about self-perceptions of provider support toward weight loss and other weight management concerns. Multivariable analysis found that respondents with higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely to report that a physician had told them that they were overweight (OR=3.49, 95% CI 2.06–5.89, P<0.001). However, this conversation was less likely to change their personal view of their weight (OR=0.62 per 5 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.45–0.86, P=0.004), or motivate them to lose weight (OR=0.67 per 5 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.50–0.91, P=0.009). Higher BMI was associated with higher weight-loss goals (P<0.001), while anticipated time to achieve those goals was increased (P<0.001). Physician involvement in weight management was important, but the patients’ needs and experiences differed by BMI. Approaches to addressing barriers and identifying resources for weight management should be tailored to individuals by considering BMI.
Most of the atomic species originating in the solar atmosphere between the upper chromosphere and the corona have their strong characteristic wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. A simple normal-incidence spectrometer system with solar blind detectors such as the Harvard instrument operating between approximately 250 Å and 1350 Å is ideally suited for observing in this most interesting range of the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises outward from 104 to 3 × 106 K. The temperature range represented by the various atomic and ionic species in the extreme ultraviolet is associated with many types of solar structure, prominences and filaments, the supergranulation cells and network, active regions and their associated loop structures and other features. Simultaneous observations in lines of different characteristic temperatures provide a three-dimensional probe of the solar atmosphere. In the instrument, the principal polychromatic position observes the Lyman continuum, Lα, C II, C III, O IV, O VI, and Mg x with seven detectors simultaneously from the same spatial image element, 5″ in size. Approximately 60 additional polychromatic positions are used routinely to carry out specific observing programs, for example, covering several lines of a given stage of ionization, observing lines or continuum from specific species of interest such as helium in prominences, comparing combinations of lines from a given ionic species such as O v where the relative intensities give a rather direct measurement of the density at a given temperature, or measuring differing positions in the Lyman continuum providing intensity measurements which can be interpreted in terms of the departure from ionization equilibrium.
Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations.
A meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up.
The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46–11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74–2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10–0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting.
Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.
In this paper we review some preliminary results from the Harvard College Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on ATM that pertain to solar activity. The results reviewed here are described in more detail in other papers referred to in the text. In the following paragraphs we first describe the instrument and its capabilities, and then turn to results on active regions, sunspots, flares, EUV bright points, coronal holes, and prominences.
This paper departs somewhat from the usual interpretation of the subject of this symposium, in which instrumental techniques normally deal with diverse aspects of experiment design or construction. Rather, we will concern ourselves here with some innovations in the ground control optimization of the modes of data acquisition once an instrument is in orbit. Although the fullest possible utilization of the data gathering capability of a device is of vital interest to the success of the experiment and the mission, the subject has not been discussed at length in the open forum of scientific meetings. The planning of the data gathering and processing aspects of a mission must receive as careful attention as instrument design and test if the characteristics of the instrument are to be fully exploited.
We report experiments and molecular dynamics calculations on the kinetics of electrodeposited lithium dendrites relaxation as a function of temperature and time. We found that the experimental average length of dendrite population decays via stretched exponential functions of time toward limiting values that depend inversely on temperature. The experimental activation energy derived from initial rates as Ea∼ 6-7 kcal/mole, which is closely matched by MD calculations, based on the ReaxFF force field for metallic lithium. Simulations reveal that relaxation proceeds in several steps via increasingly larger activation barriers. Incomplete relaxation at lower temperatures is therefore interpreted a manifestation of cooperative atomic motions into discrete topologies that frustrate monotonic progress by ‘caging’.
Thermoelectric (TE) generators have very important applications, such as emerging automotive waste heat recovery and cooling applications. However, reliable transport properties characterization techniques are needed in order to scale-up module production and thermoelectric generator design. DOE round-robin testing found that literature values for figure of merit (ZT) are sometimes not reproducible in part for the lack of standardization of transport properties measurements. In Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have been optimizing transport properties measurements techniques of TE materials and modules. We have been using commercial and custom-built instruments to analyze the performance of TE materials and modules. We developed a reliable procedure to measure thermal conductivity, seebeck coefficient and resistivity of TE materials to calculate the ZT as function of temperature. We use NIST standards to validate our procedures and measure multiple samples of each specific material to establish consistency. Using these developed thermoelectric capabilities, we studied transport properties of Bi2Te3 based alloys thermal aged up to 2 years. Parallel with analytical and microscopy studies, we correlated transport properties changes with chemical changes. Also, we have developed a resistance mapping setup to measure the contact resistance of Au contacts on TE materials and TE modules as a whole in a non-destructive way. The development of novel but reliable characterization techniques has been fundamental to better understand TE materials as function of aging time, temperature and environmental conditions.
We have quantified lithium dendrite growth in an optically accessible symmetric Li-metal cell, charged under imposed temperatures on the electrode surface. We have found that the dendrite length measure is reduced up to 43% upon increasing anodic temperature of about 50°C. We have deduced that imposing higher temperature on the electrode surface will augment the reduction rate relative to dendritic peaks and therefore lithium holes can draw near with the sharp deposited tips. We have addressed this mechanism via fundamentals of electrochemical transport.
The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), outbreak in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, currently extends over 18.3 million ha of pine forest. The principal host of the insect is lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia Englemann (Pineaceae) although it is a generalist herbivore on pines. Mountain pine beetles do not typically colonise spruce. However, during the current outbreak, several instances of mountain pine beetle attack on interior hybrid spruce, Picea glauca (Moench) Voss×Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelmann (Pinaceae) have been noted in areas where severe lodgepole pine mortality has occurred. Occasionally, beetle reproduction within spruce has been successful. Reproductive behaviours of mountain pine beetles reared from pine and spruce, such as female host acceptance and male joining behaviour, were studied on bolts of pine and spruce in laboratory bioassays. Females more readily accepted spruce host material relative to pine. Females that developed in spruce had higher rates of host acceptance of both pine and spruce host material than females that had developed in pine. We interpret these latter results with caution, however, as inference is partially restricted by sourcing viable insects from one spruce in this study. Implications of these findings to the concepts of host adaptation and population dynamics of this eruptive herbivore are discussed.
In the context of astrobiological exposure and simulation experiments in the BIOMEX project, the lichen Circinaria gyrosa was investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. Owing to the symbiotic nature of lichens and their remarkable extremotolerance, C. gyrosa represents a valid model organism in recent and current astrobiological research. Biogenic compounds of C. gyrosa were studied that may serve as biomarkers in Raman assisted remote sensing missions, e.g. ExoMars. The surface as well as different internal layers of C. gyrosa have been characterized and data on the detectability and distribution of β-carotene, chitin and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) are presented in this study. Raman microspectroscopy was applied on natural samples and thin sections. Although calcium oxalates can also be formed by rare geological processes it may serve as a suitable biomarker for astrobiological investigations. In the model organism C. gyrosa, it forms extracellular crystalline deposits embedded in the intra-medullary space and its function is assumed to balance water uptake and gas exchange during the rare, moist to wet environmental periods that are physiologically favourable. This is a factor that was repeatedly demonstrated to be essential for extremotolerant lichens and other organisms. Depending on the decomposition processes of whewellite under extraterrestrial environmental conditions, it may not only serve as a biomarker of recent life, but also of past and fossilized organisms.
In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked increase in voluntary feed intake from about 10 days after the second dose. Putting these together, the estimated lysine requirement, expressed in terms of diet composition, falls to 94% of the gilt level. Although general principles can be described now, further research is needed to fully define the lysine requirements of immunized boars. It is important that the temporal pattern of tissue deposition rates and feed intake be explored to be incorporated into models to predict nutrient requirements over the period of rapidly changing metabolism.
To examine the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity among US adolescents aged 12–19 years.
A cross-sectional study of nationally representative 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data.
Breakfast skipping was assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls. Physical activity was self-reported by participants and classified based on meeting national recommendations for physical activity for the appropriate age group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity while controlling for confounders.
A total of 936 adolescents aged 12–19 years in the USA.
After adjusting for family income, there was no association between breakfast skipping and meeting physical activity guidelines for age among adolescents aged 12–19 years (OR = 0·95, 95 % CI 0·56, 1·32).
Findings from the study differ from previous research findings on breakfast skipping and physical activity. Therefore, further research that uses large, nationally representative US samples and national recommended guidelines for physical activity is needed.
In ruminant feeding, the reduction of dietary protein is an effective approach for decreasing the excretion of N. In non-ruminant species, the intestinal absorption of Ca was affected when dietary protein was reduced. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to characterise the intestinal absorption of Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in goats fed different N and Ca diets. Intestinal flux rates of Ca and Pi were determined in goats fed a reduced N and Ca diet by Ussing chamber experiments. For a more mechanistic approach, the uptake of Ca and Pi in intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV), the expression levels of the epithelial Ca channel transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 6 (TRPV6), the sodium-dependent Pi transporter (NaPi) IIb and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured. In goats fed a reduced N and Ca diet, the intestinal flux rates of Ca and Pi were elevated. However, the reduced N and Ca diet had no effect on the uptake of Ca and Pi in intestinal BBMV, while the expression of TRPV6 and NaPi IIb protein in the corresponding intestinal segments was even decreased. The mRNA expression of NaPi IIb and VDR was not affected. Therefore, a post-transcriptional regulation of TRPV6 and NaPi IIb protein was suggested in goats fed a reduced N and Ca diet. From these data, it can be concluded that the intestinal absorption of Ca and Pi in growing goats was affected by changes in dietary N and Ca intake like those in single-stomached animals but differently modulated.
Simple NMR techniques can provide an absolute quantification of the quality of the orientational order of discotic columnar phases, provided the anisotropic local magnetic interactions are thoroughly characterized. For the prototypical discotic liquid crystal hexapentoxy-triphenylene, we measure the 13C chemical shift anisotropy of the triphenylene carbons, and use this result to analyze the orientational order, that occurs through a first order phase transition from the high temperature liquid phase, and is almost saturated (order parameter close to 0.85).
The growth of epitaxial GaAs layers on semi-insulating substrates, using high purity GaAs as source material has been obtained by the so-called lose Space Vapor Transport technique. The thermodynamical conditions of the growth, the effect of the growth parameters : source and substrate temperatures, pressure of transporting gas (water vapor) on the growth rate were investigated. Then, the variations of the optical, electrical and deep levels properties of the layers were studied as a function of the growth parameters in order to determine the values of these parameters for which the layers present the best electronic properties. Here, we describe i) the evolution of the photoluminescence spectra versus the substrate and source temperatures, the water vapor pressure being kept constant at its best value; ii) a secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the main impurities contained in the layers. The results demonstrate that the layers are homogeneously Si and S doped, the doping being slightly compensated, the layer-substrate interface is clean and the PL is characteristic of a defect free material.
High quality GaAs and InP have been grown on silicon substrates, using low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique. The growth temperature is 550ºC andthe growth rate 100 A/min.
Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical profiling verified the high quality of these layers. The use of superlattices as buffer layers, (GaAs/GaInP) in the case of GaAs/Si and (GalnAsP/InP) in the case of InP/Si, decreased the amount of misfit dislocations in the epitaxial layer. Carrier concentrations as low as 5.1015 cm-3 have been measured by electrochemical profiling.
The evolution of the stress in coatings derived from divinylsiloxane bisbenzocyclobutene, mixed stereo and positional isomers of 1,3-bis(2-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-3-ylethenyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane (CAS 117732-87-3), has been measured on silicon substrates with an optically levered beam during thermal cycles. The stress at room temperature in gelled coatings varies between ca. 15 MPa and 45 MPa depending on the cure schedule. The progression of the polymer's glass transition temperature is correlated with the evolution of the structural state observed with FTIR. A method is presented for predictably controlling substrate curvature during multilayer processing.
We present measurements on the spontaneous imbibition of water, a linear hydrocarbon (n-C16H34) and a liquid crystal (8OCB) into the pore space of monolithic, nanoporous Vycor glass (mean pore radius 5nm). Measurements of the mass uptake as a function of time, m(t), are in good agreement with the Lucas-Washburn - prediction typical of imbibition of liquids into porous hosts. The relative capillary rise velocities scale as expected from the bulk fluid parameters.