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We show that the compactly supported cohomology of certain
-Shimura varieties with
-level vanishes above the middle degree. The only assumption is that we work over a CM field
in which the prime
splits completely. We also give an application to Galois representations for torsion in the cohomology of the locally symmetric spaces for
. More precisely, we use the vanishing result for Shimura varieties to eliminate the nilpotent ideal in the construction of these Galois representations. This strengthens recent results of Scholze [On torsion in the cohomology of locally symmetric varieties, Ann. of Math. (2) 182 (2015), 945–1066; MR 3418533] and Newton–Thorne [Torsion Galois representations over CM fields and Hecke algebras in the derived category, Forum Math. Sigma 4 (2016), e21; MR 3528275].
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
To assess the safety of, and subsequent allergy documentation associated with, an antimicrobial stewardship intervention consisting of test-dose challenge procedures prompted by an electronic guideline for hospitalized patients with reported β-lactam allergies.
Retrospective cohort study.
Large healthcare system consisting of 2 academic and 3 community acute-care hospitals between April 2016 and December 2017.
We evaluated β-lactam antibiotic test-dose outcomes, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), and electronic health record (EHR) allergy record updates. HSR predictors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Modification of the EHR allergy record after test doses considered relevant allergy entries added, deleted, and/or specified.
We identified 1,046 test-doses: 809 (77%) to cephalosporins, 148 (14%) to penicillins, and 89 (9%) to carbapenems. Overall, 78 patients (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–9.2%) had signs or symptoms of an ADR, and 40 (3.8%; 95% CI, 2.8%–5.2%) had confirmed HSRs. Most HSRs occurred at the second (ie, full-dose) step (68%) and required no treatment beyond drug discontinuation (58%); 3 HSR patients were treated with intramuscular epinephrine. Reported cephalosporin allergy history was associated with an increased odds of HSR (odds ratio [OR], 2.96; 95% CI, 1.34–6.58). Allergies were updated for 474 patients (45%), with records specified (82%), deleted (16%), and added (8%).
This antimicrobial stewardship intervention using β-lactam test-dose procedures was safe. Overall, 3.8% of patients with β-lactam allergy histories had an HSR; cephalosporin allergy histories conferred a 3-fold increased risk. Encouraging EHR documentation might improve this safe, effective, and practical acute-care antibiotic stewardship tool.
The Shang (c. 1500–1045 BC) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1045–771 BC) of China are famous for their sophisticated ritual bronze vessels. Sourcing the leaded tin-bronze has, however, proved to be a challenge. A new systematic approach to metal chemistry uses trace elements and isotopes to characterise the underlying circulation pattern. It reveals the complexity of the copper sources on which the late Shang capital at Anyang depended for its bronzes, suggesting the transport of copper from distant regions in the south, on the Yangtze, and from north-east China. The new interpretational system furthers our understanding of the network on which successive Chinese dynasties depended for copper, lead and tin, and attempts to give equal weight to the archaeological and chemical data.
The effects of backward inclination angle on flow characteristics and jet dispersion properties of a stack-issued jet in crossflow were studied by means of instantaneous and long-exposure photography, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and tracer-gas concentration detections at a Reynolds number of 2,400, a jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio of 1.0, and the backward inclination angles θ = 0° - 60°. Three characteristic flow patterns featured by different near-wake flow structures were found within the surveyed span of the backward inclination angle: low (θ ≤ 25°), mediate (25° < θ < 50°), and high (θ ≥ 50°). In the range of low backward inclination angle, mushroom vortices appeared in the upwind shear layer. Jet fluids were entrained into the jet- and tube-wakes because the near wake region was characterized by a jet-wake vortex and a downwash flow. In the range of mediate backward inclination angle, forward-rolling vortices were formed in the upwind shear layer. Jet fluids were entrained into the jet wake but not appearing in the tube wake because the near wake was characterized by an isolated tube wake and up-going flows. In the range of high backward inclination angle, small-sized forward-rolling vortices were observed in the upwind shear layer. Jet fluids were not observed in both the jet- and tube-wakes because all flows went forward without reversal or vortex, which was similar to that in a jet in co-flow. Large turbulence intensities occurred around the jet-wake vortex and along sides of the tube wake bifurcation line, therefore the mixing at the low backward inclination angles presented better properties than those at mediate and high backward inclination angles owing to the featured flow structures and turbulence intensities.
Taiwan is a young and seismically active mountain belt, where a series of strong earthquakes (M>7) have occurred over the past hundred years. Identifying historical earthquakes around Taiwan is a key to better constrain the geodynamic of this active region. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses of surface sediments from one station offshore east Taiwan revealed the presence of coarse-grained layers interpreted as turbidites. The age of these layers have been determined by 210Pb, 137Cs, and 241Am chronology. Dating of the three most recent turbidites provides ages of AD 2001±3, AD 1950±5, and AD 1928±10. The results show striking temporal correspondence of turbidite layers to large (M≥6.8) earthquakes recorded in the region since the 20th century. The chronologies of sediment layers lead us to believe that turbidites resulted from the 2003 Taitung earthquake (M 6.8), the 1951 Chengkong earthquake (M 7.1), and the 1935 Lutao earthquake (M 7.0), respectively. Such a good correlation between turbidites and high-magnitude (M≥6.8) historical and instrumental seismic events suggests that turbidite paleoseismology constitutes a valuable tool for earthquake assessment in the eastern Taiwan margin. Moreover, the modern reservoir radiocarbon age and the regional marine reservoir correction (ΔR) of the Kuroshio Current off Taiwan were estimated by comparing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages with ages derived from corrected 210Pb profiles and historical accounts of identifiable seismic events. Such a determination is important to calibrate the 14C ages of marine materials for accurate comparison of marine and continental geological records. Our calculated mean ΔR value of 232±54 14C yr (n=2) is higher than its modern value of 86±40 14C yr. This high value can be explained by the presence of local upwelling cells and turbulence in the Kuroshio Current, north of Green Island. These upwelling cells bring 14C-depleted water to the surface, resulting in an increase of the modern ΔR value in this portion of the Kuroshio Current.
Recent meta-analyses of resting-state networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) implicate network disruptions underlying cognitive and affective features of illness. Heterogeneity of findings to date may stem from the relative lack of data parsing clinical features of MDD such as phase of illness and the burden of multiple episodes.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 17 active MDD and 34 remitted MDD patients, and 26 healthy controls (HCs) across two sites. Participants were medication-free and further subdivided into those with single v. multiple episodes to examine disease burden. Seed-based connectivity using the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed to probe the default mode network as well as the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) seeds to probe the salience network (SN) were conducted.
Young adults with remitted MDD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the left PCC to the left inferior frontal gyrus and of the left sgACC to the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left hippocampus compared with HCs. Episode-independent effects were observed between the left PCC and the right dorsolateral PFC, as well as between the left amygdala and right insula and caudate, whereas the burden of multiple episodes was associated with hypoconnectivity of the left PCC to multiple cognitive control regions as well as hypoconnectivity of the amygdala to large portions of the SN.
This is the first study of a homogeneous sample of unmedicated young adults with a history of adolescent-onset MDD illustrating brain-based episodic features of illness.
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31–.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women. (JINS, 2015, 21, 745–756)
In this study, the properties of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, including phase velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) are investigated. The effective surface permittivity (ESP) method was employed to estimate the K2 of bulk materials (single layer) and multi-layer (double-layer and trilayer) structures. In the cases of bulk materials, the calculation results agree with the experimental data, and the errors are less than 7% for quartz. In the cases of double-layer materials, the phase velocity and K2 of various materials, such as ZnO/Diamond and LiNbO3/Diamond, were acquired, and the results demonstrate that LiNbO3/diamond is the optimal choice for high-frequency SAW devices. For the cases of trilayer, the structure of ZnO/PZT/diamond has relatively high K2 and phase velocity. Therefore, this structure is the optimal trilayer structure for high-frequency SAW devices. The study demonstrates that ESP method can be successfully used for estimating SAW properties in piezoelectric multi-layer structures even though the structures contain nonpiezoelectric film (diamond). The proposed numerical computation has the potential to shorten the developing time of SAW device.
The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber – an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B ⩾ 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.
The growth of the size of cache and the number of processor cores in modern CPUs is the major factor in advancing the computing performance of modern machines. The effect of CPU cache size in multicore computers on performance, however, has attracted little attention in lubrication and engineering analyses. In this study, the effect of cache size on the computational performance of two parallel iterative methods in solving two Reynolds equations is examined. Four computers, with CPU cache size from 4 to 40 MB and the number of processor cores from 4 to 16, were used. The sizes of the numerical grid were selected to simulate large gridwork (256 × 256) to small gridwork (2048 × 2048) tasks. It is found that the size of CPU cache is a major factor influencing the parallel efficiency in using the RBSOR method. On the other hand, the SPSOR method obtains much higher parallel efficiency than the RBSOR for medium-grained tasks, regardless of the size of CPU cache. The use of the SPSOR can, therefore, provide a much better parallel computing performance than the RBSOR in the cases of having a large number of grids or in a system with limited CPU cache.
Bone is a complex tissue-organ system integrating multiple components in hierarchical layers of molecular cues, cellular communities, and networking highways. Bone moves through space and time in a dynamic manner modulated by homeostatic mechanisms nuanced through a coordinated intercalation of biological and biomechanical rhythms. The price we vertebrate species pay for maintaining this magnificently orchestrated tissue-organ is daunting.
Bone is the most metabolically expensive tissue in the human body. For every ounce of bone, a pound of soft tissue is required for maintenance . Moreover, the human skeletal system must be rugged in order to handle years of cyclic loading at high forces on the order of kilonewtons, and highly sensitive to the calibrated kinetics of calcium and phosphate release in order to maintain meticulously modulated ion levels . Consequently, the intrinsic design of bone and the dynamics that sustain it are an instructional core for regenerative bone therapeutics.
In this chapter we will introduce the profoundly compelling biodynamic structural marvel that gives shape to the amorphous mass in which it is wrapped and provides the fulcrums and pulleys that propel our anatomy along the avenues and boulevards of our towns. We will probe the blueprint of bone as a defining mold that guides and mentors attempts in the laboratory to design and develop compositions to repair and regenerate this structural tour de force.
Data on the internal velocity distribution of flowing sediment–fluid mixtures such as debris flows are rare, but necessary for model development and testing. A probe to measure the mean particle velocity at different depths and different locations within experimental debris flows in a 4 m diameter rotating drum was developed. In addition, the flow depth, basal normal stress and basal pore fluid pressure were also measured. Results show that for a given sediment–fluid mixture the velocity profiles collapse to distinct non-dimensional profiles. Macroscopic flow behaviour shows great similarity, with mean surface slopes weakly dependent on the shear rate for water-saturated gravel, but strongly shear-rate-dependent when pores are filled with mud. Poorly sorted material with a high content of fines produced fluid pressures close to normal stress and sidewall friction had a strong effect on the flow pattern. Our results reveal variability in profile characteristics for flows displaying similar macro-dynamics and provide data for model testing.
Lurasidone has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia in a series of short-term placebo-controlled trials.
To evaluate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of lurasidone in the long-term treatment of patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Patients who completed a 6 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial received once-daily, flexible-doses of lurasidone, 40–120 mg in a 22 month open-label extension study. An observed case analysis was performed on change from pre-treatment baseline in safety and efficacy parameters.
250 subjects entered the study; 39.8% completed 12 months and 26.8% completed 22 months of treatment. Lurasidone treatment was associated with a mean endpoint change in weight of +0.7 kg. Median endpoint change at Month 12 and Month 24, respectively, was -1.0 and −9.0 mg/dL for total cholesterol; 0.0 and −1.0 mg/dL for LDL; +1.0 and −11.0 mg/dL for triglycerides; +4.0 and +2.0 mg/dL for glucose; 0.0 and +0.1% for HbA1c; and −1.3 and −1.1 ng/mL for prolactin. The mean PANSS total score was 69.5 at extension baseline. The mean (95% CI) endpoint change from extension baseline in PANSS total score was −0.5 (95%-CI: −0.7, −0.3). Overall, 14.7% of patients discontinued due to an adverse event. Adverse events occurring with an incidence ≥10% were schizophrenia (12.4%), akathisia (10.8%) and somnolence (10.8%).
In this 22 month extension study, treatment with lurasidone was associated with minimal effects on weight, glucose, and lipids. Subjects demonstrated sustained improvement in the PANSS total score for up to 24 months of lurasidone treatment.