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Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions – particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost–benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
The J = 1–0 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been used to trace the molecular gas at five different positions in the Circinus galaxy using the Australia Telescope National Facility's 22 m radio telescope at Mopra. The intensity profile of the central CO emission has a full width at half maximum of 550 pc. The 12CO (1–0) spectrum at the centre of the galaxy has an integrated temperature of 145 K km S−1, with components peaking at 0·62 K and ranging in velocity from 200–600 km S−1. The total mass of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy, assuming that the CO intensity profile of the galaxy is similar to the radio continuum, is at least 7·5±4·1 × 108 M⊙. This estimate, combined with previously published far infrared data, yields a value for the star-forming efficiency, SFE = 16±9 L⊙ M⊙‒1.
The synthesis telescopes at Fleurs and Molonglo have been used to map 50 supernova remnants. Additional specialized software to process the maps has been developed, and Parkes observations have been used to supply short spacing information missing from the maps.
A sensitive search has been made for OH maser emission from a sample of 16 symbiotic stars. This sample has been selected on the basis of infrared optical depth and variability, so that the stars within it have circumstellar shells similar to those seen in the well-known OH/IR and OH/Mira stars. There were no significant detections, except for one unassociated background source, and we conclude that the presence of a hot binary companion inhibits any possible OH maser action.
At the centre of the Parkes 64—m radio telescope a region of diameter 17 m has recently been resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. The first measurements using this section have been made at 22 GHz, in observations of both continuum sources and water tfapour masers. For these observations the receiver front-end used a mixer cooled in liquid nitrogen, followed by a 5 GHz cryogenic parametric amplifier as a second stage. The option of switching against an offset horn was available and the total system
noise temperature was ∽ 750 K.
Observations of polarized emission and consequently the investigation of magnetic fields in northern galaxies, have been conducted successfully for some time with, for example, the 100-m Effelsberg telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut-für Radioastronomie and the VLA. However, the opportunity to make corresponding studies in the southern hemisphere has only recently become possible. Therefore, we have begun a long-range project aimed at studying the morphology and dynamics of southern galaxies using the facilities of the Parkes and Molonglo radio telescopes, the Siding Spring optical facilities and the Australia Telescope. Here we present preliminary results from Parkes observations of the three well known galaxies: NGC 253, NGC 4945 and M 83.
Most of the known 1.35 cm water vapour masers have been detected in the direction of known 18 cm OH masers. However, a small number have been found in the direction of HII regions where no OH maser is known. Several new examples of H20 masers with no known OH counterparts have recently been published by Kaufmann et d. (1976), who suggest that these constitute a new class of H20 maser.
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
There is reasonably strong evidence to suggest that the periodic X-ray, radio and optical variable Cir X-1 is a highly eccentric orbit (e ~ 0.8), binary system comprising an OB supergiant primary and a compact object, probably a neutron star (Whelan et al. 1977; Haynes, Lerche and Murdin 1980).
We present preliminary results from a number of deep radio polarization surveys being made of the Magellanic Clouds at 2.3 GHz, 4.75 GHz and 8.55 GHz. Extended and linearly polarized radio emission has been found at 2.3 and 4.75 GHz from both the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). However, as the analysis of these data is not yet complete we present only some of the 4.75 GHz results at this time.
In the terrestrial environment the abundance ratio of 18O to the common oxygen isotope 16O is about 1 in 490. Measurements of hydroxyl absorption in the interstellar medium show that 18OH as well as 16OH can be detected towards Sgr A and Sgr B2 (Gardner et al. 1970; Wilson and Barrett 1970; Williams and Gardner 1981); in these two galactic centre regions the 18OH isotopic species has an abundance relative to 16OH of about 1 in 220, somewhat greater than the terrestrial ratio of 18O to 16O.
We are studying the distribution and morphology of magnetic fields in southern face-on and edge-on galaxies with the intention of clarifying the distribution, lifetimes and transport mechanisms of cosmic rays, and investigating the intensity and orientation of the disc, halo and poloidal magnetic fields. As a preliminary study, before the Australia Telescope was available, we observed a sample of well-known southern spiral galaxies with the Parkes radio telescope.
Here, we present the resulting polarisation images for three galaxies, NGC 253, M 83 and NGC 4945, which were observed at 4.75 GHz and 8.55 GHz. The corresponding total power contour plots have been already published by Harnett et al. (1989a, 1990).
8.4 GHz linear polarization maps, obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, are presented for six southern supernova remnants. These results are compared with published and unpublished polarization maps at 5 GHz to derive the magnetic field direction and Faraday rotation measure distribution.
These results are part of a program to map the magnetic fields in galactic supernova remnants and complement our program to obtain high-resolution maps of galactic SNRs using the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope; five new Molonglo maps are presented here.
We have just completed the observational stage of a 2·4 GHz survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, using the Parkes radiotelescope, between 238° ≤ l ≤ 365° and with a latitude range of at least |b| ≤ 5° (beamwidth ~9 arcmin). The survey details both continuum emission and linear polarisation down to rms noises of approximately 12 and 4 mJy/beam respectively. It is the most sensitive survey to date of the southern plane at this frequency and should nicely complement the Effelsberg northern plane surveys in addition to the recent southern surveys such as the 843 MHz MOST survey and the 5 GHz PMN survey. The total-power maps are now completed, and reduction of the polarisation data is still in progress. In addition to compact HII regions and extragalactic sources, we are detecting on our total-power images a considerable amount of large-scale structure, and a significant number of new SNR candidates and spur-like features.
The Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope (MOST) of the University of Sydney (Mills 1981) produces maps of the 843 MHz continuum emission from fields of width 23′, 46′ or 70′ arc. The telescope comprises two co-linear east-west cylindrical paraboloids each 2186λ in length and separated by a gap of 43λ. For each paraboloid a phasing network (Durdin et al. 1984) generates a comb of 64 contiguous fan beams. Mapping is accomplished in real time during a 12-h observation by overlaying, in the map plane, the instantaneous cross-correlations of corresponding beams. The synthesized point-source response (beam) produced by this method has a width of 43″ (E-W) by 43″ cosec δ (N-S).
We present the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the dwarf galaxy populations in three interacting galaxy groups: NGC 871/6/7, NGC 3166/9, NGC 4725/47. Using degree-scale Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Hi mosaics and deep optical photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we measured the Hi and stellar properties of the gas-rich low-mass group members to classify each one as a classical dwarf galaxy, a short-lived tidal knot or a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). Our observations detect several dwarf irregulars and various tidal knots. We identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects in the three groups, implying that TDGs are not readily produced. The tidal objects examined in this small survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs formed in current simulations.
(See the commentary by Van Schooneveld and Rupp, on pages1100–1102.)
Although prior authorization and prospective audit with feedback are both effective antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) strategies, the relative impact of these approaches remains unclear. We compared these core ASP strategies at an academic medical center.
We compared antimicrobial use during the 24 months before and after implementation of an ASP strategy change. The ASP used prior authorization alone during the preintervention period, June 2007 through May 2009. In June 2009, many antimicrobials were unrestricted and prospective audit was implemented for cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin, marking the start of the postintervention period, July 2009 through June 2011. All adult inpatients who received more than or equal to 1 dose of an antimicrobial were included. The primary end point was antimicrobial consumption in days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days (DOT/1,000-PD). Secondary end points included length of stay (LOS).
In total, 55,336 patients were included (29,660 preintervention and 25,676 postintervention). During the preintervention period, both total systemic antimicrobial use (−9.75 DOT/1,000-PD per month) and broad-spectrum anti-gram-negative antimicrobial use (−4.00 DOT/1,000-PD) declined. After the introduction of prospective audit with feedback, however, both total antimicrobial use (+9.65 DOT/1,000-PD per month; P < .001) and broad-spectrum anti-gram-negative antimicrobial use (+4.80 DOT/1,000-PD per month; P < .001) increased significantly. Use of cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam both significantly increased after the intervention (P = .03). Hospital LOS and LOS after first antimicrobial dose also significantly increased after the intervention (P = .016 and .004, respectively).
Significant increases in antimicrobial consumption and LOS were observed after the change in ASP strategy.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1092-1099
The presence of an atmosphere, initially suggested based on limb darkening by Sola (1904) and later by the presence of methane spectral lines by Kuiper (1944), has long given Titan a special place in the minds of planetary geologists. The first close-up images were obtained by Pioneer 11 in 1979 (Gehrels et al., 1980), confirming a substantial atmosphere. These early observations led to the diversion of the trajectory of the Voyager I spacecraft to a closer encounter with Titan in 1980. Although the visible cameras on Voyager also had difficulty seeing Titan's surface (Richardson et al., 2004), radio occultation experiments suggested a surface pressure of 1.5 bars and temperature near 95 K (Lindal et al., 1983). These results were exciting because, for a methane mixing ratio of a few percent at the surface (Hunten, 1978), they placed methane's partial pressure near its triple point. Thus, like water on Earth, solid, liquid, and gaseous methane could potentially exist in Titan's environment. Ethane, which is the main product of methane photolysis, can also be liquid under these conditions. The presence of condensable volatiles in Titan's thick atmosphere opens the door for active fluvial, lacustrine, and pluvial processes that can shape its landscape with similar morphologies to those we find on Earth.
Prompted by the exciting results of the Voyager mission and the nearly two decades of Earth-based imaging campaigns that followed, NASA/ESA launched the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn in 1997. To penetrate Titan's thick atmosphere, Cassini is equipped with a Ku-band radar capable of obtaining images of the surface at a scale of 300 meters.