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The use of mechanical restraint is a challenging area for psychiatry. Although mechanical restraint remains accepted as standard practice in some regions, there are ethical, legal and medical reasons to minimise or abolish its use. These concerns have intensified following the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Despite national policies to reduce use, the reporting of mechanical restraint has been poor, hampering a reasonable understanding of the epidemiology of restraint. This paper aims to develop a consistent measure of mechanical restraint and compare the measure within and across countries in the Pacific Rim.
We used the publicly available data from four Pacific Rim countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United States) to compare and contrast the reported rates of mechanical restraint. Summary measures were computed so as to enable international comparisons. Variation within each jurisdiction was also analysed.
International rates of mechanical restraint in 2017 varied from 0.03 (New Zealand) to 98.8 (Japan) restraint events per million population per day, a variation greater than 3000-fold. Restraint in Australia (0.17 events per million) and the United States (0.37 events per million) fell between these two extremes. Variation as measured by restraint events per 1000 bed-days was less extreme but still substantial. Within all four countries there was also significant variation in restraint across districts. Variation across time did not show a steady reduction in restraint in any country during the period for which data were available (starting from 2003 at the earliest).
Policies to reduce or abolish mechanical restraint do not appear to be effecting change. It is improbable that the variation in restraint within the four examined Pacific Rim countries is accountable for by psychopathology. Greater efforts at reporting, monitoring and carrying out interventions to achieve the stated aim of reducing restraint are urgently needed.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
Gapless-type atomic switches were fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate by printing ‘solid polymer electrolyte’ (SPE) layers using suitable ink and drop-on-demand ink-jet technique. High surface energy difference between Pt microelectrode patterned on the plastic substrate and the substrate itself, led to the successful printing of electrolytic solution on a bottom Pt electrodes. Bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in Ag/SPE/Pt cross-point structures under electrical bias. The switching between ON and OFF states is attributed to the formation and dissolution of a metal filament between the electrodes. The cells also exhibited stable switching behavior under mechanical stress as performed by substrate bending. Switching characteristics measured under mechanical stress and without stress are matching well. The results demonstrate that the SPE-printed atomic switch has great potential for flexible switch/memory applications.
Adhesive strength between V-4Cr-4Ti type alloys and an yttrium oxide layer formed by a plasma spray technique was evaluated by a laser shock spallation method, which uses a pulse laser to generate a shock wave to create tensile stress inside the specimen. There was no significant dependence of the adhesive strength on the alloying elements examined, such as yttrium, silicon and aluminum. Detailed observation of the exfoliation behavior was carried out to identify the weakest interface of the coating layer. Several modes of exfoliation behavior were categorized after cross-sectional observation. There was some uncertainty of the adhesive strength of the layer evaluated by the laser shock method, due to the thickness of the coating layer. The typical adhesive strength between the alloy and yttrium oxide layer was evaluated to be approximately 400 MPa.
We investigate the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy for the field-induced carriers in rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors (SC-FETs), and compare the results with those on pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). We observe Lorentz-type ESR signal in rubrene SC-FETs whose linewidth is narrowed with increasing gate voltage and temperature. It demonstrates that the ESR linewidth is determined by motional narrowing effect as we reported on pentacene TFTs. Based on the observations, we discuss the multiple trap-and-release (MTR) processes in the two systems with and without grain boundaries.
Stability of Pd-Co-Ni-Cu-P metallic glass was investigated in terms of free energy using first principle cluster calculations, thermal analysis, and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. We found that the internal energy of the Pd-based metallic glasses is dominated by the electronic structure near the Fermi level. The analyses on the electronic structure and local atomic arrangements indicate that the substitution of cobalt or a hypothetical atom Co0.5Cu0.5 for nickel in the Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass decreases the free energy of the Pd-Ni-P metallic glass by increasing entropy without altering significantly internal energy. On the basis of the idea mentioned above, we prepared Pd28Co24Ni24P24, Pd25Co25Ni25P25 and Pd40Co40/3Ni40/3Cu40/3P20 metallic glasses. These metallic glasses certainly showed the nearly highest TX, which directly reflect the activation energy against crystallization, among the Pd-based metallic glasses ever reported.
We present the high-resolution 12CO(J = 1 − 0), 13CO(J = 1 − 0) and 12CO(J = 3 − 2) maps toward a GMA located on the southern arm region of M31 using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The GMA consists of two velocity-components, i.e., red and blue. The blue component shows a strong and narrow peak, whereas the red one shows a weak and broad profile. The red component has a lower 12CO(J = 1 − 0)/13CO(J = 1 − 0) ratio (~ 5) than that of the blue one (~ 16), indicating that the red component is denser than the blue one. The red component could be the decelerated gas if we consider the galactic rotational velocity in this region. We suggest that the red component is “post shock” dense gas decelerated due to a spiral density wave. This could be observational evidence of dense molecular gas formation due to galactic shock by spiral density waves.
We also present results from on-going observations toward NGC 604, which is the supergiant HII region of M33, using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3 − 2) to 12CO(J = 1 − 0) ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 in NGC 604. The 12CO(J = 1 − 0) map shows the clumpy structure while 12CO(J = 3 − 2) shows a strong peak near to the central star cluster of NGC 604. The high ratio gas is distributed on the arc-like or shell-like structure along with Hα emission and HII region detected by radio continuum. These suggest that the dense gas formation and second generation star formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar wind and/or supernova in central star cluster.
Block copolymer lithography is a promising method for fabricating periodical nano patterns less than 20nm by self-assembly and can be applicable for fabricating patterned magnetic media with recording density over 1Tbit/inch2. We found a simple technique to control the orientation of cylindrical microdomains in thin films. Only by mixing polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymers with the constituent homopolymer (PS or PMMA), we could align the cylindrical microdomains perpendicular to the film surface. The added homopolymer induces conformational entropic relaxation of the block chains in microdomain space and stabilizes perpendicular orientation of hexagonally packed cylindrical microdomains. Thus formed perpendicular cylinders can be readily aligned in a regular array with a grating substrate.
In order to create micrometer-scale functional optical materials or devices, we have investigated on development of a novel electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method using a microelectrode as a counter electrode: This is so-called “μ-EPD method”. The μ-EPD method was applied to fabricate micro colloidal crystals consisting of monodisperse submicron polystyrene latex spheres for micro photonic application. Scanning electron micrographs of the deposit prepared under the optimized μ-EPD parameters showed a formation of microdot consisting of three-dimensionally ordered polystyrene spheres. As a result of the microscopic transmittance spectra, the microdots exhibited a narrow absorption peak and the optical stopband was observed at 460 nm for 204 nm polystyrene spheres, 675 nm for 290 nm polystyrene spheres, and 755 nm for 320 nm polystyrene spheres, respectively. The observed position is due to the Bragg diffraction of light from (111) plane of face-centered cubic opal lattice.
A new magneto-optical (MO) imaging system for high-throughput characterization of combinatorial magnetic thin films has been developed. The instrument allows us to measure both Faraday rotation and ellipticity maps at various wavelengths (400 nm∼1000 nm), different magnetic fields (0∼2000 G), and different temperatures (12 K∼300 K) for wide variety of materials. We used the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) modulation technique to map MO properties, relatively free from substrate effects. The superiority of this system is that magnetic hysteresis curves of numerous specimens with different compositions prepared by the combinatorial technique can be simultaneously measured at one sweep of magnetic field, providing an efficient characterization method for combinatorial magnetic materials. We also confirmed that the system possesses enough spatial resolution and sensitivity for detecting MO signals of individual pixels contained in a combinatorial library.
Usage of air holes in optical fibers has become a hot subject in fiber optics because of the possibilities for novel transmission properties. Although photonic crystal fibers based on photonic bandgap guidance are the most drastic innovation in this subject, optical fibers containing air holes but not having photonic crystal structures are also being intensively studied. Such air-silica microstructured fibers are more practical than the photonic bandgap fibers because the lack of photonic crystal structure makes the fabrication far easier. Even without the photonic bandgap, the microstructured fibers can exhibit valuable properties in terms of group velocity dispersion and nonlinearity, because the index contrast between air and silica is 10 or more times as large as that of the conventional optical fibers based on doped silica glasses. However, one of the major challenges for practical applications of the air-silica microstructured fibers has been their high transmission losses, which have been several tens to hundreds times higher than those of the conventional fibers. As a solution to this problem, we have proposed a more practical structure called hole-assisted lightguide fiber (HALF). In addition to the air holes for realizing novel optical properties, this structure has a material index profile for waveguiding, and hence is closer to the conventional fibers than the other microstructured fibers are. As a result, novel optical properties can be realized without severe degradation in transmission loss. In experiments, an anomalous group velocity dispersion as large as +35 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm wavelength, which would be unattainable in the conventional fibers, has been realized with a loss of 0.41 dB/km, which is comparable to those of the conventional fibers. Analyses of the losses of the fabricated HALFs suggest that the loss should be lowered by mitigating the effect of the drawing tension and minimizing the power fraction in the holes. It is also shown that the full-vector finite element method realizes accurate modeling of the properties such as dispersion and macrobend loss.
In an effort to develop alternative single buffer layer technology for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors, we have investigated LaMnO3 (LMO) as a potential buffer layer. High-quality LMO films were grown directly on biaxially textured Ni and Ni-W (3%) substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. YBCO films were then grown on LMO buffers using pulsed laser deposition. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that both YBCO and LMO layers were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses have indicated the ratio of La to Mn ratio is 1:1. SEM micrographs indicated that 3000-Å-thick LMO films on biaxially textured Ni (100) substrates were dense, continuous and crack-free. A high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films grown on LMO-buffered Ni or Ni-W substrates. We have identified LaMnO3 as a good diffusion barrier layer for Ni and it also provides a good template for growing high current density YBCO films.
We have studied the kinetics of the chemical reaction between Mg and B by differential thermal analysis. There are two exothermal peaks observed at 500 and 650 °C. We speculate that the first exothermal peak is mainly related to the chemical reaction between Mg and oxygen, forming MgO. The second exothermal peak, which coincides with the melting point of Mg, clearly indicates the chemical reaction between Mg and B. The effect of synthesis conditions and defects on the transport property of MgB2 has been investigated. A correlation between the microstrain, the lattice parameters, and the Mg concentration were observed and are discussed.
The inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) method for growth of biaxially textured MgO is of interest due to its applications in coated conductors based on high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The ISD method is especially attractive since it offers the potential to produce a high–quality biaxially textured layer in a simple and efficient process. In this work, Yba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors based on two-step deposited MgO buffer layers (ISD and homoepitaxial) on Hastelloy tapes were examined by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) to study both the structure of individual layers and, especially, the interfaces between them. Special attention was paid to the MgO buffer layer because of its importance to biaxial YBCO formation. TEM investigation shows the MgO  direction is not parallel to the substrate normal but tilted slightly toward the deposition direction. The second layer of MgO has a good epitaxial relationship with the first layer, while dislocations were found near the interface area of the MgO layers. Twin boundaries, which are in the (111) plane, were found between the ISD MgO columns. The multi-buffer layers gave better growth of epitaxial YBCO.
Inconel, tantalum and a silver-palladium alloy were used to fabricate MgB2tapes. The tapes, made by the Powder In Tube (PIT) method, were heat-treated at 800°C and 900°C in 1 atmosphere of flowing argon. The microstructure and phase composition of the tapes were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). Critical temperatures (Tc) and magnetization-applied magnetic field (M-H) curves were measured by SQUID magnetometry. It is found that between 800–900°C inconel and tantalum sheaths have no effect on the Tc,inductive of the material. However, under certain processing conditions, the silver-palladium sheath can decrease the Tcor destroy the superconductivity completely. The inconel sheathed tape was found to have better superconducting properties than the tantalum and silver-palladium sheathed tapes. Consistency checks have been applied to verify the validity of the Bean Model in obtaining the critical current density (Jc) from magnetization data. The inconel sheathed tape is estimated to have a magnetization Jc(5K, ∼0.5 T) of 1.4 × 105A/cm2.
We report the synthesis of superconducting MgB2 thin films grown in-situ by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Mg-rich fluxes are deposited with B-flux by electron beam evaporation onto c- and r-plane sapphire substrates. Deposition temperature is varied between 260 ∼ 320 °C. Base pressure of the MBE chamber is at low 10-10 Torr, rising to 10-8 Torr during deposition due mostly to the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. Asgrown MgB2 films show superconducting transition at ∼ 34 K with ΔTc < 1 K. The films on c-plane sapphire substrates exhibit c-axis oriented peaks of MgB2, and full-width at half maximum of 3 degree in their rocking curves. Azimuthal phi-scan of the MgB2(101) peak shows 12-fold symmetric peaks, which is confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Plan-view TEM shows hexagonal-shaped grain growth with grain size of about 400 Å.
Magnetic properties of Co-doped rutile (Ti1-xCoxO2) film in combinatorial composition-spread form have been surveyed by means of a Scanning Superconducting-quantum-interference-device Microscope (SSM). As a consequence, we found magnetic domains in the spatial regions with x>0.05 without external field, giving strong evidence for ferromagnetism with finite spontaneous magnetization. The magnetic moment was monotonously increased with increasing doping level x from 0.05 to ∼ 0.13. On the other hand, it was almost unchanged for x > ∼ 0.13, suggesting that Co does not dissolve into rutile film beyond x ∼ 0.13. The SSM results on the rutile Ti0.95Co0.05O2 thin films with different thickness showed that the magnetic moment is proportional to film thickness, leading to a conclusion that the presently observed ferromagnetism does not result from Co or Co-based oxide particles on the film surface.
Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) offers the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers suitable for YBCO-coated conductors. We have grown biaxially textured MgO films by ISD at deposition rates of 20–100 Å/sec. Columnar grain structures with a roof-tile-shaped surface were observed in the ISD-MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD-MgO films are titled at an angle from the substrate normal. A small phi-scan full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of ≈9° was observed on MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55°. YBCO films were also grown on ISD-MgO-buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We obtained a critical current density of ≈2 × 105 A/cm2 at 77 K in self-field on 0.5-μm-thick, 0.5-cm-wide, 1-cm-long samples. This work has demonstrated that biaxially textured ISD MgO buffer layers deposited on metal substrates are promising candidates for fabrication of high-quality YBCO-coated conductors.