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Depression is a leading cause of healthcare use and risk for suicide among US military personnel. Depression is not well characterised over the shipboard deployment cycle, and personnel undergo less screening than with land-based deployments, making early identification less likely.
To determine the demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with screening positive for risk of depression (ROD) across the shipboard deployment cycle.
Active-duty ship assigned personnel completed an anonymous assessment using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in the year prior to deployment, during deployment and in the months following deployment. Longitudinal models were used to determine risk factors.
In total, 598 people were included in the analysis. Over 50% of the study population screened positive for ROD (CES-D score ≥16) and over 25% screened positive for risk of major depressive disorder (CES-D score ≥22) at all time points. Lower age, female gender, alcohol use, stress and prior mental health diagnoses were all associated with greater odds of screening positive for ROD in multivariable models.
Although the risk factors associated with screening positive for ROD are similar to those in other military and civilian populations, the proportion screening positive exceeds previously reported prevalence. This suggests that shipboard deployment or factors associated with shipboard deployment may present particular stressors or increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms.
Declaration of interest
The authors are military service members (or employees of the US Government). This work was prepared as part of the authors' official duties. Title 17, U.S.C. §105 provides the ‘Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.’ Title 17, USC, §101 defines a US Government work as work prepared by a military service member or employee of the US Government as part of that person's official duties. The views expressed in this research are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense, or the US Government. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Material has been reviewed by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. There is no objection to its presentation and/or publication. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors, and are not to be construed as official, or as reflecting true views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.
Background: Despite the global impact of bipolar disorder (BD), treatment success is limited. Challenges include syndromal and subsyndromal mood instability, comorbid anxiety, and uncertainty around mechanisms to target. The Oxford Mood Action Psychology Programme (OxMAPP) offered a novel approach within a cognitive behavioural framework, via mental imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT). Aims: This clinical audit evaluated referral rates, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with the OxMAPP service. Method: Eleven outpatients with BD received ImCT in addition to standard psychiatric care. Mood data were collected weekly from 6 months pre-treatment to 6 months post-treatment via routine mood monitoring. Anxiety was measured weekly from start of treatment until 1 month post-treatment. Patient feedback was provided via questionnaire. Results: Referral and treatment uptake rates indicated acceptability to referrers and patients. From pre- to post-treatment, there was (i) a significant reduction in the duration of depressive episode relapses, and (ii) a non-significant trend towards a reduction in the number of episodes, with small to medium effect size. There was a large effect size for the reduction in weekly anxiety symptoms from assessment to 1 month follow-up. Patient feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction with ImCT, and underscored the importance of the mental imagery focus. Conclusions: This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence that ImCT can help improve depressive and anxiety symptoms in BD as part of integrated clinical care, with high patient satisfaction and acceptability. Formal assessment designs are needed to further test the feasibility and efficacy of the new ImCT treatment on anxiety and mood instability.
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are significant risks for suicide and other adverse events among US military personnel, but prevalence data among ship-assigned personnel at the onset of deployment are unknown.
To determine the prevalence of shipboard personnel who screen positive for PTSD and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) at the onset of deployment, and also those who reported these diagnoses made by a physician or healthcare professional in the year prior to deployment.
Active-duty ship-assigned personnel (N = 2078) completed anonymous assessments at the beginning of deployment. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; score of ≥22), and PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C; both score and symptom criteria were used).
In total, 7.3% (n = 151 of 2076) screened positive for PTSD and 22% (n = 461 of 2078) for MDD at deployment onset. Only 6% and 15% of those who screened positive for PTSD or MDD, respectively, had been diagnosed by a healthcare professional in the past year.
Missed opportunities for mental healthcare among screen-positive shipboard personnel reduce the benefits associated with early identification and linkage to care. Improved methods of mental health screening that promote early recognition and referral to care may mitigate psychiatric events in theatre.
The diagnostic role of cardiac MRI in myocarditis is evolving, however with extremely limited data in paediatrics. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of cardiac MRI in paediatric myocarditis and present a new prognostic score for risk stratification.
The present study is a retrospective investigation of children with a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis, including analysis of demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, including cardiac MRI, and outcomes.
A total of 44 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 20 had undergone cardiac MRI. Patients who underwent cardiac MRI were older (median 15.6 versus 11.1 years, p=0.004), had a shorter length of hospital stay (median 4.0 versus 12.5 days, p=0.004), had overall less-severe illness at presentation as evidenced by a higher left-ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography, had lower peak brain-type natriuretic peptide, were less likely to require advanced mechanical support, and were less likely to experience cardiac death or transplant. In patients who had undergone cardiac MRI, the most common findings were increased early gadolinium enhancement (n=9) or late gadolinium enhancement (n=9). Cardiac MRI findings did not predict a worse outcome. Independent predictors of the need for heart-failure medications at 1-year follow-up included inotrope requirement, extracorporeal membrane oxygenator requirement, and antiarrhythmic requirement at presentation (p<0.05).
In paediatric myocarditis, cardiac MRI is not used uniformly, has a low yield, and does not predict worse outcomes. Future research should evaluate clinical decision-making and the cost–benefit analysis of cardiac MRI in the diagnosis of paediatric myocarditis.
The dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation on ice growth rate during the freezing of sea water is investigated based on laboratory experiments and field observations in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The laboratory experiments were performed in a tank filled with sea water, with sea ice grown under calm conditions at various room temperatures ranging from −5°C to −20°C. In McMurdo Sound, the ice growth rate was monitored using thermistor probes for first-year landfast ice that grew to ∼2 m in thickness. Combining these datasets allows, for the first time, examination of fractionation at a wide range of growth rates from 0.8 × 10−7 to 9.3 × 10−7 m s−1. In the analysis a stagnant boundary-layer model is parameterized using these two independent datasets. As a result, the optimum values of equilibrium pure-ice fractionation factor and boundary-layer thickness are estimated. It is suggested that a regime shift may occur at a growth rate of ∼2.0 × 10−7 m s−1. A case study on sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk, where the growth rate is modeled by coupling the thermodynamic properties of the sea ice with meteorological data, demonstrates the utility of the fitted models.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
Scaling contact lithography (microcontact printing, microflexography, and nanoimprint lithography) to large roll-to-roll platforms will enable high speed, low cost lithographic patterning of surfaces. However, many details of robust implementations at the roll-to-roll scale remain an engineering challenge, including precise regulation of printing pressures and the stamp-substrate interaction. This paper introduces a method for precise control of contact pressure that can accommodate large dimensional variations, i.e. varying stamp and substrate thicknesses. This control algorithm is implemented on a simply supported roll positioning stage. Experimental results for microcontact printing and microflexography are shown both with in situ contact measurements on a pseudo substrate and with 5 um silver nanoparticle prints. Ultimately, this approach enables robust printing despite sensitive stamp patterns and large dimensional variations (> 10 μm) in substrates, stamps, and roll equipment.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Exposure to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for impaired learning and memory, particularly in males. Although the basis of IUGR-associated learning and memory dysfunction is unknown, potential molecular participants may be insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) and its receptor, IGF1r. We hypothesized that transcript levels and protein abundance of Igf1 and IGF1r in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory, would be lower in IUGR male rats than in age-matched male controls at birth (postnatal day 0, P0), at weaning (P21) and adulthood (P120). We also hypothesized that changes in messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcript levels and protein abundance would be associated with specific histone marks in IUGR male rats. Lastly, we hypothesized that IUGR male rats would perform poorer on tests of hippocampal function at P120. IUGR was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries in pregnant dams at embryonic day 19 (term is 21 days). Hippocampal Igf1 mRNA transcript levels and protein abundance were unchanged in IUGR male rats at P0, P21 or P120. At P0 and P120, IGF1r expression was increased in IUGR male rats. At P21, IGF1r expression was decreased in IUGR male rats. Increased IGF1r expression was associated with more histone 3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4Me2) in the promoter region. In addition, IUGR male rats performed poorer on intermediate-term spatial working memory testing at P120. We speculate that altered IGF1r expression in the hippocampus of IUGR male rats may play a role in learning and memory dysfunction later in life.
One of the first nanotechnology undergraduate degrees in the world was established at Flinders University in 2000. In this paper we present our experience of developing and delivering this degree in a climate where “traditional” physical sciences are under considerable strain. We will discuss the motivation for this initiative, structure of the established course and educational issues relating to its development.
CVD deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied for possible use as a secondary standard for Low Earth Orbit materials degradation. Samples of various thicknesses have been exposed to a simulated Low Earth Orbit atomic oxygen (AO) environment using a plasma asher. Mass loss measurements indicate that DLC degrades at a rate of 0.7 mg/hr which is two to three times the rate of currently used Kapton samples which degrade at a rate of.3 mg/hr. Thickness measurements show that DLC thins at a rate of 77 Angstroms/min. Since DLC is not as susceptible to environmental factors such as moisture absorption, it could potentially provide more accurate measurements of AO fluence on short space flights. Adhesion of DLC films to both fused silica and crystalline silicon substrates has been studied under thermal cycling conditions. Film adhesion to fused silica can be enhanced by sputtering a thin layer of silicon dioxide onto the substrate prior to deposition. In addition to the above, the index of refraction and extinction coefficient of various thicknesses of DLC films has been characterized by Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.
We have studied both the atomic and electronic structures of nitrogenase Mo-Fe proteins using EXAFS and L-edge spectroscopy. The Mo and Fe K-edge EXAFS data show not only 2.37, 2.70, 2.29, and 2.63 Å first shell Mo-S, Mo-Fe, Fe-S, and Fe-Fe distances, but also 3.8, 4.3 and 5.1 Å second shell Fe-Fe, Fe-S, and Mo-Fe interactions. These observed distances are consistent with recent crystallographic models for the M-center. The average Mcenter distances have been defined with unprecedented accuracy. The nitrogenase Fe L-edge spectra have been obtained for the first time, and the result suggests that the Fe exists in both Fe2+ and Fe3+ states.
Many organic-based optical components are based on refractive index modulation or contrast as the origin of their activity. These range from passive components such as waveguides, to active components that include electro-optic switches, photorefractive information processing elements, and holographic storage media. Common to the materials used in these applications is the need for charge and/or molecular migration in their preparation or utilization. This paper focuses on some of these migration effects, with special attention paid to a new class of photopolymers being designed for high density digital holographic data storage applications.
We analyze the effect of charged defects on the electrical domains, phase transition characteristics and electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with thin dead layers using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Depending on their density and field strength, defects can pin and couple to electrical domains in the film. For ultrathin films, depolarizing effects dominate and the transition from the paraelectric state is into the multidomain ferroelectric state during cooling and is strongly smeared. The competition between defect induced extrinsic effects and the dead layer related limit is demonstrated.