To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Two methods of obtaining polarized x-rays for fluorescence experiments are discussed. Compton scattering from a low-Z scatterer is the usual method used in such experiments. The polarization of x-rays undergoing anomalous Borrmann transmission in a dislocation-free crystal is also described and preliminary results are presented. Approximate expressions, useful for comparing scatter-polarizing systems, are derived for the dependence of scatter rejection and fluorescent efficiency on two scattering-system parameters: the thickness of the scattering polarizer and the geometric limit to solid angles and angular divergences in the system.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Emotional processing theory and some observations suggest that activation of subjective and physiological distress during therapeutic exposure and habituation across exposure sessions are key to improvement. This study sought to determine whether initial subjective and physiological activation and between-session habituation would predict PTSD symptom reduction after a series of written trauma narrative exposure sessions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 29 urban-residing African-American participants with PTSD participated in four 30-minute writing sessions. Writing sessions 1 and 2 were 12 hours apart and session 3 and 4 were performed 1 week later, also 12 hours apart. PTSD symptoms were measured at baseline, after session 2, and 1 week after all 4 writing sessions with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. During each session, Subjective Units of Distress Scores (SUDS) were assessed 4 times and heart rate was measured continuously. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants exhibited PTSD symptom improvement and habituation of subjective distress, but not physiological arousal, across writing sessions. First session baseline-corrected SUDS maximum and SUDS decrease from the initial to the final writing session were both positively associated with symptom improvement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increased subjective, but not physiological, distress in the first exposure session and diminished subjective distress across sessions may be a helpful marker of emotional processing for clinicians and predictor of symptom improvement after written trauma narrative exposure.
Mollusc seashells grow through the local deposition and calcification of material at the shell opening by a soft and thin organ called the mantle. Through this process, a huge variety of shell structures are formed. Previous models have shown that these structural patterns can largely be understood by examining the mechanical interaction between the deformable mantle and the rigid shell aperture to which it adheres. In this paper we extend this modelling framework in two distinct directions. For one, we incorporate a mechanical feedback in the growth of the mollusc. Second, we develop an initial framework to couple the two primary and orthogonal modes of pattern formation in shells, which are termed antimarginal and commarginal ornamentation. In both cases we examine the change in shell morphology that occurs due to the different mechanical influences and evaluate the hypotheses in light of the fossil record.
Chronic copper (Cu) poisoning is a well recognized problem in sheep and there is evidence that the incidence is increasing as more intensive methods of production are adopted. The interaction between Cu, molybdenum (Mo) and sulphur (S) in ruminants is well known and diets supplemented by Mo and S have been used to reduce the incidence of Cu toxicity in sheep. It has been postulated that Mo reacts with sulphide in the rumen to form thiomolybdate (TM) and that this subsequently combines with dietary and/or tissue Cu to form complexes in which Cu is unavailable to the animal. We have evaluated the response of Cu-dosed sheep to the intravenous administration of TM.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Changing Arctic sea-ice extent and melt season duration, and increasing economic interest in the Arctic have prompted the need for enhanced marine ecosystem studies and improvements to dynamical and forecast models. Sea-ice melt pond fraction fp has been shown to be correlated with the September minimum ice extent due to its impact on ice albedo and heat uptake. Ice forecasts should benefit from knowledge of fp as melt ponds form several months in advance of ice retreat. This study goes further back by examining the potential to predict fp during winter using backscatter data from the commonly available Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar. An object-based image analysis links the winter and spring thermodynamic states of first-year and multiyear sea-ice types. Strong correlations between winter backscatter and spring fp, detected from high-resolution visible to near infrared imagery, are observed, and models for the retrieval of fp from Sentinel-1 data are provided (r2 ≥ 0.72). The models utilize HH polarization channel backscatter that is routinely acquired over the Arctic from the two-satellite Sentinel-1 constellation mission, as well as other past, current and future SAR missions operating in the same C-band frequency. Predicted fp is generally representative of major ice types first-year ice and multiyear ice during the stage in seasonal melt pond evolution where fp is closely related to spatial variations in ice topography.
The molecular, neurobiological, and physical health impacts of child maltreatment are well established, yet mechanistic pathways remain inadequately defined. Telomere length (TL) decline is an emerging molecular indicator of stress exposure with definitive links to negative health outcomes in maltreated individuals. The multiple confounders endemic to human maltreatment research impede the identification of causal pathways. This study leverages a unique randomized, cross-foster, study design in a naturalistic translational nonhuman primate model of infant maltreatment. At birth, newborn macaques were randomly assigned to either a maltreating or a competent control mother, balancing for sex, biological mother parenting history, and social rank. Offspring TL was measured longitudinally across the first 6 months of life (infancy) from peripheral blood. Hair cortisol accumulation was also determined at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. TL decline was greater in animals randomized to maltreatment, but also interacted with biological mother group. Shorter TL at 6 months was associated with higher mean cortisol levels through 18 months (juvenile period) when controlling for relevant covariates. These results suggest that even under the equivalent social, nutritional, and environmental conditions feasible in naturalistic translational nonhuman primate models, early adverse caregiving results in lasting molecular scars that foreshadow elevated health risk and physiologic dysregulation.
Progressive inefficacy of chemoprophylactic therapy to control gastro-intestinal (GI) nematode infection in sheep has been a major contributory factor in stimulating research into the development of alternative means of internal parasite control. This research aims to investigate the possibilities for selecting UK sheep for increased genetic resistance to naturally acquired GI nematode parasite infections.
The US federal government invests in the development of medical countermeasures for addressing adverse health effects to the civilian population from chemical, biological, and radiological or nuclear threats. We model the potential economic spillover effects in day-to-day burn care for a federal investment in a burn debridement product for responding to an improvised nuclear device.
We identify and assess 4 primary components for projecting the potential economic spillover benefits of a burn debridement product: (1) market size, (2) clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, (3) product cost, and (4) market adoption rates. Primary data sources were the American Burn Association’s 2015 National Burn Repository Annual Report of Data and published clinical studies used to gain European approval for the burn debridement product.
The study results showed that if approved for use in the United States, the burn debridement product has potential economic spillover benefits exceeding the federal government’s initial investment of $24 million a few years after introduction into the burn care market.
Economic spillover analyses can help to inform the prioritizing of scarce resources for research and development of medical countermeasures by the federal government. Future federal medical countermeasure research and development investments could incorporate economic spillover analysis to assess investment options. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:711–719)
The Zadko telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80-km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012–2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Second, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino observatory, photometry of rare (Barbarian) asteroids, supernovae searches in nearby galaxies. Finally, we discuss participation in newly commencing international projects, including the optical follow-up of gravitational wave (GW) candidates from the United States and European GW observatory network and present first tests for very low latency follow-up of fast radio bursts. In the context of these projects, we outline plans for a future upgrade that will optimise the facility for alert triggered imaging from the radio, optical, high-energy, neutrino, and GW bands.
Two-sided oxidation experiments were recently conducted at 1000-1200°C in flowing steam with samples of sponge-based Zr-1Nb alloy E110. Although the old electrolytic E110 tubing exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to nodular corrosion and experienced breakaway oxidation rates in relatively short time, the new sponge-based E110 has demonstrated steam oxidation behavior comparable to Zircaloy-4. The sponge-based E110 followed the parabolic law, and the derived oxidation rate constant is in good agreement with the Cathcart-Pawel (CP) correlation at 1100-1200°C. For 1000°C oxidation, the weight-gain of sponge-based E110 is much lower than Zircaloy-4. No breakaway oxidation was observed at 1000°C up to 8000 s. Ring compression tests were conducted to evaluate the residual ductility of oxidized samples at room temperature and at 135°C. All sponge-based E110 specimens were still ductile at 135°C after being oxidized up to 20% equivalent cladding reacted at 1000-1200°C. Metallographic examinations were performed on oxidized E110 specimens to correlate material performance with microstructure.
Comprehension of predicates and reflexives was examined in children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) who were between 9 years, 7 months and 10 years, 2 months. Demands on working memory and manual reaction time were also assessed in two experiments that employed a four-choice picture-selection sentence comprehension task. CWS were less accurate than CWNS on the attachment of predicates. For reflexives, there was no between-group difference in accuracy, but there was a difference in speed. The two constructions induced processing at different points on a speed–accuracy continuum with CWS sacrificing accuracy to respond fast with predicates, while they maintained accuracy of reflexives by responding slower relative to CWNS. Predicates made more demands on language than nonspeech motor reaction time, whereas the reverse was the case with reflexives for CWS compared to CWNS.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
We present optical identifications of nine previously unidentified extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources discovered during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite surveys. The all-sky survey detected four of the sources and the more sensitive deep survey detected the other five sources. Three of the four all-sky survey sources, EUVE_J1918+59.9, EUVE_J2249+58.5, and EUVE_J2329+41.4, are listed in present catalogs as having possible associations with optical counterparts but without spectral class. The first two of these sources are hot DA white dwarfs showing an optical spectrum with broad Balmer lines. The source EUVE_J2329+41.4 is listed as having a possible association with an unclassified M star. We show that a pair of dMe stars are actually optical counterparts located within the error circle of the EUVE source position. The EUVE_J2114+503 remains unidentified even though all the possible candidates have been studied. Based on the count rates we predict a fainter white dwarf or a cataclysmic variable counterpart for this candidate. All five sources discovered with the EUVE deep survey, EUVE_J0318+184, EUVE_J0419+217, EUVE_J2053−175, EUVE_J2056−171 and EUVE_J2233−096, have been identified as late-type stars. The spectral classes, distances, visual magnitudes, and estimated hydrogen column densities for these EUVE sources are presented.
HST UV observations of V795 Her reveal a strong 2.6-h orbital variation in the prominent UV lines, in contrast to earlier (IUE) evidence of a 4.8-h period. Only the C IV line contains a strong blue-shifted, wind formed absorption component. Several lines exhibit a ‘narrow’ absorption feature near rest velocity which may originate in the disk, and a blue-shifted emission feature which accounts for most of the line profile variability.
Increased temporal and frontal slow-wave delta (1–4 Hz) and theta (4–7
Hz) activities are the most consistent resting-state neural abnormalities
reported in schizophrenia. The frontal lobe is associated with negative
symptoms and cognitive abilities such as attention, with negative
symptoms and impaired attention associated with poor functional
To establish whether frontal dysfunction, as indexed by slowing, would be
associated with functional impairments.
Eyes-closed magnetoencephalography data were collected in 41 participants
with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls, and frequency-domain source
imaging localised delta and theta activity.
Elevated delta and theta activity in right frontal and right
temporoparietal regions was observed in the schizophrenia
v. control group. In schizophrenia, right-frontal
delta activity was uniquely associated with negative but not positive
symptoms. In the full sample, increased right-frontal delta activity
predicted poorer attention and functional capacity.
Our findings suggest that treatment-associated decreases in slow-wave
activity could be accompanied by improved functional outcome and thus
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
A large-scale public health emergency, such as a severe influenza pandemic, can generate large numbers of critically ill patients in a short time. We modeled the number of mechanical ventilators that could be used in addition to the number of hospital-based ventilators currently in use.
We identified key components of the health care system needed to deliver ventilation therapy, quantified the maximum number of additional ventilators that each key component could support at various capacity levels (ie, conventional, contingency, and crisis), and determined the constraining key component at each capacity level.
Our study results showed that US hospitals could absorb between 26,200 and 56,300 additional ventilators at the peak of a national influenza pandemic outbreak with robust pre-pandemic planning.
The current US health care system may have limited capacity to use additional mechanical ventilators during a large-scale public health emergency. Emergency planners need to understand their health care systems’ capability to absorb additional resources and expand care. This methodology could be adapted by emergency planners to determine stockpiling goals for critical resources or to identify alternatives to manage overwhelming critical care need. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:634–641)