To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Potential yield losses in grain sorghum due to weed interference based on quantitative data from the major grain sorghum growing areas of the United States of America are reported by the WSSA Weed Loss Committee. Weed scientists and extension specialists who researched weed control in grain sorghum provided data on grain sorghum yield loss due to weed interference in their region. Data were requested from up to 10 individual experiments per calendar year over 10 years between 2007 and 2016. Based on the summarized information, farmers in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas would potentially lose an average of 37, 38, 30, 56, 61, and 60% of their grain sorghum yield with no weed control, and have a corresponding annual monetary loss of US$ 19, 302, 7, 32, 25, and 314 million, respectively. The overall average yield loss due to weed interference was estimated to be 47% for this grain sorghum growing region. Thus, farmers in the USA would lose approximately 5.7 million tonnes of grain sorghum valued at approximately US$ 953 million annually if weeds are not controlled. With each dollar invested in weed management (based on estimated weed control cost of US$ 100 ha-1), there would be a return of US$ 3.80, highlighting the return on investment in weed management and the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high grain sorghum yield and profitability in the USA.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
While beneficial for sow reproductive efficiency and biosecurity, segregated early weaning (SEW) leads to a systemic immune response that adversely affects the digestive physiology and post-weaning growth of pigs. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of a glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GA) on growth performance, measures of immune function and intestinal integrity of SEW pigs. In both experiments, pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based starter diets. In the first experiment, 48 pigs (initial BW 4.8 ± 0.7 kg) were weaned at 21 ± 1 days and randomly assigned to three GA treatment groups: 0, 0.2 and 0.6 mg GA/kg of BW injected intramuscularly. Treatments were administered one day before weaning. Pigs in the 0 mg GA group received sterile saline in place of GA. Body weight was measured daily from one day before to 7 days post-weaning, and then weekly until 28 days post-weaning. Piglets treated with 0.2 mg GA had a higher BW than piglets in other treatment groups during the 28-day course of the study (P <0.02). To further explore the mechanisms behind this result, a second experiment was performed in which a total of 18 gilts (BW 5.6 ± 0.85 kg) were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: suckling plus saline (UWS), weaned treated with GA (WGA; 0.2 mg GA/kg BW) and weaned plus saline (CON). Treatments were administered one day before and 3 days post-weaning. The WGA and CON groups were weaned at 23 ± 2 days, while the UWS group remained with sow for the duration of the study. Body weight was measured daily and blood plasma was collected at 0, 1, 4 and 5 days post-weaning. All gilts were euthanized 5 days after weaning and jejunum samples were collected for mucosal scrapings, histomorphological analysis and gene expression analysis. Plasma levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and haptoglobin were lower in WGA pigs compared with CON (P <0.02), while plasma total antioxidant capacity was higher in WGA pigs compared with both CON and UWS groups (P <0.01). Relative to CON, GA downregulated IL-18 gene expression in the jejunum, as assessed by both tissue homogenate and mucosal scrapings, but it upregulated claudin-IV gene expression only in the tissue homogenate (P <0.01). These results suggest that GA treatment improves the growth performance of SEW pigs in part by mitigating the negative effects of systemic inflammation. However, the effect of GA on barrier integrity requires further investigation.
The current research sought to characterize current mood state profiles in healthy young versus older adults using 100-point visual analogue mood scales (VAMS), provide within-sample and new sample replication of age-group differences, assess sex differences, and compare with commonly used standardized symptom measures.
In two studies, six word-only VAMS (happy, sad, calm, tense, energetic, and sleepy) were administered in a laboratory setting. In Study 1, 22 young and 29 older males completed the VAMS six times (twice per day at weekly intervals). In Study 2, 60 young (30 males) and 60 older (30 males) adults completed on one occasion the VAMS, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
VAMS scores showed that older adults had a tendency to indicate feeling happier, less sad, calmer, less tense, more energetic, and less sleepy than young adults. This pattern occurred across assessment points and irrespective of sex, except for the tense VAMS, which showed higher scores in females than males in young but not older adults. The standardized measures showed significant age-group differences for Trait Anxiety only (lower in older than young adults).
These findings establish current mood state differences in young versus older adults. The absence of age-group differences in past studies may relate to the limited precision of the scales (only 7 points, in contrast to the 100-point scales used here).
Background:ATP8A2 mutations have only recently been associated with human disease. We present the clinical features from the largest cohort of patients with this disorder reported to date. Methods: An observational study of 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations was carried out at multiple centres. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 9.4 years old (range: 2.5-28 yrs). All patients demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders: chorea/choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) or facial dyskinesia (18%). Hypotonia was apparent at birth (70%) or before 6 months old (100%). Optic atrophy was observed in 75% of patients who had a funduscopic examination. MRI of the brain was normal for most patients with a small proportion showing mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Epilepsy was seen in two older patients. Conclusions:ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as a cause of a novel phenotype characterized by developmental delay, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this disorder.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
N- and p-type filled-skutterudite materials prepared for thermoelectric power generation modules were analyzed by neutron diffraction at the POWGEN beam line of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The skutterudite powders were processed by melt spinning, followed by ball milling and annealing. The n-type material consists of Ba–Yb–Co–Sb and the p-type material consists of Di–Fe–Ni–Sb or Di–Fe–Co–Sb (Di = didymium, an alloy of Pr and Nd). Powders for prototype module fabrication from General Motors and Marlow Industries were analyzed in this study. XRD and neutron diffraction studies confirm that both the n- and p-type materials have cubic symmetry. Structural Rietveld refinements determined the lattice parameters and atomic parameters of the framework and filler atoms. The cage filling fraction was found to depend linearly on the lattice parameter, which in turn depends on the average framework atom size. This knowledge may allow the filling fraction of these skutterudite materials to be purposefully adjusted, thereby tuning the thermoelectric properties.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Channel catfish raised in the southern United States require two growing seasons to reach market size. Growing seasons are separated by a cool period of about 3 months when feed intake and growth are greatly reduced. A cool-weather feeding strategy to improve feed intake, growth or health of catfish might improve survival and reduce the time needed to achieve market size. We conducted a feeding trial with channel catfish at a suboptimal temperature (15°C) to determine the effects of supplementing diets with either a dairy/yeast prebiotic or flaxseed oil (high in 18:3n-3) compared with a control with soybean oil (high in 18:2n-6). The trial was conducted in recirculating systems with 1140-l tanks containing 100 fish each (mean initial weight 61.4 g±0.43 s.e.m.). A 28%-protein basal diet was supplemented with 20 g/kg cellulose and 20 g/kg soybean oil (SBO, control), 20 g/kg cellulose and 20 g/kg flaxseed oil (FLAX) or 20 g/kg of a dairy/yeast prebiotic and 20 g/kg soybean oil (PREB). Fish were fed once daily to satiation and weighed every 3 weeks to track growth. Hematology, non-specific immune responses, proximate and fatty acid composition of muscle were determined to assess diet effects. Catfish-fed FLAX or PREB had higher weight gain, feed consumption and lysozyme activity than fish fed SBO. Total n-3 fatty acids in muscle were higher in fish fed SBO or FLAX than those fed PREB. Total n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated acids were higher in muscle of fish fed PREB than those fed SBO. Fatty acids in the PREB and SBO diets were similar, so the PREB appeared to increase elongation and desaturation of n-6 fatty acids in muscle. Flaxseed oil and the dairy/yeast prebiotic both have potential to increase catfish performance at a low temperature.
In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.