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Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood.
Seventy unmedicated women varying in history of threat-related ELS completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan to evaluate voxelwise static (overall) and dynamic (variability over a series of sliding windows) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of bilateral amygdala. In a separate session and subset of participants (n = 42), measures of salivary cortisol and affect were collected during a social-evaluative stress challenge.
Higher severity of threat-related ELS was related to more strongly negative static RSFC between amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and elevated dynamic RSFC between amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Static amygdala-DLPFC antagonism mediated the relationship between higher severity of threat-related ELS and blunted cortisol response to stress, but increased dynamic amygdala-rACC connectivity weakened this mediated effect and was related to more positive post-stress mood.
Threat-related ELS was associated with RSFC within lateral corticolimbic circuits, which in turn was related to blunted physiological response to acute stress. Notably, increased flexibility between the amygdala and rACC compensated for this static disruption, suggesting that more dynamic medial corticolimbic circuits might be key to restoring healthy stress response.
At the lowest radio frequencies (≤30 MHz), the Earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. This relatively unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum is thus an area where high resolution, high sensitivity observations can open a new window for astronomical investigations. Also, extending observations down to very low frequencies brings astronomy to a fundamental physical limit where the Milky Way becomes optically thick over relatively short path lengths due to diffuse free-free absorption.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
High-redshift quasars are unique probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes and the intergalactic medium at the end of the epoch of reionization. We present the optical spectra of eight new z ~ 6 quasars selected from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1). Details of the selection strategy can be found in Bañados et al. (2014). With this work we increase the number of known quasars at z < 5.7 by more than 10%. The quasars discovered here span a large range of luminosities (19.6 ≤ zP1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show weak or no Lyα emission line. We find a larger fraction of weak–line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies, although still based on low number statistics, this may imply that the quasar population could be more diverse than previously thought.
The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence density and the occurrence of horizontal spread of highly resistant gram-negative rods (HR-GNRs) in Dutch hospitals. The factors that influence these outcome measures were also investigated.
All patients with HR-GNRs, as determined by sample testing, who were hospitalized in 1 of 18 hospitals during a 6-month period (April through October 2007) were included in this study. For all available isolates, the species was identified, susceptibility was determined (including the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases [ESBLs]), and molecular typing was performed. On the basis of a combination of species identification, molecular typing, and epidemiological data, the occurrence of nosocomial transmission was determined.
The mean incidence density of patients with HR-GNRs was 55 per 100,000 patient-days (cumulative incidence, 39 per 10,000 patients admitted). A facility being a university hospital was a statistically significant (P = .03) independent determinant of a higher incidence of patients with HR-GNRs. The majority of HR-GNR isolates were ESBL producers. The adjusted transmission index—the ratio between secondary and primary cases—in the participating hospitals ranged from 0.0 to 0.2. The overall adjusted transmission index of HR-GNRs was 0.07. No determinants for a higher transmission index were identified.
The nosocomial transmission rate of HR-GNRs was relatively low in all hospitals where well-established transmission-based precautions were used. The incidence density of patients with HR-GNRs was higher in university hospitals, probably due to the patient population and the complexity of the care provided.
Using neutron diffraction we studied the incorporation of small hydrophobic compounds into bilayers consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol. They were found to be localized in a narrow band at the center of the hydrocarbon region, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures formed by introduction of the compounds are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the intercalated molecules lying in the plane of the bilayer. We worked with several bilayers which differed by the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the PC. The quality of the localization depended on the presence of cholesterol, the water content and the PC chain length.
Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structure of polycrystalline and epitaxial barium titanium oxide thin films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra confirmed the presence of the tetragonal ferroelectric phase of BaTiO3 and also revealed several other Ba-Ti-O phases. These films were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM imaging. The structural information provided by the Raman spectra was qualitatively consistent with the X-ray and TEM results. The temperature dependencies of the Raman spectra of two films were examined in the range 25°C-175°C. Raman peaks due to tetragonal BaTiO3 were observed at temperatures well above 132°C, which is the tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature for bulk single-crystal BaTiO3. This may indicate stabilization of the tetragonal phase by an anisotropic film-substrate interaction or by inter-grain stresses.
The German concept of high level waste final storage by the aid of waste glasses is based on rock salt formations as deposits. Investigations consider the accidental case of water entrance into the deposit where the waste forms then are exposed to highly concentrated salt brines at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Hydrogen diffusion in phosphorus and boron doped polycrystalline silicon was investigated by deuterium diffusion experiments. The presence of dopants enhances hydrogen diffusion. The effective diffusion coefficient Deff is thermally activated and the activation energy varies between 0.1 and 0.4 eV. This is accompanied by a variation of the diffusion prefactor by 12 orders of magnitude. Using the theoretical diffusion prefactor the actual energy EA was calculated from Deff.EA also depends strongly on the Fermi energy and exhibits a similar dependence as the formation energies of H+ and H- in single crystal silicon.
The damage production in the Si9Ge6 superlattices (SLs) upon implantation of 150 keV Ar+ ions at 300 K was studied my means of the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and electron microdiffraction. It was found that the amorphization occurs in a narrow dose range of (1 – 2) × 1014 cm-2 via accumulation of point defects. The conclusion drawn earlier (Mater. Sci. Forum 248-249, 289 (1997)) on the coherent amorphization of the Si and Ge layers in the SLs was confirmed. Possible mechanisms of the layer interaction leading to the observed behavior are discussed.
Hydrogen diffusion in phosphorous doped polycrystalline silicon was investigated by deuterium diffusion experiments. The presence of phosphorous enhances hydrogen diffusion. For high hydrogen concentrations the activation energy of the effective diffusion-coefficient amounts to 0.25-0.35 eV. At low hydrogen concentrations diffusion is governed by deep traps that are present in an appreciable concentration of 6×108 - 1019 cm−3. The hydrogen chemical-potential, 9H, decreases with increasing temperature at a rate of ˜ 0.002 eV/K. The data are discussed in terms of a two-level model used to describe hydrogen diffusion in amorphous and undoped polycrystalline silicon.
Microcrystalline silicon samples were exposed to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) hydrogen plasma at various exposure times and substrate temperatures. Before and after each post-hydrogenation treatment the crystalline fraction, Xc, was determined from Raman backscattering spectra. The results reveal that the change of Xc strongly depends on the structural composition of the starting material. Amorphous samples exhibit an increase of Xc while for ltc-Si specimens the Xc decreases. The decrease of Xc is enhanced for specimens with a high initial crystalline fraction. The same plasma treatment of Si-wafers did not lead to amorphisation. We conclude that the presence of lattice strain is required to observe a H-induced decrease of Xc.
Patches of a very dense tube mat biotope were found during fish habitat studies in the eastern English Channel. At three locations in the lows between linear sand banks off the French coast an un-described small Chaetopterus sp. occurred with small Lanice conchilega as an enriched sediment stabilizing biotope. This biotope was distinct though having similarities to other tide swept sub-tidal biotopes dominated by L. conchilega. Using cameras and side-scan sonar it was seen to overlay heterogeneous cobbles and shell hash with intermittent rippled sand veneer. The patchiness of this enriching biogenic feature contributed to the variability in trawl catches of fish.
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