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On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
We construct the complete network of 26,681 majority opinions written by the U.S. Supreme Court and the cases that cite them from 1791 to 2005. We describe a method for using the patterns in citations within and across cases to create importance scores that identify the most legally relevant precedents in the network of Supreme Court law at any given point in time. Our measures are superior to existing network-based alternatives and, for example, offer information regarding case importance not evident in simple citation counts. We also demonstrate the validity of our measures by showing that they are strongly correlated with the future citation behavior of state courts, the U.S. Courts of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court. In so doing, we show that network analysis is a viable way of measuring how central a case is to law at the Court and suggest that it can be used to measure other legal concepts.
The Commission has found no opportunity of acting collectively in the last triennial period. Progress in the theoretical study of the constitution of the stars must be mainly a matter of individual effort; and it would be impracticable and undesirable to seek uniformity of views and methods.
A brief reference may here be made to some of the problems now especially engaging attention. In this connection I would call attention to a valuable Report on “Die Theorie des Sterninnern und die Entwicklung der Sterne” (Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften, Bd. XVI, 1937) by a member of the Commission, B. Strömgren, which deals especially with progress in the last ten years, and shows very clearly the present state of the subject.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
This Commission deals with a subject in which there is Uttle scope for organizing activity. The organization of the observations, which provide the data used in research on the constitution of the stars, is assigned to other Commissions. Theoretical investigations are a matter for individual effort, and cannot be organized by a Committee except in special cases where they involve long computations of routine character.
The Commission has found no opportunity for acting collectively during the last three years. The study of the constitution of the stars has been advanced by individual contributions, which it would be impracticable and undesirable to guide officially.
Whilst much useful work has been done, it would be difficult to point to any outstanding development in the study of the interior of the stars during this period. But there is a prospect of great advances in the near future. From 1932 onwards experimental physicists in all countries have been largely occupied with the phenomena of transmutation of the elements, and it is clearly possible to determine in the laboratory most of the quantitative data as to the rate of the subatomic processes (especially those due to the encounters of protons and electrons with nuclei) and the consequent liberation of energy, for which astronomers have long been waiting.
In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.
The existence in the cosmic rays of ultra-heavy (UH) nuclei with Z ≥ 30 was established by two separate experiments in 1966. Fleischer et al. first demonstrated the fossil tracks of such nuclei in certain meteoritic crystals and shortly afterwards Fowler established their existence in present-day cosmic rays with the detection of their tracks in photographic emulsion which had been exposed during a high altitude balloon flight. The fluxes of such nuclei are very low, only ~ 10−4 of that of iron, and the most suitable method of detection to date has been the analysis of the tracks formed by these particles in very large(several m2) arrays of plastic detector material, notably Lexan polycarbonate. Such exposures on balloons and on Skylab have provided practically all present knowledge of the UH cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the charge resolution obtained was disappointing, even though scrupulous care was taken in the handling and etching of the material, and the charge scale itself of necessity had to be based on a considerable extrapolation from the iron peak and could not be used with great confidence. The situation now, however, is in the process of being transformed. We have two satellite experiments devoted to the study of UH cosmic rays and in operation at the moment. These are the Bristol University experiment on Ariel 6 launched on 3rd June 1979 and the joint group under Israel, Waddington and Stone on HEAO-C launched in September 1979. It is therefore appropriate, I believe, if I devote this review to the new preliminary results and a comparison of this material with the published data.
Paranoia is one of the commonest symptoms of psychosis but has rarely been studied in a population at risk of developing psychosis. Based on existing theoretical models, including the proposed distinction between ‘poor me’ and ‘bad me’ paranoia, we aimed to test specific predictions about associations between negative cognition, metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions and paranoid ideation and the belief that persecution is deserved (deservedness).
We used data from 117 participants from the Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation for people at risk of psychosis (EDIE-2) trial of cognitive–behaviour therapy, comparing them with samples of psychiatric in-patients and healthy students from a previous study. Multi-level modelling was utilized to examine predictors of both paranoia and deservedness, with post-hoc planned comparisons conducted to test whether person-level predictor variables were associated differentially with paranoia or with deservedness.
Our sample of at-risk mental state participants was not as paranoid, but reported higher levels of ‘bad-me’ deservedness, compared with psychiatric in-patients. We found several predictors of paranoia and deservedness. Negative beliefs about self were related to deservedness but not paranoia, whereas negative beliefs about others were positively related to paranoia but negatively with deservedness. Both depression and negative metacognitive beliefs about paranoid thinking were specifically related to paranoia but not deservedness.
This study provides evidence for the role of negative cognition, metacognition and negative affect in the development of paranoid beliefs, which has implications for psychological interventions and our understanding of psychosis.
The Rogart igneous complex is unique within the northern Scottish Caledonides because it comprises an apparent continuum of magma types that records a progressive change in emplacement mechanisms related to large-scale tectonic controls. Syn-D2 leucogranites and late-D2 quartz monzodiorites were emplaced during crustal thickening and focused within the broad zone of ductile deformation associated with the Naver Thrust. In contrast, emplacement of the post-D2 composite central pluton was controlled by development of a steeply dipping dextral shear zone along the Loch Shin Line, interpreted as an anti-Riedel shear within the Great Glen Fault system. The mantle-derived nature of the late-to-post-D2 melts implies that the Naver Thrust and the Loch Shin Line were both crustal-scale structures along which magmas were channelled during deformation. A U–Pb zircon age of 425±1.5 Ma for the outer component of the central pluton provides an upper limit on regional deformation and metamorphism within host Moine rocks. These findings are consistent with the view that a fundamental change in tectonic regime occurred in the Scottish Caledonides at c. 425 Ma, corresponding to the switch from regional thrusting that resulted from the collision of Baltica and Laurentia, to the development of the orogen-parallel Great Glen Fault system.
We report the results of photoelectron forward scattering studies of Co-Pt interfaces during the growth of epitaxial superlattices by MBE. These studies reveal that the interfaces are not atomically abrupt but exhibit limited interdiffusion. The dependence of magnetic anisotropy on growth axis and the strong 2-fold in-plane anisotropy for  oriented superlattices suggests that magnetocrystalline anisotropy is a major factor in determining the anisotropy in Co/Pt superlatticcs. The possibility that this anisotropy may arise from a combination of structural defects and local ordering is discussed.
One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to rather large thickness of aluminum shielding according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to GCR like ions, the shield requirements for a Mars mission are prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Preliminary studies indicate that materials with high hydrogen content and low atomic number constituents are most efficient in protecting the astronauts. This occurs for two reasons: the hydrogen is efficient in breaking up the heavy GCR ions into smaller less damaging fragments and the light constituents produce few secondary radiations (especially few biologically damaging neutrons). An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.
Silicon ions were implanted into fused silica substrates at doses of 1×1021, 2×1021, 5×1021, and 1×1022 ions/cm3. The implanted substrates were annealed at 1100°C for one hour in a reducing atmosphere (95% Ar+5% H2). Optical absorption spectra recorded after the annealing treatment showed absorption onsets at 3.86, 3.73, 2.86 and 2.52 eV for substrates implanted with 1×1021, 2×1021, 5×1021, and 1×1022 ions/cm3, respectively. Static photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated red emission between 1.72 and 1.61 nm with a slightly increasing red shift with ion dose. Time resolved PL at room temperature revealed slow (∼50 μs) and fast (×20 μs) lifetimes which increased with decreasing temperature. TEM studies showed that the particle size increased with increasing ion dose. Typical particle sizes ranged between 2 and 5 nm indicating quantum confinement of the exciton, which can account for the blue shift in the absorption edge with decreasing ion dose. However, the maxima in the PL spectra for all ion doses are relatively independent of the ion dose and are strongly shifted from the absorption spectra. This suggests that radiative recombination occurs from a common luminescent center, possibly a surface or interfacial state in thexs SiOx, layer surrounding the nanocrystal.
Three different HF:alcohol solutions are investigated to etch native
SiO2 and passivate Si(100) surfaces with H which can the be
desorbed at low temperature (T < 600°C). The resulting passivated Si(100)
surfaces are compared using as a reference Si(100) passivated by a standard
aqueous HF: solution (1:98 parts of HF: H2O). After a modified
RCA cleaning, Si(100) etched by HF:Methanol, HF:IPA, or HF:Ethanol, is
characterized by Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), Tapping Mode Atomic Force
Microscope (TMAFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The
absolute coverage of O and C is measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA)
combined with ion channeling at 3.05 MeV for O and 4.265 MeV for C. Hydrogen
is measured via the elastic recoil detection (ERD) of
4He2+ at 2.8 MeV.
Compared to aqueous HF, HF:alcohol passivates Si(100) leaving a lower O
residue by an average factor of 0.62 and a similar C residue. H coverage is
higher by an average factor of 1.43. Surface coverages are found to be
reproducible in average by 1.4 × 1014 atoms/cm2 for C,
and by 1.25 × 1014 atoms/cm2 for O when measured by
IBA on samples identically processed. H coverage is reproducible within 5.5%
when measured by ERD.
Selective area analysis by TMAFM shows that an increasing number of
particulates is responsible for the apparent increase in root-mean -square
(rms) surface roughness when the rms is measured over a whole image. Taking
this effect into account, all passivated surfaces exhibit similar roughness
when compared to the original Si(100) surface with little difference between
alcohols and with the reference aqueous HF solution.
FTIR in the attenuation total reflection (ATR) mode detected SiHx
species mostly as a dihydride. Both IBA and FTIR detected significant levels
of oxygen on surfaces passivated HF in alcohol and aqueous HF. This
indicates that while Si(100) exhibits more H when passivated with HF in
alcohol and can be desorbed at lower temperature than when treated with
aqueous HF, H is not bonded to Si only but likely bonds into a more complex
surface termination, such as SiOH.
Background. Although many studies have reported impairments of neurocognitive performance in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), these have involved a wide range of assessment methods and some findings are inconsistent.
Method. Twenty-five female in-patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of AN, identified from three units specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, volunteered for the study. Twenty-five non-clinical control subjects were recruited, matched for age, gender and estimated IQ. Subjects were assessed with a range of computer-administered neurocognitive tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), which has been validated in many studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Results. The patient group showed significant but moderate impairments (i.e. less than one standard deviation below the mean performance of the control group) on tests of spatial recognition memory, a planning task and rapid visual information processing, while a subgroup of patients (n=14) showed greater degrees of impairments on at least one of these tests. The degrees of impairments did not correlate with body mass index (BMI). No impairments were observed on tests of spatial span, pattern recognition memory, spatial working memory, matching-to-sample, paired associates learning and set-shifting.
Conclusions. The findings, in relation to a mean BMI of 15·3, are compatible with, in general, subtle impairments in neurocognition in AN. However, in those patients with relatively severe degrees of impairments, these may have adverse effects on complex tasks of social and occupational functioning. Further research is needed on the nature of relevant causal mechanisms, including the effects of potentially confounding variables.
Prior to the separation of merozoites from the Plasmodium falciparum schizont, various stage-specific organelles are
synthesized and assembled within each merozoite bud. The apical ends of the merozoites are initiated close to the ends
of endomitotic spindles. At each of these sites, the nuclear membrane forms coated vesicles, and a single discoidal or cup-
like Golgi cisterna appears. Reconstruction from serial sections indicates that this structure receives vesicles from the
nuclear envelope and in turn gives off coated vesicles to generate the apical secretory organelles. Rhoptries first form as
spheroidal structures and grow by progressive fusion of small vesicles around their margins. As each rhoptry develops,
2 distinctive regions separate within it, an apical reticular zone with electron-lucent areas separated by cords of granular
material, and a more homogenously granular basal region. The apical part elongates into the duct, with evidence for
further vesicular fusion at the duct apex. The rounded rhoptry base becomes progressively more densely packed to form
a spheroidal mass, and compaction also occurs in the duct. Typically, one rhoptry matures before the other. Cryofractured
rhoptry membranes show asymmetry in the sizes and numbers of intramembranous particles at the internally- and
externally-directed fracture faces.