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The study primarily aimed to calculate the orientation of the cochlea pre-operatively, using high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and predict the ease of electrode insertion.
Pre-operatively, high-resolution computed tomography scans were conducted on children scheduled for cochlear implantation, and two angles, α and β, were calculated. The values of α and β were then correlated with intra-operative difficulty in insertion of the electrode array.
Ninety-six children were included in the study. Of the seven patients who had an α angle of less than 50 degrees, the surgeon experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. However, there were four patients with an α angle of more than 50 degrees for whom the surgeon also experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. In all these patients, the β angle was more than 20 degrees.
Calculation of cochlear orientation and its angle with the surgical axis (α and β) can aid the planning of surgery, particularly with regard to the cochleostomy site and preservation of residual hearing.
Like elsewhere, studies from developing countries suggest that parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report significant stress. Besides symptoms, parental stress stems from experiences in interpersonal, schooling and societal domains, which may in turn be influenced by socio-cultural factors. This is a highly under-studied area.
Objectives and aims
Exploring experiences in familial, schooling and societal areas amongst Indian parents and understanding these in a cultural context using experiential qualitative research methodology.
In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with consenting parents of 27 children diagnosed with ADHD (17 mothers; 10 fathers).
All parents reported experiencing moderate to high degree of stress, feeling worried and frustrated due to child's problems. 19 parents reported being “short-tempered”, while 1 mother expressed feeling “lost”. Majority reported strained relations with spouse and extended family. Mothers reported higher stress, more difficulties in family life, faced criticism from immediate family and community regarding handling of child, felt more embarrassment, guilt and sense of failure as a mother. Half of the parents avoided attending social gatherings. Other than 2 parents, all had negative experiences with schooling. Experiential descriptions included those of teachers being highly critical of child and parents, punitive, dismissive and discriminatory. Teacher had advised seeking treatment in only 6 children. Themes of blame, discrimination and rejection were identified.
We conclude that cultural factors such as stigma, blaming of parent (especially mother) and lack of knowledge regarding ADHD amongst teachers and society may be responsible for these experiences and needs further investigation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cultural factors have an important role in causal model of symptoms, threshold for treatment seeking and acceptability of professional help in ADHD.
Objectives and aims
To explore causal explanations and treatment seeking amongst parents of children with ADHD and understand these in context of a largely collectivistic culture as in India.
In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 consenting parents; data interpreted using process theory.
Initial reaction to psychiatric referral revealed themes of disbelief/surprise, feeling confused/offended and lag of 6–36 months to consultation. Parents most commonly attributed causality to psychosocial reasons (lack of motivation/volitional, inadequate disciplining), while few gave one or more biomedical explanations (epilepsy, brain damage, low birth weight, nutritional deficiency, maternal ill health, low intelligence) alone or with a psychosocial reason. Despite the initial reaction, all but 1 parent was relieved with medical explanation, accepted diagnosis, and perceived need for treatment. Most parents were willing to start/continue medication if doctor suggested so as “he/she would know the best”. All parents expressed that counseling was needed.
Initial reactions and delay in treatment seeking is understood in light of cultural attitudes towards mental illnesses and psychiatric consultation in developing nations. More importantly, despite initial reluctance, most parents accepted biomedical explanation and treatment. The doctor patient relationship modeled on a guru-chela relation of complete trust in authority can explain this process change. We conclude that cultural attitudes not only influence causal models and initial treatment seeking, but also modify process of help seeking.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Visual perceptual problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often affect activities of daily living (ADLs). PD patients with non-tremor symptoms at disease onset (i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance or postural instability) have more diffuse neurobiological abnormalities and report worse non-motor symptoms and functional changes than patients whose initial symptom is tremor, but the relation of motor symptom subtype to perceptual deficits remains unstudied. We assessed visual ADLs with the Visual Activities Questionnaire in 25 non-demented patients with PD, 13 with tremor as the initial symptom and 12 with an initial symptom other than tremor, as well as in 23 healthy control participants (NC). As expected, the non-tremor patients, but not the tremor patients, reported more impairment in visual ADLs than the NC group, including in light/dark adaptation, acuity/spatial vision, depth perception, peripheral vision and visual processing speed. Non-tremor patients were significantly worse than tremor patients overall and on light/dark adaptation and depth perception. Environmental enhancements especially targeted to patients with the non-tremor PD subtype may help to ameliorate their functional disability. (JINS, 2011, 17, 841–852)
A vast amount of usable electronic data is in the form of unstructured text. The relation extraction task aims to identify useful information in text (e.g. PersonW works for OrganisationX, GeneY encodes ProteinZ) and recode it in a format such as a relational database or RDF triplestore that can be more effectively used for querying and automated reasoning. A number of resources have been developed for training and evaluating automatic systems for relation extraction in different domains. However, comparative evaluation is impeded by the fact that these corpora use different markup formats and notions of what constitutes a relation. We describe the preparation of corpora for comparative evaluation of relation extraction across domains based on the publicly available ACE 2004, ACE 2005 and BioInfer data sets. We present a common document type using token standoff and including detailed linguistic markup, while maintaining all information in the original annotation. The subsequent reannotation process normalises the two data sets so that they comply with a notion of relation that is intuitive, simple and informed by the semantic web. For the ACE data, we describe an automatic process that automatically converts many relations involving nested, nominal entity mentions to relations involving non-nested, named or pronominal entity mentions. For example, the first entity is mapped from ‘one’ to ‘Amidu Berry’ in the membership relation described in ‘Amidu Berry, one half of PBS’. Moreover, we describe a comparably reannotated version of the BioInfer corpus that flattens nested relations, maps part-whole to part-part relations and maps n-ary to binary relations. Finally, we summarise experiments that compare approaches to generic relation extraction, a knowledge discovery task that uses minimally supervised techniques to achieve maximally portable extractors. These experiments illustrate the utility of the corpora.1
Effect of H2O2 on synthesis and powder properties such as surface area and agglomerate size of nanocrystalline Ce0.8M0.2O1.90 (M: Sm, Gd) was explored by treating cerium nitrate and rare-earth nitrate with NaOH in the presence/absence of H2O2. The resultant products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetry–differential thermal analysis, dynamic light scattering, surface area analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of H2O2 was found to have a profound effect on powder properties such as surface area and particle size of these doped ceria samples and results in smaller crystallite size, softer agglomerates, and larger surface area. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed better powder properties of the samples. It was also shown that the samples prepared in the presence of H2O2 can lower the conversion temperature of CO to CO2, proving these to be better catalysts. Interestingly, temperature-programmed reduction studies on Sm3+-doped samples showed that the doping in conjunction with the use of H2O2 leads to enhanced reduction properties of the samples over multiple cycles.
Fourteen strains of S. Typhi (n=13) and S. Paratyphi A (n=1) resistant to ciprofloxacin were compared with 30 ciprofloxacin decreased-susceptibility strains on the basis of qnr plasmid analysis, and nucleotide substitutions at gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. In ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, five S. Typhi and a single S. Paratyphi A showed triple mutations in gyrA (Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn, Glu133→Gly) and a novel mutation outside the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (Met52→Leu). Novel mutations were also discovered in an isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration 8 μg/ml) in gyrA gene Asp76→Asn and outside the QRDR Leu44→Ile. Out of 30 isolates with reduced susceptibility, single mutation was found in 12 strains only. Genes encoding qnr plasmid (qnr A, qnr B, AAC1-F) were not detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant or decreased-susceptibility strains. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns of resistance, which is quintessential for reappraisal of enteric fever therapeutics.
A new compound Th0.9Ce0.1SiO4, iso-typic to zircon, was prepared by heating predried ThO2, CeO2, and SiO2 (in the mole ratio 0.9:0.10:1.0) by a two-step heating protocol. The polycrystalline sample obtained was characterized by Rietveld refinement of the observed neutron diffraction data with the starting model of tetragonal ThSiO4. It has a body centered tetragonal structure with space group I41∕amd and four formula units per unit cell. The unit-cell parameters are a=7.1238(4) Å and c=6.3186(95) Å. The RP, Rwp, and Re factors are 7.77%, 10.9%, and 4.85%, respectively. The incorporation of about 10 mol % cerium was used to stabilize the tetragonal modification of ThSiO4.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism has been associated with high altitude (HA) disorders as well as physical performance. We, however, envisage that the polymorphism may be associated with adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxia of altitude, thus facilitating physical performance. For this purpose, three unrelated adult male groups, namely (1) the Ladakhis (HLs), who reside at and above a height of 3600 m, (2) lowlanders, who migrated to Ladakh (MLLs), and (3) resident lowlanders (LLs), have been investigated. The HLs had significantly (p < 0.001) greater numbers of the II homozygotes and the ID heterozygotes than the DD homozygotes, the genotype distribution being 0.46, 0.43 and 0.11 for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. The MLLs comprised 60% II homozygotes, which was higher (p < 0.001) than the HLs (46%). In the LLs, the heterozygotes were greater (p < 0.001) in number than the II and DD homozygotes. The I allele frequency was 0.72 in the MLLs, 0.67 in the HLs and 0.55 in the LLs. Polymorphism study suggested that the II genotype could be associated with altitude adaptation, which might influence physical efficiency.
Factors influencing potato virus X (PVX)-induced resistance to Alternaria solani in potato leaves are reported. The inhibition of fungal infection was dependent on the time interval between viral and fungal inoculations, fungal inoculum load, age of the host, virus strain and host cultivar. The maximum reduction in fungal infection was observed when a gap of 120 h occurred between PVX and A. solani inoculations. The clearest interactive effect in terms of reduced susceptibility to A. solani infection was seen at a fungal spore concentration of 1000 spores/ml in 20-day-old plants. This effect was gradually reduced following an increase in inoculum load and age of the host.
The extent of pathogen interaction was also affected by different virus strains and host cultivars. Maximum inhibition of fungal disease occurred with the PVX-ring spot strain. Of five potato cultivar tested, the maximum inhibition occurred in Kufri Chandramukhi and Kufri Sindhuri, the cultivars most susceptible to A. solani.
The interaction between Phytophthora infestans and potato viruses X (PVX) and Y (PVY) was studied in the potato cultivar Kufri Chandramukhi. Prior infection by PVX and PVY reduced the susceptibility of the plants to P. infestans. The reduction in susceptibility was more marked when leaflets were inoculated with P. infestans 72 h after inoculation with PVY. The same type of reaction was observed in whole plants when the interval between PVY and P. infestans inoculation was 30 days. No significant differences were observed when the sequence of inoculation was reversed.
Vapor pressures of technical-grade triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl)diisopropylthiocarbamate] were calculated from the vapor density measurements determined at seven different temperatures, using a gas-saturation technique and solid adsorbent traps. The equation Log10P = 11.05 – (4401/T) delineated the relationship between the apparent vapor pressure and temperature, giving the triallate vapor pressure values from 1.083 × 10−4 to 16.371 × 10−4 mm Hg over the temperature range of 20 to 45 C. The vapor flux of triallate from glass surfaces was of the order of 5.7 μg cm−2 h−1 at 25 C.
The movement of dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid), picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), and 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid] was studied in five Canadian prairie soils using soil columns. The three acid herbicides showed the following general order of decreasing mobility in the five soils: Asquith sandy loam > Indian Head loam > Regina heavy clay > Weyburn Oxbow loam > Melfort loam, thus indicating an inverse relationship between adsorption and mobility. In general, the distribution coefficients (kd) were comparable to the corresponding Freundlich constants (k) and these were significantly related to the soil organic matter content, to a lesser extent to soil pH, and not correlated with soil clay content. The maximum concentrations of all three herbicides in the column effluents were well below their respective water solubilities and were inversely related to the distribution coefficients. The calculated values for the amounts of precipitation required to leach the three herbicides to a depth of 10 cm showed the following order of mobility: dicamba > picloram > 2,4-D.
A technique, based on the release and recapture of marked females, was used to measure the mating competitiveness of sterile males of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. in villages in Delhi Union Territory, India. Experiments were carried out with chemosterilised and cytoplasmically incompatible translocated (IS-31B) males simultaneously with prolonged release trials with these two types of male. The fertile males in the tests were the indigenous population and the females used were in most cases of wild origin. With each type of male, one test was conducted with a moderate (ca. 13:1) ratio of released to wild males and the other tests used high (ca. 40:1) ratios. The estimated mean mating competitiveness of IS-31B males was somewhat higher than that of chemosterilised males, but the difference was found to be non-significant using a specially devised method of testing statistical significance. In the four experiments 77–94% of the egg rafts laid by recaptured females were sterile, indicating that both types of sterile male were sufficiently competitive to induce a high level of egg sterility in an isolated wild population.
The effect of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) on regeneration of detached leaves of Echeveria elegans Bgr. was studied. Picloram stimulated callus production at all concentrations. Low concentrations of 1 to 15 ppmw picloram did not affect shoot organogenesis and the same, however, stimulated rhizogenesis. Inhibition of both root- and shoot-organogenesis was noticeable at concentrations below 20 ppmw and above. Roots increased in number at all picloram concentrations below 40 ppmw, the maximum number being at concentration of 15 to 20 ppmw of the herbicide. Observations indicated that root elongation was considerably suppressed. Picloram-induced callus contained mature parenchyma cells devoid of contents and considerable amount of tissue disruption was noticed. Irregular vascular differentiation and obliteration of tissues particularly in the region of tracheary elements, were obvious. Although normal apical organization was lacking in root primordia and in arrested short roots, these elongated normally into mature roots when they were transferred to water, thus indicating that apical meristems were not severely affected by picloram.