To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
SN1991bg-like supernovae are a distinct subclass of thermonuclear Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Their spectral and photometric peculiarities indicate that their progenitors and explosion mechanisms differ from ‘normal’ SNe Ia. One method of determining information about supernova progenitors we cannot directly observe is to observe the stellar population adjacent to the apparent supernova explosion site to infer the distribution of stellar population ages and metallicities. We obtain integral field observations and analyse the spectra extracted from regions of projected radius
about the apparent SN explosion site for 11 91bg-like SNe in both early- and late-type galaxies. We utilise full-spectrum spectral fitting to determine the ages and metallicities of the stellar population within the aperture. We find that the majority of the stellar populations that hosted 91bg-like supernovae have little recent star formation. The ages of the stellar populations suggest that that 91bg-like SN progenitors explode after delay times of >6 Gyr, much longer than the typical delay time of normal SNe Ia, which peaks at
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
The history of hill farming is traced from early times and the changes in practices described. The economic problems are analysed and the role of Government intervention has been outlined and assessed.
Research has created a basket of methods to exploit the potential of the ‘upland’ areas and these are discussed in relation to their up-take in practice and the role of the extension services in promotion.
The physical resources are briefly outlined and the contemporary economic development of the industry as influenced by the EEC and other agencies is discussed.
The impact of the demand for recreation, the need to conserve habitats and wildlife and the importance of rural amenity are examined in relation to upland agriculture and the several official organisations involved and proposals are offered. The conflicts in land use and the socio-economic problems of remote areas are discussed and appropriate policy initiatives are proposed.
Results of a detailed topographic survey of Ghiacciaio del Calderone, Italy, the southernmost in Europe, are described and compared with those of surveys made in earlier years. Recession and thinning, much affected by micro-climate, have been the predominant state of health during the 20th century. Between 1916 and 1990, volume is estimated to have been reduced by about 90% and area by about 68%.
Few studies have investigated nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in no-tillage (NT) tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) production systems, even though N fertilization is known to influence tobacco cured leaf yield and quality. The present study evaluated how tillage practice and N fertilizer rate affected burley tobacco agronomic performance, plant available nitrogen (PAN) supply, and leaf chemical constituents. In 2012 and 2013, three N fertilizer rates (0, 140 and 280 kg N/ha) were introduced as split-plots within a long-term NT and conventional tillage (CT) (mouldboard plough) comparison study. Results (2007–2013) showed that the effect of tillage on tobacco yield depended on seasonal weather; NT tobacco appeared to have lower yield than CT tobacco in seasons with <450 mm growing season rainfall, but similar yields when rainfall was >500 mm. In 2012 (432 mm rainfall; 84% of the long-term seasonal mean), leaf SPAD reading, leaf nitrate concentration, total nitrogen concentration at the topping day (i.e. removal of flowers/buds at the tops of the plants) and cured leaf nicotine and alkaloid content suggested that N deficiency was more pronounced in NT than CT at the lowest N fertilizer rate. The PAN supply, as measured by a modified in situ resin core method, was similar in 2012 between NT and CT, suggesting that plant factors may have had a role in N uptake efficiency. This scenario did not repeat in 2013 (706 mm rainfall; 137% of the long-term seasonal mean). Even though N fertilization rates were identical for both tillage practices in 2012 and 2013, PAN was lower, on average, in 2012. Because N uptake is largely the result of mass flow, the impact of reduced root density in NT tobacco would be expected to be more pronounced in a season such as 2012, when water was limited. Banding N close to the tobacco root system and/or side-dressing some portion of N may be recommended strategies to improve N use efficiency in NT burley tobacco production.
A record of late Paleozoic foraminiferal diversity, origination and extinction frequencies, and provincialism at million-year temporal resolution and species-level taxonomic resolution has been achieved by analyzing composite standard databases. Foraminiferal species diversity increased throughout Mississippian and Pennsylvanian time leading up to its peak at the Pennsylvanian/Permian boundary. Foraminifers then experienced a steep decline in diversity during the Early Permian. Frequencies of origination and extinction broadly tracked changes in global diversity. From Late Mississippian time onward, patterns in total foraminiferal diversity were dominated by fusulinoideans. There is no clear relationship between rates of foraminiferal evolution and the alternating glacial and nonglacial intervals that characterized the late Paleozoic ice age. Rather, high rates of origination and extinction might reflect instability of neritic environments as a consequence of high-frequency, high-amplitude base-level fluctuations (cyclothemic deposition). Further, the advent of algal symbiosis in fusulinoideans was a physiologic innovation that promoted diversification as these symbiont-bearing taxa experimented with morphologic adaptations for partitioning the low-nutrient environments to which they were specialized. Growth to large size and delayed maturation in fusulinoideans might have been enabled by the late Paleozoic hyperoxic atmosphere and the widespread development of oligotrophic, carbonate platform and shelf environments. The late Paleozoic history of foraminiferal diversification was influenced also by closure of the Rheic Ocean beginning in Late Mississippian time. Foraminiferal associations on opposite sides of Pangea exhibited relatively high similarity prior to the closure, but then similarity decreased steadily after destruction of the subequatorial marine corridor. Arctic-Eurasian and North American associations were nearly isolated from one another throughout the main burst of fusulinoidean diversification, so that parallel lineages developed independently in the two regions, resulting in many instances of convergence.
Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island–mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.
To date, very few studies have examined the bi-directional associations between mood disorders (MDs), anxiety disorders (ADs) and substance use disorders (SUDs), simultaneously. The aims of the current study were to determine the rates and patterns of comorbidity of the common MDs, ADs and SUDs and describe the onset and temporal sequencing of these classes of disorder, by sex.
Data came from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, a nationally representative household survey with 8841 (60% response rate) community residents aged 16–85.
Pre-existing mental disorders increase the risk of subsequent mental disorders in males and females regardless of the class of disorder. Pre-existing SUDs increase the risk of subsequent MDs and ADs differentially for males and females. Pre-existing MDs increase the risk of subsequent ADs differentially for males and females.
Comorbidity remains a significant public health issue and current findings point to the potential need for sex-specific prevention and treatment responses.
A comprehensive, high resolution stratigraphic database of fusulinoidean foraminifers reveals that this group of protists suffered extreme losses during the Guadalupian extinction. Most species (88%) were eliminated gradually over the course of 9 myr during the Wordian and Capitanian ages. A pulse of greatly elevated per capita extinction frequency occurred during the last million years of the Capitanian (260–259 Ma). Contrary to prevailing opinion, the end-Capitanian event did not preferentially eliminate large, morphologically complex species in the families Schwagerinidae and Neoschwagerinidae, because most species in those families were already extinct. Rather, 69 percent of the species eliminated at the end of the Capitanian were small, morphologically conservative representatives of the Ozawainellidae, Schubertellidae and Staffellidae. Survivors from these families comprised the low-diversity association of Wuchiapingian fusulinoideans. Schubertellids, and to a lesser extent ozawainellids, diversified in the late Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian ages before the final demise of fusulinoideans during the end-Permian mass extinction. The Wordian–Capitanian fusulinoidean attrition might have been caused by photosymbiont loss and habitat reduction stemming from an interval of global cooling termed the Kamura event (∼265–259.5 Ma), although the onset of fusulinoidean diversity decline predates geochemical evidence for the beginning of the Kamura event by ∼3 myr. The end-Capitanian extinction pulse might reflect environmental deterioration from the combined effects of global cooling, Emeishan effusive volcanism and sea-level lowstand.
The Visean–Serpukhovian boundary is not yet defined by a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) but it is recognizable operationally by the appearance of the conodont Lochriea ziegleri in the L. nodosa–L. ziegleri chronocline. Foraminiferal successions across this boundary in the type area of the Serpukhovian Stage (Moscow Basin, Russia), elsewhere in Russia and in the central United States suggest that the appearances of Asteroarchaediscus postrugosus, Janischewskina delicata, Eolasiodiscus donbassicus, and specimens controversially referred to “Millerella tortula” are reliable, auxiliary indices to the base of the Serpukhovian. In southern Guizhou Province, China, Visean–Serpukhovian rock sequences from slope and platform settings have yielded rich associations of conodonts and foraminifers, respectively. The Nashui section is a leading candidate for the Serpukhovian GSSP because its slope deposits contain an uninterrupted record of conodont occurrences including the L. nodosa–L. ziegleri transition. Foraminifers recovered from the Nashui section are comparatively rare and include none of the basal Serpukhovian indices. In contrast, the nearby Yashui section represents a platform interior setting in which foraminifers flourished and conodonts were nearly absent. The base of the Serpukhovian at Yashui is marked approximately by the appearance of “tortula-like” specimens. Although it is not possible to correlate biostratigraphically between the Nashui and Yashui sections, the occurrence of “tortula-like” specimens at the Yashui section allows correlation with the mid-Venevian Substage of the Moscow Basin at a level coinciding with the appearance of L. ziegleri. Together, the slope and platform sections comprise an informative biostratigraphic reference area for micropaleontologic characterization of the Visean–Serpukhovian boundary in southern Guizhou.
The extent of resource use—land, capital, labour and management—in Scottish agriculture in the early 1980s is estimated, using available published data. The main developments that have occurred to create this resource base are outlined, with the likely changes that will influence its nature by the mid 1990s. Each of 3 agricultural sectors—dairying, arable and livestock—is considered in turn. The paper concludes by outlining broadly the nature of the base as it might appear by the mid 1990s from the effects of economic and market forces. The pressures on land and labour use, from limitations on production of milk and arable crops but expanded lowland stock enterprises, are highlighted. The serious consequences for agricultural land and labour use in the more remote disadvantaged areas of Scotland are recognised, as is the need to consider the social/amenity value of the retention of a sufficient agricultural base in these areas. Finally, some of the issues and questions associated with the maintenance of agriculture in the hills in the future are indicated.
We have carried out a detailed modelling of the dust heating and emission in the nearby, starbursting dwarf galaxy NGC 4214. Due to its proximity and the great wealth of data from the UV to the millimeter range (from GALEX, HST, Spitzer, Herschel, Planck and IRAM) it is possible to separately model the emission from HII regions and their associated photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the emission from diffuse dust. Furthermore, most model parameters can be directly determined from the data leaving very few free parameters. We can fit both the emission from HII+PDR regions and the diffuse emission in NGC 4214 with these models with “normal” dust properties and realistic parameters.
We used a previously reported kinematical electron scattering model1 to develop a RHEED based method for performing quantitative analysis of mosaic polycrystalline thin film in-plane and out-of-plain grain orientation distributions. RHEED based biaxial texture measurements are compared to X-Ray and transmission electron microscopy measurements to establish the validity of the RHEED analysis method. In situ RHEED analysis reveals that the out-of-plane orientation distribution starts out very broad, and then decreases during IBAD MgO growth. Other results included evidence that the in-plane orientation distribution narrows, the grain size increases, and the film roughens as film thickness increases during IBAD MgO growth. Homoepitaxy of MgO improves the biaxial texture of the IBAD layer, making X-ray measurements of IBAD films with an additional homoepitaxial layer not quantitatively representative of the IBAD layer. Systematic offsets between RHEED analysis and X-ray measurements of biaxial texture, coupled with evidence that biaxial texture improves with increasing film thickness, indicate that RHEED is a superior technique for probing surface biaxial texture.