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Salmonella prevalence in UK pigs is amongst the highest in Europe, highlighting the need to investigate pig farms which have managed to maintain a low Salmonella seroprevalence. A total of 19 pig farms that had a consistently low (<10%) seroprevalence over 4 years (named Platinum farms) were compared against 38 randomly selected Control farms, chosen to match the same distribution of production types and geographical distribution of the Platinum farms. Each farm was visited and floor faeces and environmental samples were collected. It was shown that Control farms had a significantly higher median percentage of pooled faecal samples positive for Salmonella compared with the Platinum farms (12.1% and 0.4% for pooled faecal samples, respectively) and were more likely to have serovars of public health importance detected (S. Typhimurium/ monophasic variants or S. Enteritidis). Considering the comprehensive on-farm sampling, the identification of farms negative for Salmonella, along with the identification of those that had maintained low prevalence over a long period is important. The risk factor analyses identified pelleted feed, feed deliveries crossing farm perimeter and regular antibiotic use as associated with being a Control farm. Performance data indicated that Platinum farms were performing better for slaughter live weight than Controls. Limited assessments of available pig movement records suggested that the source of pigs was not key to Platinum status, but further study would be needed to confirm this finding. These results emphasise that maintaining very low prevalence on UK farms is achievable.
Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is a national study of 1759 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. The study is in its 11th wave of annual data collection, having collected extensive data on topics including birth and early life influences, parental health and well-being, identity, cultural engagement, language use, housing, racism, school engagement and academic achievement, and social and emotional well-being. The current paper reviews a selection of major findings from Footprints in Time relating to the developmental origins of health and disease for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Opportunities for new researchers to conduct further research utilizing the LSIC data set are also presented.
Anecdotal evidence has suggested that outdoor-kept pigs show an improvement to health and productivity after being moved to a new site. This study explores whether Salmonella occurrence reduced and was sustained after moving to a new site. Nine farms were followed for a year in which four sampling visits were completed. The highest detection of Salmonella was from pooled faecal dropping from pigs, run-off/ pooled water, rodents and wild birds. Descriptive summaries showed that the prevalence of both all Salmonella and serovars of public health importance were lower at all visits after the move. Some variability was shown in results from individual farms, but a year after the move, six farms still maintained a lower prevalence. A risk factor model showed that the prevalence at visits 2 and 3 after the move was significantly lower than baseline, after accounting for a number of significant factors that were included in the model. These were sample type and seasonality (included as a priori), presence of coughing in the sampled group and Glasser's disease on the farm, and the use of tent or kennel accommodation. This finding provides important evidence that more frequent site moves may help reduce Salmonella prevalence in outdoor herds.
Feedback learning is essential for behavioral development. We investigated feedback learning in relation to behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Children aged 6–13 years diagnosed with TBI (n = 112; 1.7 years post-injury) were compared with children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 52). TBI severity was defined as mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF− TBI, n = 24), mild TBI with ⩾1 risk factor for complicated TBI (mildRF+ TBI, n = 51) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 37). The Probabilistic Learning Test was used to measure feedback learning, assessing the effects of inconsistent feedback on learning and generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts. The relation between feedback learning and behavioral functioning rated by parents and teachers was explored.
No evidence was found for an effect of TBI on learning from inconsistent feedback, while the moderate/severe TBI group showed impaired generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts (p = 0.03, d = −0.51). Furthermore, the mildRF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI groups had higher parent and teacher ratings of internalizing problems (p's ⩽ 0.04, d's ⩾ 0.47) than the TC group, while the moderate/severe TBI group also had higher parent ratings of externalizing problems (p = 0.006, d = 0.58). Importantly, poorer generalization of learning predicted higher parent ratings of externalizing problems in children with TBI (p = 0.03, β = −0.21) and had diagnostic utility for the identification of children with TBI and clinically significant externalizing behavior problems (area under the curve = 0.77, p = 0.001).
Moderate/severe pediatric TBI has a negative impact on generalization of learning, which may contribute to post-injury externalizing problems.
There has been a rapid rise in the prevalence of cases of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST) in both humans and farm animals, and it has been found in pigs, cattle and poultry. It is therefore vital to have a good understanding of how to efficiently detect infected farms. The objective of this project was to determine sample type sensitivity in the detection of Salmonella to detect infected groups of animals on both pig (breeder, grower and finisher sites) and cattle (beef and dairy) farms, using data collected from a study investigating farms that were positive for mST, and to explore any variation between different age groups and management practices. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted to analyse the individual and pooled faecal sample data collected from each epidemiological group on each of the farms. The sensitivity of pooled sampling depended on the prevalence of infection in the group being sampled, with a higher prevalence leading to higher sensitivity. Pooled sampling was found to be more efficient at detecting positive groups of animals than individual sampling, with the probability of a random sample from a group of animals with 5% prevalence testing positive being equal to 15·5% for immature pigs (3·6% for an individual faecal sample, taking into account the sensitivity and infection prevalence), 7·1% for adult pigs (1·2% for individual sampling), 30% for outdoor cattle (2% for individual sampling) and 34% for indoor cattle (1% for individual sampling). The mean prevalence of each epidemiological group was higher in outdoor farms than indoor for both pigs and cattle (mean within-farm prevalence of 29·4% and 38·7% for outdoor pigs and cattle, respectively, compared to 19·8% and 22·1% for indoor pigs and cattle)
Animals grazing on land contaminated with cadmium due to pollution such as sewage sludge application and traffic emissions ingest cadmium adhered to plants and in soil. The effects of cadmium on ruminal enzymes have been investigated (Faixová and Faix, 2002) as have the effects on the bacterial and protozoal fractions of rumen fluid (Forsberg, 1978). These studies used a single cadmium salt, usually for ease of solubility, however, differences in toxicity have been found between cadmium salts (Barrouillet et al., 2001). The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of cadmium salts and of differing concentrations of cadmium on fermentation by rumen microbes in-vitro.
Forage pollution by lead has been caused by mining, sewage sludge application, nuclear plants and traffic emissions. Animals grazing on contaminated land have a higher exposure to the toxicity posed by contamination adhered to plants and through soil ingestion. Strojan and Phillips (2002) found a decrease in gas production in the presence of lead although other parameters were not measured. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different lead salts and concentrations on microbial activity of rumen micro-organisms in-vitro.
This paper consisted of a running commentary by Ernest Hildner on the movie as it was shown. The data from the movie has not yet been fully analyzed and will be published elsewhere. Discussion immediately followed the movie. (ed.)
The coronagraph has obtained observations, both by astronaut and ground command, spaced periodically throughout the mission on a time center of approximately six to eight hours. Programs of more frequent operation – to examine short-term temporal variations and transient activity in the corona – have also been run at various times during the mission. The initial coronagraph observations of structures near limb passage experimentally verify that there are several time scales on which visual changes in these structures occur: (a) approximately one-half rotation, presumably accompanying major reorientations of coronal magnetic fields governing large scale coronal structures, (b) hours to days wherein changes to smaller coronal features are due either to structural changes of particular coronal features or to perspective effects and (c) less than hours – during coronal transients – which caused major reorientation of coronal structures by their passage through the coronal medium. Observations of the latter phenomena have provided some of the more spectacular results from the coronagraph (see Figure 1). The particular case illustrated was one stage of a complex series of events associated with activity in region 137, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration numbering, near east limb passage on 10 June 1973. The limb exhibited a major system of active prominences extended from the equator to north 25° and produced surges and sprays through the early hours of the day. From approximately 0700 to 0900 UT several Hα and small X-ray flares occurred and 0815 an eruptive prominence was observed by ground-based telescopes to ascend to 1.4 R⊙. This latter event is presumably the source of the transient observed by the coronagraph between 0929 and 1001 by ground command. During this period the material front moved with the apparent projected velocity of 450 km s−1 from 3.6 to 4.8 R⊙, while the arch-like structure expanded to a diameter greater than 2 R⊙. Figure 1 shows the event at 0943 GMT; it is one photograph of the 144 obtained. Within the structure are numerous bright areas and extended structures apparently mapping the distended magnetic field configuration. The general appearance of this transient is indicative of a large magnetic loop, or bottle, expanded outward from the Sun, its leading edge compressed by interaction with the ambient corona. Although there apparently was not a metric radio burst associated with this event, other transients observed later in the mission have associated metric wavelength activity.
Increased serum creatine phosphokinase (C.P.K.) levels have been shown in acutely psychotic patients on admission to hospital (Meltzer, 1968). Little is known about C.P.K. activity in non-psychotic (e.g. neurotic) patients admitted under similar conditions. Psychotic patients have not been compared with non-psychotic patients over a period of time following admission. Examination of a single serum sample for C.P.K. activity in non-psychotic patients at the time of admission has shown no abnormality (Meltzer et al., 1969).