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Results on least-squares refinement of X-ray reflectivity data obtained with a conventional powder diffractometer are reported. A model containing an oxygen contaminated surface on Pt was used to refine experimental data for a “500-Å” Pt film on Si. Values of layer thickness, density, and roughness determined by least-squares refinement agree with those obtained from highresolution reflectivity data. The results were found to be insensitive to the film-surface alignment. An agreement of ±2.3 Å for Pt thickness, 8% for density, and 2.5 Å for roughness was obtained when the surface was aligned to within the divergence of the incident X-ray beam. The least-squares refinement method was also used to analyze two sputtered “300-Å” Pt films deposited at 4 and 20 × 10-6 Torr Ar pressure. Results showed a significant increase in Pt thickness and a decrease in density for the 20 × 10-6 film probably caused by a large amount of Ar trapped in the film.
As a result of interest in the characterization of materials with large d-spacings and layer periodicities, it has become necessary to develop a low-angle diffraction material which has welldefined diffraction peaks down to very small 2θ angles. The use of silver behenate, CH3(CH2)20COO-Ag, was introduced by one of the authors (TB) at the 1991 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Annual Meeting and was shown to have a set of well-defined (001) diffraction peaks down to 1.5° 2θ when using CuKα radiation. The silver behenate diffraction peaks were observed to be slightly asymmetric with relatively long tails at the low angle side of the peaks. The average crystallite size along the c-axis was estimated using the Scherrer equation and was found to be 900 Å.
A task group of the JCPDS-ICJDD Data Collection and Analysis Subcommittee was established with the charge of investigating the use of silver behenate as a possible low-angle calibration material for diffraction applications. Utilizing several data collection and data analysis techniques, d001 long-period spacings in the range of 58.219-58.480 Å were obtained. Using the same collected data and one data analysis refinement calculation method resulted in long-period spacing with a range of 58.303-58.425 Å. Data collected using a silicon internal standard and the same singular data analysis calculation method provided d001 values with a range of 58.363-58.381 Å.
The formation of a full-range 2θ diffraction sample was also investigated. Silver behenate and inorganic powders were mixed with an epoxy binder to form a permanent sample which provides diffraction peaks over the entire 2θ range of a powder diffractometer.
Precise thin-film thicknesses have been obtained from X-ray specular and off-specular reflectivity data collected with a conventional powder diffractometer. An analysis of the specular reflectivity curve for a 565.9-Å thick pt film showed the results agreed with those determined previously from high-resolution reflectometer data to within 6.6 Å or 1.2%. An analysis of the off-specular reflectivity curves which have well-defined interference fringes showed that the results were insensitive to the surface alignment. Values of Pt thickness for the off-specular reflectivity curves agreed with that of the specular reflectivity curve to within 6.2 Å or 1.1%. The insensitivity in film-surface misalignment makes conventional powder diffractometer attractive for film-thickness determination and opens this techniques to many laboratories.
The Fluvial Archives Group (FLAG) was founded in 1996 to bring together researchers looking at the development of fluvial systems over multiple timescales and global spatial scales. Fluvial archives of various types are important not just because they provide insights into past landscape dynamics, e.g., driven by climate or crustal processes, but also because they frequently contain fossil or archaeological material for which they provide stratigraphic control. Since 1996, FLAG has evolved from a research group of the British Quaternary Research Association into an organisation with around 500 members in over 20 countries. The research group held 12 biennial meetings, comprising both presentations and field excursions, as well as multiple themed sessions at international conferences. These had resulted by 2017 in 19 journal special issues, all fully detailed by Cordier et al. (2017). The goals of FLAG are: provision of a community for discussion of key issues concerning fluvial archives, including organising the aforementioned biennial discussion/field meetings, sessions at relevant international conferences, and special issues of journals; continued promotion of the value of fluvial archives by means of readily accessible published information; and coordination of activity with other research groupings with overlapping interests, e.g., by co-convening sessions and collaborating on publications.
Ambient water condenses readily on metal oxides, which can lead to water film formation and water-mediated reactions at the oxide surface. Similar to bulk water, thin water films with thicknesses below 10 molecular layers can modify the oxide surface chemical reactivity and stability. However, due to the confinement of mass transport at the oxide surface, these processes do not proceed exactly as they do in bulk liquid water. In this review article, we will present selected examples from our group and others’ that illustrate the rich interaction of MgO and TiO2 nanostructures with thin water films. We will show that these condensed water films can induce significant chemical, structural, and microstructural transformations of metal oxide nanostructures such as dissolution/precipitation, morphological changes, crystallization, and self-assembly in the solid state.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Pyroxenes and amphiboles from the under-saturated to over-saturated syenites of the Kangerdlugssuaq intrusion have been examined to see what light they throw on the two contrasting petrogenetic models for the intrusion. Pyroxene crystals are strongly zoned outwards from augitic to more acmitic compositions, with the most calcic cores present in the foyaite, contrary to the expected pattern if the foyaite is the most evolved rock type as previously postulated. Amphiboles, which are absent in the foyaites, show an exceptionally wide compositional field varying from actinolite through richterite and katophorite to arfvedsonite. Many are manganoan and potassian varieties. However, there is no consistent variation throughout the intrusion as previous work has suggested. These results are not favourable to the idea of a crystal fractionation model for the intrusion and we suggest that the foyaite is closest to the original magma which has hybridized with the enclosing gneisses and basalts to produce the over-saturated rocks. Such a model is consistent with the existing isotopic data.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To build a multisite de-identified database of female adolescents, aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012), and their subsequent offspring through 24 months of age from electronic health records (EHRs) provided by participating Community Health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a community-academic partnership that included New York City Community Health Centers (n=4) and Hospitals (n=4), The Rockefeller University, The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and Clinical Directors Network (CDN). We used the Community-Engaged Research Navigation model to establish a multisite de-identified database extracted from EHRs of female adolescents aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012) and their offspring through 24 months of age. These patients received their primary care between 2011 and 2015. Clinical data were used to explore possible associations among specific measures. We focused on the preconception, prenatal, postnatal periods, including pediatric visits up to 24 months of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The analysis included all female adolescents (n=122,556) and a subset of pregnant adolescents with offspring data available (n=2917). Patients were mostly from the Bronx; 43% of all adolescent females were overweight (22%) or obese (21%) and showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with normal-weight adolescent females (p<0.05). This analysis was also performed looking at the nonpregnant females and the pregnant females separately. Overall, the pregnant females were older (mean age=18.3) compared with the nonpregnant females (mean age=16.5), there was a higher percentage of Hispanics among the pregnant females (58%) compared with the nonpregnant females (43.9%). There was a statistically significant association between the BMI status of mothers and infants’ birth weight, with underweight/normal-weight mothers having more low birth weight (LBW) babies and overweight/obese mothers having more large babies. The odds of having a LBW baby was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89) lower in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers. The risk of having a preterm birth before 37 weeks was found to be neutral in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.25). Preliminary associations are similar to those reported in the published literature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This EHR database uses available measures from routine clinical care as a “rapid assay” to explore potential associations, and may be more useful to detect the presence and direction of associations than the magnitude of effects. This partnership has engaged community clinicians, laboratory, and clinical investigators, and funders in study design and analysis, as demonstrated by the collaborative development and testing of hypotheses relevant to service delivery. Furthermore, this research and learning collaborative is examining strategies to enhance clinical workflow and data quality as well as underlying biological mechanisms. The feasibility of scaling-up these methods facilitates studying similar populations in different Health Systems, advancing point-of-care studies of natural history and comparative effectiveness research to identify service gaps, evaluate effective interventions, and enhance clinical and data quality improvement.
During the 1st week of life the energy contained in the body of the average piglet increases by a factor between four and five. To achieve this increase the piglet must ingest metabolizable energy (ME) at a rate which is about four times its maintenance requirement. Well over half the ME supplied in the milk of the sow is in the form of emulsified fat. Whilst the piglet is being suckled, its intake is controlled by litter size, availability of teats and productiveness of the mammary gland. At 3 weeks of age the normal piglet requires about 7.8 MJ digestible energy to sustain a live growth rate of 280 g/day. At this stage the growth comprises about 40 g protein and about 68 g fat. This means that the required intake for a newly weaned piglet on a typical starter diet should be about 475 g/day. In practice such intakes are rarely achieved for several days, therefore weaning causes severe disruption of intake and of the growth curve and there are other factors involved including social disturbance and stress. Further problems are caused by the provision of diets which are unsuited to the physiology of the piglet's immature digestive tract. The sudden loss of the IgA component and indeed other protective factors contained in the dam's milk can be extremely serious, and the reduction in food intake is effectively a defence strategy by the piglet to cope with its new circumstances and try to maintain physiological homoeostasis. In some circumstances the use of antibacterial agents, organic acids or probiotics may be beneficial, but the approach is less reliable than careful formulation of the diet to avoid provocative ingredients such as soya-bean and rapeseed meal.
The object of the experiment to be reported was to determine the extent to which intake and eating behaviour are influenced by differences in the ratio of nitrogen (N) to water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the feed and the liquid phase of boli obtained from oesophageal fistulae. Four feeds were chosen as being likely to cover a range of N to WSC ratios in the liquid phase; these were frozen lucerne, lucerne silage, grass silage and grass silage treated with formaldehyde (46 g/100 g crude protein).
Disclosure mandates are pervasive. Though designed to inform consumers, such mandates may lead consumers to draw false inferences – for example, that a product is harmful when it is not. When deciding to require disclosure of an ingredient in or characteristic of a product, regulators may be motivated by evidence that the ingredient or characteristic is harmful to consumers. But they may also be motivated by a belief that consumers have a right to know what they are buying or by interest-group pressure. Consumers who misperceive the regulator's true motive, or mix of motives, will draw false inferences from the mandated disclosure. If consumers think that the disclosure is motivated by evidence of harm, when in fact it is motivated by a belief in a right to know or by interest-group pressure, then they will be inefficiently deterred from purchasing the product. We analyze this general concern about disclosure mandates. We also offer survey evidence demonstrating that the risk of false inferences is serious and real.
Common cottonwood-based agroforestry system is widely adopted in Indian Indo-Gangetic plains. The stem cuttings of common cottonwood are raised in a nursery 10 to 12 months in rows spaced 0.5 mx0.5 m, before re-planting in the field. The longer duration of 10 to 12 months and wider spacing of stem cuttings in the nursery makes the entire transplants highly vulnerable to weed competition, especially during early establishment stages. The efficacy of preemergence herbicides and plastic and straw mulches for weed management in common cottonwood nursery was investigated at two sites in years 2014 and 2015. The major weed flora in the experimental field consisted of three grass weeds (crowfootgrass, feather lovegrass, and southern crabgrass), and four broadleaf weeds (scarlet pimpernel, garden spurge, niruri, and lesser swinecress). The integrated use of pendimethalin or alachlor applied PRE with paddy straw mulch significantly reduced density and biomass of both grass and broadleaf weeds compared to herbicide or straw mulch used alone, and provided similar level of weed control to hand weeding at both locations. Spreading of plastic mulch in the whole field after punching holes for common cottonwood stem cuttings, or in row spaces recorded similar weed control to hand-weeding. The integrated use of herbicides with straw mulch, and or plastic mulch alone significantly improved plant height, stem diameter, below- and above-ground biomass of common cottonwood plants compared to unweeded check. The study concluded that integrated use of herbicides plus paddy straw mulch or plastic mulch alone could be adopted for weed management in common cottonwood nursery plantations.
Equine welfare is a major concern within the racing industry. A large proportion of fatalities (50-60%) are the result of falls at fences (Pinchbeck, et al., 2004). Various authors have reported factors affecting fall rates both within steeplechase and hurdle races these include; race length, race speed, ground conditions (the going), the horses Timeform rating, previous history, race progression and whip use (Pinchbeck, et al., 2003; Pinchbeck, et al., 2004). At present there have been few studies carried out investigating the effects of gender on the risk of falling in hurdle racing. This study undertook an investigation of fall rates for hurdlers running during the 2004/05 National Hunt season, discriminating via gender.
There is a need to identify finishing systems for pigs that meet the requirements of both pig producers and society. These require that a system is economically efficient, but also takes due account of animal welfare, food safety and environmental considerations. As part of an integrated investigation, this study assessed the effects of giving pigs either dry or liquid feed when housed in either fully-slatted or straw-based accommodation on the microbial status of the pig and its finishing environment, with particular reference to gut health and food safety.
The MLC-coordinated Finishing Pigs Systems Research (FPSR) programme addresses industry and Government policy requirements through a multidisciplinary approach that investigates several priorities including the potential for improving production efficiency of pigs through liquid feeding. Research activity is centred at the Meat and Livestock Commission’s Stotfold Pig Development Unit and uses the purpose built Finishing Systems Research Unit. Two housing systems, fully slatted versus straw-based, will be evaluated over four production trials designed to investigate different aspects of liquid feeding technology. This paper is based on the results of the first production trial, which compared dry and liquid feeding in a fully slatted or straw-based housing system. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of offering the same diet in the form of either dry pellets or liquid feed, on the growth performance, carcase quality and meat eating quality of pigs growing/finishing pigs.