To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Substantial clinical heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggests it may group together individuals with diverse aetiologies. Identifying distinct subtypes should lead to more effective diagnosis and treatment, while providing more useful targets for further research. Genetic and clinical overlap between MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ) suggests an MDD subtype may share underlying mechanisms with SCZ.
The present study investigated whether a neurobiologically distinct subtype of MDD could be identified by SCZ polygenic risk score (PRS). We explored interactive effects between SCZ PRS and MDD case/control status on a range of cortical, subcortical and white matter metrics among 2370 male and 2574 female UK Biobank participants.
There was a significant SCZ PRS by MDD interaction for rostral anterior cingulate cortex (RACC) thickness (β = 0.191, q = 0.043). This was driven by a positive association between SCZ PRS and RACC thickness among MDD cases (β = 0.098, p = 0.026), compared to a negative association among controls (β = −0.087, p = 0.002). MDD cases with low SCZ PRS showed thinner RACC, although the opposite difference for high-SCZ-PRS cases was not significant. There were nominal interactions for other brain metrics, but none remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons.
Our significant results indicate that MDD case-control differences in RACC thickness vary as a function of SCZ PRS. Although this was not the case for most other brain measures assessed, our specific findings still provide some further evidence that MDD in the presence of high genetic risk for SCZ is subtly neurobiologically distinct from MDD in general.
Spectroscopic data from a var iety of analyt ical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) can be obtained from small areas of samples (< 1 mm2) through the use of microscope sampling accessories. If provisions are made to scan or translate the sample, then a spectrum that is characteristic of each region of interest can be obtained. Alternatively, selective area detectors eliminate the requirement for scanning the sample. Extract ion of information about a specific energy band from each spectrum allows elucidat ion of the spatial distribution of the feature giving rise to that band. For example, the distribution of a compound could be imaged by extracting the intensity of an IR band or XRD peak due to that compound. Peak posit ion and peak width are other parameters that can be extracted as a function of posit ion. Similarly, elemental distributions could be obtained using SIMS and EDX.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
Conservation resources are limited, yet an increasing number of species are under threat. Assessing species for their conservation needs is, therefore, a vital first step in identifying and prioritizing species for both ex situ and in situ conservation actions. Using a transparent, logical and objective method, the Conservation Needs Assessment process developed by Amphibian Ark uses current knowledge of species in the wild to determine those with the most pressing conservation needs, and provides a foundation for the development of holistic conservation action plans that combine in situ and ex situ actions as appropriate. These assessments allow us to maximize the impact of limited conservation resources by identifying which measures could best serve those species requiring help. The Conservation Needs Assessment complements the IUCN Red List assessment, and together they provide a more holistic guide to conservation priorities and actions. Conservation Needs Assessments generate national prioritized lists of species recommended for conservation action. These can subsequently be used to assist in the development of species recovery plans and national action plans, or to inform national conservation priorities better. Additional tools that will evaluate the recommendations for ex situ rescues, to determine the best candidates for conservation breeding programmes, are currently under development.
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest of pepper (Capsicum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) crops in North America. Native to Mexico, the southern United States of America, and Central America, it is intercepted in Canada when peppers are imported to supplement domestic production. Given the proximity of greenhouse and field production to packing facilities, this pest poses a serious risk to the cultivation of peppers in Canada. Once established, it is difficult to control because immature stages of the weevil are protected within the pepper fruit. As such, chemical control targeting these life stages is not effective, and other strategies, including biological control, may prove useful. To explore the potential for biological control options to manage the pepper weevil in areas at risk in Canada, natural enemy surveys were conducted in southern Ontario following the reports of transient, localised field populations in 2016. Parasitoids belonging to three Hymenoptera families including Pteromalidae (Jaliscoa hunteri Crawford, Pteromalus anthonomi Ashmead), Eupelmidae (Eupelmus pulchriceps Cameron), and Braconidae (Nealiolus Mason species, Bracon Fabricius species) were reared from infested field-collected pepper fruits. Together, these new natural enemy records could facilitate the exploration and development of novel agents for the biological control of the pepper weevil.
We have previously demonstrated that feeding red clover relative to grass silage results in meat characterised by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but reduced shelf life which was associated with lower levels of vitamin E in the muscle (Scollan et al., 2006). Colour shelf life could be ameliorated by feeding additional vitamin E (Scollan et al., 2006). Feeding red clover silage followed by finishing off pasture may help alleviate the problem of colour shelf life while maintaining the benefit of the legume in delivering higher PUFA into meat. Hence this study examined feeding red clover compared with grass silage during the winter, following by a summer finishing period at grass, on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content of meat, colour shelf life and sensory attributes of beef.
The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of surface and freeboard habitats in the summer pack ice in the eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica, were documented in a continuing effort to determine the factors controlling the distribution, production and succession of sea-ice biota. Three longitudinal transects from approximately 65° to 74° S in the western Ross Sea along 135°, 150° and 165° W were visited where samples of slush and slush interstitial water from surface and freeboard habitats as well as sea water were collected at every degree of latitude. Freeboard and surface habitats, found at all stations in the pack ice, contained a large range (five orders of magnitude) of microalgal biomass (measured as chlorophyll a concentrations) and nutrients ranging from below levels of detection to those of the surrounding sea water. The geophysical attributes of the freeboard habitat (i.e. a layer of semi-consolidated ice overlying a layer containing unconsolidated ice crystals and sea water) are consistent with previous descriptions of this environment. However, additional information is presented on the range of biomass concentrations as well as the small-scale distributions of the habitat and biota.
The deep ice-sheet coring (DISC) drill was used for production ice-core drilling at WAIS Divide in Antarctica for six field seasons between 2007 and 2013. Continuous ice-core samples were obtained between the snow surface and 3405 m depth. During the 2012/13 austral summer, the DISC drill’s newly designed replicate ice-coring system was utilized to collect nearly 285m of additional high-quality core samples at depths of high scientific interest. Annual progress graphs are described, as well as milestones achieved over the course of the project. Drilling operations, challenges encountered, drill fluid usage, drilling results, and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill and replicate coring system during production drilling are described and discussed in detail. Core-processing operations are described briefly, as well as the logistical undertaking of the DISC drill’s deployment to Antarctica.
A new, clean, hot-water drill system (HWDS) was developed by the Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, for use in the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project to gain access to Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath ∼800 m of ice in West Antarctica. One primary borehole was drilled into the basal ice environment of Subglacial Lake Whillans during the initial field season in 2012/13. This paper describes the process of designing, fabricating, assembling, shipping, testing, commissioning and traversing the WISSARD HWDS leading up to the first scientific use of the system.
The WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) traversable hot-water drill system was designed to create various-diameter ice boreholes to a depth of >800 m, with most major components being controllable from a single user interface. The drill control system operates four low-pressure pumps for water generation and circulation, two hot-water generation units containing a total of six diesel burner modules with integrated high-pressure pumps, three winches (one with independent level-wind motor), a four-motor linear traction drive, and a large number of analog and digital sensors to monitor system performance and cleanliness. Due to development time constraints the control system design focused on utilizing commercial off-the-shelf components, while being highly modular, easily expandable and rapidly deployable. Additional emphasis was placed on providing redundant manual operator controls and maintaining a low degree of system automation to avoid dependence on software control loops for first-season deployment. The result of this design paradigm was a control system that was taken from concept to full operation in <6 months, successfully performing in the field without insurmountable problems.
The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n−3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n−3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n−3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n−3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n−3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n−3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days’ post-hatch. The n−3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n−3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n−3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n−3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks). Intestinal microbial community structure, IP, endotoxaemia, inflammatory markers and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and post intervention. IP was estimated by the urinary recovery of oral 51Cr-EDTA and glucose tolerance by insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. Intestinal microbial community analysis was performed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and quantitative PCR. Prebiotic fibre supplementation had no significant effects on clinical outcomes or bacterial abundances compared with placebo; however, changes in the bacterial family Veillonellaceae correlated inversely with changes in glucose response and IL-6 levels (r −0·90, P=0·042 for both) following prebiotic intake. The absence of significant changes to the microbial community structure at a prebiotic dosage/length of supplementation shown to be effective in healthy individuals is an important finding. We propose that concurrent metformin treatment and the high heterogeneity of human type 2 diabetes may have played a significant role. The current study does not provide evidence for the role of prebiotics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides have the ability to generate important changes in the gut microbiota composition that may confer health benefits to the host. Reducing the impurities in prebiotic mixtures could expand their applications in food industries and improve their selectivity and prebiotic effect on the potential beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. This study aimed to determine the in vitro potential fermentation properties of a 65 % galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) content Bimuno® GOS (B-GOS) on gut microbiota composition and their metabolites. Fermentation of 65 % B-GOS was compared with 52 % B-GOS in pH- and volume-controlled dose–response anaerobic batch culture experiments. In total, three different doses (1, 0·5 and 0·33 g equivalent to 0·1, 0·05 and 0·033 g/l) were tested. Changes in the gut microbiota during a time course were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, whereas small molecular weight metabolomics profiles and SCFA were determined by 1H-NMR analysis and GC, respectively. The 65 % B-GOS showed positive modulation of the microbiota composition during the first 8 h of fermentation with all doses. Administration of the specific doses of B-GOS induced a significant increase in acetate as the major SCFA synthesised compared with propionate and butyrate concentrations, but there were no significant differences between substrates. The 65 % B-GOS in syrup format seems to have, in all the analysis, an efficient prebiotic effect. However, the applicability of such changes remains to be shown in an in vivo trial.
Background: In British Columbia, neuromuscular disease accounts for 31% of IVIg use, at a cost of $10.1 M. In addition to the new screening pathway, the BC Neuromuscular IVIg Program developed the Chronic High User Project to identify areas for improvement in utilization. Methods: Utilizing CTR data, all patients on IVIg maintenance therapy for approved neuromuscular conditions between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 were identified. Patients receiving higher than usual IVIG treatments (CIDP and MG >1110 grams/year, MMNCB > 1400 grams/year) were evaluated. Following panel review, utilization data was compared with a second cohort (2014 to 2015) to determine impact. Following review, appropriateness of treatment was determined by consensus from a 3-member panel, and recommendations were made. Results: Of 377 patients, 38 “High Users” were identified. 29 cases were determined to be appropriate; 9 were not. There was a reduction in mean grams/episode in CIDP (1135g to 990g) and MG (1099 g to 1022g) between cohorts. The mean grams/episode for MMNCB did not change. Conclusions: In specific cases, the IVIg High User Program identified patients in whom the treatment could be optimized. However, the vast majority of use of IVIg for Neuromuscular Disease in BC is appropriate, including in patients requiring higher that “usual” doses.
We summarize the results obtained from our suite of chemical evolution models for spiral disks, computed for different total masses and star formation efficiencies. Once the gas, stars and star formation radial distributions are reproduced, we analyze the Oxygen abundances radial profiles for gas and stars, in addition to stellar averaged ages and global metallicity. We examine scenarios for the potential origin of the apparent flattening of abundance gradients in the outskirts of disk galaxies, in particular the role of molecular gas formation prescriptions.