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This communication assesses the use of a portable near infrared (NIR) instrument to measure quantitative (fatty acid profile) properties and qualitative (‘Premium’ and ‘Non-premium’) categories of individual Iberian pork carcasses at the slaughterhouse. Acorn-fed Iberian pigs have more unsaturated fats than pigs fed conventional compound feed. Recent advances in miniaturisation have led to a number of handheld NIR devices being developed, allowing processing decisions to be made earlier, significantly reducing time and costs. The most common methods used for assessing quality and authenticity of Iberian hams are analysis of the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat using gas chromatography and DNA analysis. In this study, NIR calibrations for fatty acids and classification as premium or non-premium ham, based on carcass fat measured in situ, were developed using a portable NIR spectrometer. The accuracy of the quantitative equations was evaluated through the standard error of cross validation or standard error of prediction of 0.84 for palmitic acid (C16:0), 0.94 for stearic acid (C18:0), 1.47 for oleic acid (C18:1) and 0.58 for linoleic acid (C18:2). Qualitative calibrations provided acceptable results, with up to 98% of samples (n = 234) correctly classified with probabilities ⩾0.9. Results indicated a portable NIR instrument has the potential to be used to measure quality and authenticity of Iberian pork carcasses.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
A study of short period high amplitude Dwarf Cepheid stars has been undertaken in order to discriminate between the two possible models, namely Bessel's (1969) proposal of low mass Pop. II or old Pop. I. The telecsope utilized was the 1.5 m at the SPM Observatory. The Danish spectrophotometer that allows the simultaneous acquisition of data in the uvby filters and almost simultaneously in the Hβ narrow and wide niters was attached. With this advantage of simultaneous observations, no phasing adjustment was needed, eliminating the risks of losing information due to amplitude varition explained either by multiple periodicity or by the Blazhko effect. We have restricted our discussion to the descending branch and light minimum phase interval between 0.175 to 0.725. For this interval the unreddened indices (b – y)0 and (cl)0 were calculated as in Nissen (1988), which will serve to determine the effective gravity and temperature variation of both stars, through the model atmsphere calibrations by Breger (1974), based on the ATLAS and Kurucz model atmospheres. Mean log g values of 4.0 and 4.33, and mean temperatures of 7500 and 7700 K were determined for DY Her and BP Peg, respectively. It can be concluded that both pulsating stars DY Her and BP Peg are Pop.I, normal Dwarf Cepheid stars.
We have carried out simultaneous uvby photometry of the low amplitude δ Set star 28 And. Analysis of the data, using the Fourier Transform method, establishes 28 And as a monoperiodic pulsator. Using the classical O-C method, it is found that the pulsation of this star can be well described by means of a linear ephemeris with a period of P=0.d069304118 over the last twenty-four years. Amplitude variations are also shown to be present from season to season. The physical parameters of this star are determined and the nature of radial or nonradial pulsation is discussed on the basis on the derived phase shifts and amplitude ratios between Strömgren colours. The results indicate that 28 And pulsates in a nonradial mode with ℓ = 2.
The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language such as Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition because in Spanish it is common to write pseudohomophones as valid words. The main objective of the present study was to explore the possible differences in activation patterns in brain areas while processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors between participants with high (High Spelling Skills (HSS)) and low (Low Spelling Skills (LSS)) spelling orthographic abilities. We hypothesize that (a) the detection of orthographic errors will activate bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and that (b) this effect will be greater in the HSS group. Two groups of 12 Mexican participants, each matched by age, were formed based on their results in a group of spelling-related ad hoc tests: HSS and LSS groups. During the fMRI session, two experimental tasks were applied involving correct and pseudohomophone substitution of Spanish words. First, a spelling recognition task and second a letter searching task. The LSS group showed, as expected, a lower number of correct responses (F(1, 21) = 52.72, p <.001, η2 = .715) and higher reaction times compared to the HSS group for the spelling task (F(1, 21) = 60.03, p <.001, η2 = .741). However, this pattern was reversed when the participants were asked to decide on the presence of a vowel in the words, regardless of spelling. The fMRI data showed an engagement of the right inferior frontal gyrus in HSS group during the spelling task. However, temporal, frontal, and subcortical brain regions of the LSS group were activated during the same task.
We acquired multisite observations of the newly discovered rapidly oscillating Ap star HD 122970. A frequency analysis shows the presence of two independent modes, one singlet and one equally spaced triplet. By applying the oblique pulsator model and asymptotic theory we infer that the triplet originates from a distorted dipole mode and that the singlet most probably corresponds to a radial mode.
Phase lag, ψT and R, a parameter measuring the departure from adiabaticity, can be derived directly from multicolor photometry. The same quantities can also be calculated from theoretical non-adiabatic pulsation models. We present here some preliminary theoretical results which indicate that these quantities depend on the mixing length parameter used to treat convection in the standard ML theory. The comparison favours models with α values between 1 and 1.5Hp. Non-adiabatic models also predict the observed phase lags for the newly discovered α Dor g-mode pulsating stars.
The CNES/European space mission COROT will monitor asteroseismic targets located in selected fields to probe stellar interiors. Therefore, suitable candidate targets have to be searched for in order to optimize the scientific return of the mission. However, to be able to use the asteroseismic tools on the stars, their physical parameters must be known in advance. In this work, we detail the process of building a photometric database of all the stars brighter than V = 8.0 in the field of view of COROT and the process of selecting suitable δ Sct and γ Dor-type stars for the mission.
For an optimal selection of the seismology targets (for both COROT programs devoted to asteroseismology, i.e., the core and exploratory ones), it is essential to gather a priori as much information as possible on all potential candidates. With this aim, Strömgren-Crawford uvby-Hβ and Ca II H&K photometry were obtained for all of them. These data have been used to derive estimates of their effective temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities. These observations, together with high resolution echelle spectroscopy and high angular resolution imaging observations, are components of an ambitious ground-based program.
The Delta Scuti Network (DSN) is a collaboration of astronomers all around the globe who study and observe short-period variables. The field of scientific research includes high-precision photometric and Spectroscopic global campaigns, mode identification techniques, and asteroseismological pulsation modeling. We present results for three stars that are receiving the most attention at the moment: 4 CVn, BI CMi, and 44 Tau. Our results demonstrate that a large number of simultaneously excited nonradial oscillations in stars on and above the main sequence can be detected by conventional means.
For δ Sct stars, the theoretical predictions of a non-adiabatic pulsation code are very dependent on the characteristics of the thin convective envelope of the models (Balona & Evers 1999). The treatment of the non-adiabatic interaction between convection and pulsation also has a significant impact on the results, particularly near the red edge of the instability strip. The non-adiabatic theoretical predictions can be tested upon observations by comparing them to the amplitude ratios and phase differences as observed in different color passbands (Dupret et al. 2003). In the first part of this paper, we compare the results obtained by adopting different treatments of convection in the interior and atmosphere models: mixing-length theory (MLT) and full spectrum of turbulence (FST) (Canuto et al. 1996, CGM). In the second part, we examine the problem of the interaction between convection and pulsation and compare the mode stability obtained with and without including time-dependent convection in our non-adiabatic code.
A careful analysis of the light curves of comparison stars to the intermediate amplitude δ Scuti star V1162 Ori observed in 1999/2000 within an international campaign (Arentoft et al., 2001) revealed two new variable stars: GSC 4778-00324, a small-amplitude δ Scuti star, and GSC 4778-00001, an eclipsing variable (see http://www.lunarpages.com/bho for a map of the field). Here, we will concentrate on the first of these.
Since the colour indices (Handler, 2000) put GSC 4778-00324 right in the middle of the δ Scuti instability strip, we decided to monitor its variability (Van Cauteren & Lampens, 2000) taking as much advantage as possible from the international campaign on V1162 Ori and adopting the same comparison stars. The new observations were performed between October 1999 and March 2001, mainly from the Greek and Belgian sites, making use of a standard V filter. We collected and used 2866 data points for GSC 4778-00324 (V = 10.26; b − y = 0.20).
COROT is a high precision wide field photometry experiment from space, funded in the framework of the CNES “Petites Missions” program (the PI is A. Baglin). It will observe approximately 30000 objects with mV between 4.5 and 15.5 over long observational periods (up to 150 d), with a time sampling between 1 s and 16 min, a precision of the order of 10−4 per measurement. The scientific objectives are stellar seismology and the search for telluric planets. The instrument and the core program have already been presented in several places. We here focus on a description of the characteristics of the data to be obtained with COROT. The large amount of high quality data collected by COROT will constitute rich material for several research programs beyond the core program as already defined (http://www.astrsp-mrs.fr/www/corot.html). A call for proposal of additional programs will be made during Northern Spring 2000.
V647 Tau was observed during a 1997 STEPHI campaign; 228 hr of observations in v were obtained, together with another 50 hr of simultaneous data in y. The data were analyzed and main results are discussed in the text.
20 Leo is a spectroscopic triple system composed of 3 very similar stars, one of which seems to be a δ Sct star. Observations at high spectral and high time resolution have been obtained at the Observatoire de Haute Provence with the ELODIE spectrograph on the 1.9-m telescope. The spectra were taken during 7 nights in 2003 January and cover the whole optical domain from 3900 to 6800 Å. We used a Fourier transform technique recently developed by P. Hadrava to disentangle the combined spectrum. Application of the method allows the derivation of radial velocities at all orbital phases (even at phases of complete blending), as well as individual spectra for each component. From these computations we deduced more accurate individual radial velocities and improved orbital parameters describing the motion of the inner binary. Model atmospheres were used to analyze each individual spectrum and determine stellar fundamental parameters of the three components such as effective temperature, surface gravity and projected rotation velocity.
Multisite photoelectric b and V photometry of the δ Scuti variable θ2(78) Tau has been obtained on three continents. Five close pulsation frequencies (13.22965, 13.48073, 13.69360, 14.31764 and 14.61454 cycles per day) with visual amplitudes between 0.001 and 0.007 mag were found. The four frequencies found in the previous campaign were confirmed. All three main data sets (1982-1986) are in excellent agreement with each other and fit the solution to ±0.0028 mag per single measurement. Over the four years the amplitudes and frequencies of pulsation were constant.
Using a theoretical nonadiabatic pulsation model, phase differences and amplitude ratios between the relative effective temperature variation and the relative radial displacement have been calculated. These quantities, when compared with photometric observations in different colours, provide an efficient instrument for mode identification, the first step to understand the internal structure of the stars. The theoretical results presented in this paper show a dependence for δ Scuti stars on the mixing length parameter α used to treat the convection using the standard Mixing Length Theory. The nonadiabatic pulsational code developed here includes the pulsation-atmosphere interaction as described by Dupret et al. (2002). The equilibrium models are provided by the CESAM evolutionary code, where a complete reconstruction of non-grey atmospheres (Kurucz models) is included.
The observations were carried out in August, 1983 using the 75 cm telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain. This telescope is equipped with a six-channel uvbyβ photometer for simultaneous measurements in uvby and the narrow and wide Hβ channels, respectively. The observations were collected during four nights in the four uvby filters and one more night was devoted to measuring β Cas in the n and w bands of the Hβ Crawford system. In all cases, a calibrated neutral filter was used for β Cas. The comparison star was Cl=HR 9085 (V=5.m55, F0III).
The analysis of frequencies was carried out using the Discrete Fourier Transform method, as described in López de Coca et al. (1984), to the observational uvby points collected. The periodograms showed a principal peak at v=9.91 cd−l. After prewhitening for this frequency, the resulting periodograms did not show any trace of another peak, suggesting the monoperiodic nature of this star, in agreement with Antonello et al. (1986). Under the assumption of monoperiodicity of β Cas, the classical O-C method can easily be applied. Nine times of maxima were obtained for the four nights by using the method described in Rodriguez et al. (1990), where each light maximum has been derived as an average over the four uvby bands. When the O-C method was applied, the least squares fit converged to a linear ephemeris with the following elements: To=2445568.d5097 (±0.d0007) and Po=0.d10091 (±0.d00002). This linear ephemeris satisfactorily reproduces our data of β Cas.
We have recently identified a young, very red (J − Ks = 2.47 mag) late L-type companion at 8.06” ± 0.03” (~102 AU) from a previously unrecognized M dwarf. We determined the parallactic distance of the system to be 12.7±1.0 pc. Non-detection of lithium and the kinematics of the primary allowed us to constrain the age of the system in the range of 150–300 Myr. By comparison with theoretical evolutionary models we derived a mass of 73+20−15MJup for the primary, at around the substellar mass regime and 11.2+9.7−1.8MJup for the secondary, near the deuterium burning mass limit.
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.