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The second order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of two different ionic selfassembled multilayer (ISAM) films combined with Ag nanoparticles have been investigated. The plasmon resonances in the Ag particles concentrate the incident light, markedly increasing in the NLO efficiencies of the films. We find that the efficiency enhancement is significantly larger in conventional ISAM films compared to films made using a hybrid covalent ISAM technique (HCISAM), even though the intrinsic bulk second order non-linear susceptibility (χ(2)) is much larger for HCISAM films. We attribute this to the interfaces in HCISAM films being much easier to disrupt by external perturbations such as the metal deposition by which the nanoparticles are fabricated. We conclude that because the plasmon decay length is very short, the plasmonic enhancement of NLO effects primarily occurs at and near the film-particle interface. To discern the importance of the interfaces, we surrounded thin ISAM and HCISAM films with NLOinactive buffer layers, which confirmed this hypothesis, particularly in the case of HCISAM films.
Fetal echocardiography is the main modality of prenatal diagnosis of CHD. This study was done to describe the trends and benefits associated with prenatal diagnosis of complex CHD at a tertiary care centre.
Retrospective chart review of patients with complex CHD over an 18-year period was performed. Rates of prenatal detection along with early and late infant mortality outcomes were studied.
Of 381 complex CHD patients born during the study period, 68.8% were diagnosed prenatally. Prenatal detection rate increased during the study period from low-50s in the first quarter to mid-80s in the last quarter (p=0.001). Rate of detection of conotruncal anomalies increased over the study period. No infant mortality benefit was noted with prenatal detection.
Improved obstetrical screening indications and techniques have contributed to higher proportions of prenatal diagnosis of complex CHD. However, prenatal diagnosis did not confer survival benefits in infancy in our study.
Thinning and rupture of a thin film of a power-law fluid on a solid substrate under the balance between destabilizing van der Waals pressure and stabilizing capillary pressure is analysed. In a power-law fluid, viscosity is not constant but is proportional to the deformation rate raised to the
is the power-law exponent (
for a Newtonian fluid). In the first part of the paper, use is made of the slenderness of the film and the lubrication approximation is applied to the equations of motion to derive a spatially one-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation for film thickness. The variation with time remaining until rupture of the film thickness, the lateral length scale, fluid velocity and viscosity is determined analytically and confirmed by numerical simulations for both line rupture and point rupture. The self-similarity of the numerically computed film profiles in the vicinity of the location where the film thickness is a minimum is demonstrated by rescaling of the transient profiles with the scales deduced from theory. It is then shown that, in contrast to films of Newtonian fluids undergoing rupture for which inertia is always negligible, inertia can become important during thinning of films of power-law fluids in certain situations. The critical conditions for which inertia becomes important and the lubrication approximation is no longer valid are determined analytically. In the second part of the paper, thinning and rupture of thin films of power-law fluids in situations when inertia is important are simulated by solving numerically the spatially two-dimensional, transient Cauchy momentum and continuity equations. It is shown that as such films continue to thin, a change of scaling occurs from a regime in which van der Waals, capillary and viscous forces are important to one where the dominant balance of forces is between van der Waals, capillary and inertial forces while viscous force is negligible.
Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human–bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumour, and is categorized into four molecular subgroups, with Group 3 MB having the worst prognosis due to the highest rate of metastatic dissemination and relapse. In this work, we describe the epigenetic regulator Bmi1 as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of recurrent Group 3 MB. Through comparative profiling of primary and recurrent MB, we show that Bmi1 defines a treatment-refractory cell population that is uniquely targetable by a novel class of small molecule inhibitors. We have optimized an in vivo mouse-adapted therapy model that has the advantage of generating recurrent, human, treatment-refractory MBs. Our preliminary studies showed that although chemoradiotherapy administered to mice engrafted with human MB showed reduction in tumour size, Bmi1 expression was enriched in the post-treatment residual tumour. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of Bmi1 in human recurrent MB cells decreases proliferation and self-renewing capacities of MB cells in vitro as well as both tumour size and extent of spinal leptomeningeal metastases in vivo. Oral administration of a potent Bmi1 inhibitor, PTC 028, resulted in a marked reduction in tumour burden and an increased survival in treatment cohort. Bmi1 inhibitors showed high specificity for MB cells and spared normal human neural stem cells, when treated with doses relevant for MB cells. As Group 3 medulloblastoma is often metastatic and uniformly fatal at recurrence, with no current or planned trials of targeted therapy, an efficacious agent such as Bmi1 inhibitor could be rapidly transitioned to clinical trials.
To evaluate the success rate of dry and wet temporalis fascia grafts in type I underlay tympanoplasty.
A prospective, randomised study was conducted. One hundred adult patients (males and females) with chronic suppurative otitis media (mucosal type) were divided into 2 groups of 50 each: one group underwent dry graft tympanoplasty and the other underwent wet graft tympanoplasty. Fibroblast count was calculated in dry and wet grafts.
The dry graft and wet graft groups had overall surgical success rates of 82 and 90 per cent, respectively; this finding was not statistically significant. A statistically significant high fibroblast count was observed in wet grafts, but it did not correlate with surgical success.
A dry or wet temporalis fascia graft does not influence the outcome of tympanoplasty type I.
To evaluate and analyse the success rate of tympanoplasty type I in paediatric patients aged 5 to 8 years compared to a control group (patients aged over 14 years).
In this prospective study, 60 patients (of either sex) with chronic suppurative otitis media inactive mucosal disease were divided into 2 groups (30 in each): group A comprised paediatric patients aged 5–8 years and group B consisted of older individuals aged over 14 years. All patients underwent tympanoplasty type I with an underlay technique using a temporalis fascia graft.
Impressive surgical success rates of 87 and 90 per cent were recorded in groups A and B, respectively. Furthermore, audiological success rates of 69 and 78 per cent were achieved in groups A and B respectively. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that eustachian tube function had no impact on the outcome of tympanoplasty.
Tympanoplasty type I performed in children aged five to eight years gives comparable results to those of older individuals.
The critically endangered Phyllanthus talbotii Sedgw. (Phyllanthaceae) is endemic to the northern part of the Western Ghats in Goa and Karnataka, India. The species was described in 1921 from collections made in 1883, 1918 and 1919, and then rediscovered in 1969. We report here a new locality, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, South Goa district, Goa. The species is lectotypified and a detailed description is provided, including distribution, IUCN threat status, conservation measures and nomenclatural notes.
Developing a reliable mastitis challenge infection model is required to test new intramammary antimicrobial preparations, other novel bovine mastitis treatments, and study mastitis pathogenesis. Three treatment groups of Holstein Friesian cows in active lactation were administered two doses (104 and 106 cfu/quarter) on a single occasion with one of the three Streptococcus uberis strains (BFR6019, MFF1283 and SA002) suspended in 5 ml of sterile PBS, administered via intramammary inoculation immediately after milking. All quarters that were challenged with S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019 showed clinical signs of mastitis on day 1 and 2 after the challenge. Strain SA002 had a lower rate of inducing clinical mastitis which was detected later than day 3 after the challenge. We successfully developed a rapid and reliable model for inducing experimental S. uberis mastitis with 100% success rate in cows in active lactation. On the basis of the correlation results between strains, RAPD fingerprinting results, clinical findings, and a 100% success rate of mastitis induction for low and high doses S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019, strain virulence seems to be a more important effect than challenge dose in induction of clinical mastitis following experimental challenge.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
Gas-phase velocity fluctuations due to mean slip velocity between the gas and solid phases are quantified using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. These fluctuations are termed pseudo-turbulent because they arise from the interaction of particles with the mean slip even in ‘laminar’ gas–solid flows. The contribution of turbulent and pseudo-turbulent fluctuations to the level of gas-phase velocity fluctuations is quantified in initially ‘laminar’ and turbulent flow past fixed random particle assemblies of monodisperse spheres. The pseudo-turbulent kinetic energy
in steady flow is then characterized as a function of solid volume fraction
and the Reynolds number based on the mean slip velocity
. Anisotropy in the Reynolds stress is quantified by decomposing it into isotropic and deviatoric parts, and its dependence on
is explained. An algebraic stress model is proposed that captures the dependence of the Reynolds stress on
. Gas-phase velocity fluctuations in freely evolving suspensions undergoing elastic and inelastic particle collisions are also quantified. The flow corresponds to homogeneous gas–solid systems, with high solid-to-gas density ratio and particle diameter greater than dissipative length scales. It is found that for the parameter values considered here, the level of pseudo-turbulence differs by only 15 % from the values for equivalent fixed beds. The principle of conservation of interphase turbulent kinetic energy transfer is validated by quantifying the interphase transfer terms in the evolution equations of kinetic energy for the gas-phase and solid-phase fluctuating velocity. It is found that the collisional dissipation is negligible compared with the viscous dissipation for the cases considered in this study where the freely evolving suspensions attain a steady state starting from an initial condition where the particles are at rest.
Kimura's disease is a rare, localised, chronic inflammatory disease. This benign disease involves subcutaneous tissues, the major salivary gland, and lymph nodes primarily in the head and neck area.
Clinical details and stained slides of all cases reported as Kimura's disease over a 10-year period were reviewed.
There were eight cases of Kimura's disease. The mean age of patients was 22.8 years. One case showed associated nephrotic syndrome and two cases were associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia. All cases showed the typical histopathological features of Kimura's disease.
Kimura's disease was first reported in China in 1937. The cause of Kimura's disease is unknown and many theories have been proposed. The eight cases reported here illustrate some of the variations in the mode of presentation and in the histological features of Kimura's disease. Kimura's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with head and neck swellings and lymphadenopathy, and investigated accordingly.
The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the vitamin D status of pregnant Indian women and their breast-fed infants. Subjects were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics, Armed Forces Clinic and Army Hospital (Research and Referral), Delhi. A total of 541 apparently healthy women with uncomplicated, single, intra-uterine gestation reporting in any trimester were consecutively recruited. Of these 541 women, 299 (first trimester, ninety-seven; second trimester, 125; third trimester, seventy-seven) were recruited in summer (April–October) and 242 (first trimester, fifty-nine, second trimester, ninety-three; third trimester, ninety) were recruited in winter (November–March) to study seasonal variations in vitamin D status. Clinical, dietary, biochemical and hormonal evaluations for the Ca–vitamin D–parathormone axis were performed. A subset of 342 mother–infant pairs was re-evaluated 6 weeks postpartum. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) of pregnant women was 23·2 (sd 12·2) nmol/l. Hypovitaminosis D (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) was observed in 96·3 % of the subjects. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in winter in the second and third trimesters, while serum intact parathormone (iPTH) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in winter in all three trimesters. A significant negative correlation was found between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in mothers (r − 0·367, P = 0·0001) and infants (r − 0·56, P = 0·0001). A strong positive correlation was observed between 25(OH)D levels of mother–infant pairs (r 0·779, P = 0·0001). A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was observed in pregnancy, lactation and infancy with no significant inter-trimester differences in serum 25(OH)D levels.
We have investigated the high-temperature deformation behavior of the solid-solution strengthened alloy Ni-47.5Al-2.5Ti. Single crystals were deformed in compression in the “hard” <001> and “soft” <111> orientations, at temperatures between 900°C and 1200°C. The results show that Ti has a very powerful solute strengthening effect in NiAl. The creep rates for the solid-solution alloy were observed to be three to four orders of magnitude lower than for the stoichiometric material. We discuss our efforts to understand this solid-solution strengthening effect. We have studied high-temperature deformation transients in an effort to determine whether solute drag effects contribute to the creep resistance of this solid solution. In addition, we have examined the solute size effect of Ti as it replaces Al on the Al sub-lattice. We discuss the probable mechanism of creep of this alloy in light of TEM observations of the dislocation structures in creep-deformed crystals.
A comparison of published creep data on binary NiAl showed that there is a discrepancy in the reported magnitudes of the stress exponents, n, which usually vary between about 4.5 and 6.5. In general, a close examination of the data suggested that n ≈ 4.5 for cast materials arid 6.5 for powder-metallurgy extruded NiAl. Constant load compression creep tests were conducted on a cast and extruded binary NiAl between 800 and 1200 K over a wide range of initial applied stresses varying between 4.0 and 200 MPa. The microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The observed variations in the creep behavior of the extruded cast and powder-metallurgy NiAl appeared to be due to a grain size effect. Despite similarities in the values of n, no significant substructure was observed in most of the grains in the cast and extruded specimens at 1100 and 1200 K in contrast to the PM-extruded alloy, which revealed a wide range of substructural features in the power-law creep region. However, extensive subgrain formation and dislocations were widely observed at lower temperatures and higher stresses in the cast and extruded material.
On-farm nutrient management practices were evaluated in the irrigated rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in northwestern India. Large farmers used comparatively higher doses of nutrients than small and medium farmers for both rice and wheat crops. On average, a field is treated with organic manure after every 15 years for rice and 53 years for wheat. Nitrogen use was generally more than the recommended dose for both crops. Phosphorus use in wheat was nearly as per recommendation, while in rice it was below the recommended dose. Potassium use was almost nil; however, the use of Zn (particularly in rice) is becoming common. Use of biofertilizers was negligible. Overall, farmers applied higher doses of organic manures, K, Zn and biofertilizers in rice than wheat, and there was increasing trend in their use with increase in the size of land holdings. Grain yield increased significantly with increase in the size of land holding in rice but remained almost same in wheat. This study generated comprehensive data on nutrient use pattern in the RWCS, thus providing necessary input to researchers, planners and developmental agencies who wish to enhance food security.
Sixty-nine strains of Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated at different times were analysed to investigate if there were any differences among the 01 strains isolated before, during and after the advent of the O139 serogroup. Of the 69 01 strains examined, 68 belonged to the Ogawa serotype while one belonged to the Inaba serotype. With the exception of one strain all other strains of V. cholerae 01 belonged to the eltor biotype. A single O1 strain isolated before the emergence of the O139 serogroup could not be classified as either eltor or classical biotype because it was resistant to both classical and eltor specific bacteriophages. Marked variations in the susceptibility to antibiotics of V. cholerae O1 isolated during the different periods were observed. In addition, strains of V. cholerae isolated after the epidemic of serogroup O139 in Calcutta showed an expanding R-type with resistance to a variety of drugs as compared to the 01 strains isolated before the advent of the O139 serogroup. From this study, it is clear that there is a substantial mobility in genetic elements of V. cholerae Ol which necessitates a continuous monitoring to keep abreast of the changing traits of the etiologic agent of cholera.