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This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating diets to a accurately balanced density of Ca : nPP considering the biological importance of both minerals.
This paper presents the results of research into the marketing of the actuarial profession including a SWOT analysis, public awareness and image of the profession amongst target groups (general public, undergraduates, journalists, company directors, pension scheme trustees and insurance intermediaries), and the desire to allocate more resources to the profession's public awareness and image. The paper also contains an analysis of the national press coverage achieved by the profession and reports on developments in North America where a task force on strengthening the actuarial profession has been set up.
The Environment Agency is the environmental regulator for the nuclear industry in England and Wales. We aim to ensure that any future Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) will meet our standards for protecting people and the environment during development, operation and following closure. We shall only grant an environmental permit for such a facility if the GDF developer submits an Environmental Safety Case (ESC) to the Environment Agency demonstrating that the proposed GDF will meet our standards. The ESC should be based on sound science and supported by appropriate research and development. The Environment Agency undertakes its own research programme to inform its regulatory decisions.
The use of imaging that employs ionising radiation is increasing in the setting of paediatric cardiology. Children's high radiosensitivity and the lack of contemporary radiation data warrant a review of the radiation doses from the latest “state-of-the-art” angiography and computed tomography systems.
In children aged less than 16 years with congenital cardiac disease, we aimed to report: recent trends in the use of diagnostic angiography and cardiac dual-source computed tomography; the characteristics, lesions, and imaging histories of patients undergoing these procedures; and the average radiation doses imparted by each modality.
Retrospective review of consecutive cases undergoing cardiac computed tomography or diagnostic angiography in a teaching hospital between January, 2008 and December, 2009. Radiation doses were converted to effective doses (millisievert) using published conversion factors.
Angiography was performed 3.7 times more often than computed tomography. Computed tomography examinations increased by 92.5%, whereas angiography decreased by 26.4% in 2009 compared with 2008. Patients undergoing computed tomography were younger and weighed less than those undergoing angiography, but lesions were similar between the 2 groups. Multiple lifetime angiography was more prevalent than multiple lifetime computed tomography (p < 0.001). The median procedural dose – range – from angiography and computed tomography was 5 (0.2–27.8) and 1.7 (0.5–9.5) millisieverts, respectively (p < 0.001).
Despite not being completely analogous investigations, computed tomography should be considered prior to angiography and not withheld on radiation dose concerns, given that it imparts lower and more consistent doses than conventional angiography.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.
The electrical properties associated with carrier mobility, μ, and lifetime, τ, have been investigated for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films using charged particle-induced conductivity and time resolved transient photo-induced conductivity. The collection distance, d, the average distance which electron and hole depart when driven by an applied electric field E, was measured by both methods. The collection distance is related to the carrier mobility and lifetime by d = μEτ Our measurements show that the collection distance increases linearly with sample thickness for CVD diamond films. The collection distance at the growth side of the CVD diamond film is comparable to that of single crystal natural type IIa diamond; at the substrate side of the film, the collection distance is near zero. No saturation of the collection distance is observed for film thickness up to 500 microns.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.
Titanium has been successfully used for decades in dental and orthopedic implants, but the mechanism for this metal's biocompatible properties have not been determined. Our hypothesis is that this biocompatibility involves interaction between the surface layer of titanium dioxide on the metal implant and reactive oxygen mediators of the inflammatory response. The affect of different titanium surface oxide layers on the reactive oxygen mediators produced during the inflammatory response has never been examined. Peroxynitrite is a highly reactive and unstable compound produced in vivo by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. We investigated if titanium oxides affect the stability of peroxynitrite by promoting its breakdown. Peroxynitrite levels can be measured by its absorbance at 302 nm. At pH= 13.2, we found a 100% increase in the rate of degradation of peroxynitrite in the presence of titanium particles. Peroxynitrite is capable of nitrating 4-hydroxyphenolacetic acid (4-HPA). The nitrated form of 4-HPA can be measured by its absorbance at 432nm. 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a nitric oxide donor, has been shown to produce superoxide during its breakdown resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite. At physiological pH (7.4), a solution of 0.5mM 4-HPA was exposed to 5mM SIN- 1 on passivated titanium surfaces. There was a decrease of 58% nitrated 4-HPA in the solution exposed to passivated titanium compared to controls. Unpassivated titanium surfaces resulted in only a 10% decrease of nitrated 4-HPA while titanium treated with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a 70% decrease in nitrated 4-HPA concentrations compared to controls. Zirconium and palladium were also tested. These experiments suggest that titanium is capable of enhancing the breakdown of the inflammatory compound peroxynitrite which may account for the metal's biocompatible properties.
We present a novel method for manufacturing three-dimensional, biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foam scaffolds for use in bone regeneration. The technique involves the formation of a composite material consisting of gelatin microspheres surrounded by a PLGA matrix. The gelatin microspheres are leached out leaving an open-cell foam with a pore size and morphology defined by the gelatin microspheres. The foam porosity can be controlled by altering the volume fraction of gelatin used to make the composite material. PLGA 50:50 was used as a model degradable polymer to establish the effect of porosity, pore size, and degradation on foam mechanical properties. The compressive strengths and moduli of PLGA 50:50 foams were found to decrease with increasing porosity but were largely unaffected by pore size. Foams with compressive strengths up to 2.5 MPa were manufactured. From in vitro degradation studies we established that for PLGA 50:50 foams the mechanical properties declined in parallel with the decrease in molecular weight. Below a weight average molecular weight of 10,000 the foam had very little mechanical strength (0.02 MPa). These results indicate that PLGA 50:50 would not be suitable as a scaffold material for bone regeneration. However, the dependence of mechanical properties on porosity, pore size, and degree of degradation which we have determined will aid us in designing a PLGA foam (with a comonomer ratio other than 50:50) suitable for bone regeneration.
The preparation a nd characterisationo f a novel organoplatinum fluoride is described. The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of the material was performed in the temperature range 160–170°C, and electron beam bombardment or uv irradiation, results in the degradation of the compound to give high quality metal features down to dimensions of ca 60 nm.
The synthesis and peirastic characterisation of two new organogold(III) complexes with a high molar ratio of gold content is described. The proposed formulae for the complexes in the present study are [C2H2Au4F8(PPh3)4]n and [C2H2Au4F8(NCCH3)4]n (Figure 1). These complexes were found to be stable to the atmosphere. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that such materials have a high metal to ligand ratio, suitable for physical vapour deposition process (PVD) and, hence, can be used as precursors for the deposition of pure metallic features. Physical and chemical characterisation methods were employed to obtain information about i) the structures, ii) the thermal and chemical stability, iii) the volatility and iv) the adhesion of these materials to specific substrates. These include n.m.r. (1H, 19F, 13C and 31P) IR spectroscopy, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis), DSC ( Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), Powder X-ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy (Scanning, Transmission and Atomic Force).
The DRINK code is a 2D, biogeochemical transport code developed as a research tool to simulate the long term evolution of near surface LLW disposal sites and to generate gaseous and liquid source terms for far field studies. The code was recently upgraded to provide a more generic modelling tool with wider application to radionuclide migration scenarios. During the development of this code, the Generalised Repository Model (GRM), an integrated strategy has been employed to ensure the production of a fully tested, verified and quality assured product. This strategy is based around a code development protocol with three main components: quality assurance and documentation, verification and realism testing. Realism testing includes both peer review and model testing, with the latter including: experimental test cases; natural and anthropogenic analogues; field observations and finally uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. This paper describes the successful application of the protocol to the development and testing of the GRM code with specific emphasis upon verification and realism testing.
Dideoxy nucleotide sequencing of a portion of the 1D gene of SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) was used to derive phylogenetic relationships between viruses recovered from the oesophageo-pharyngeal secretions of buffalo in the Kruger National Park as well as several other wildlife areas in southern Africa. The three serotypes differed from one another by more than 40 % while intratypic variation did not exceed 29%. Within each type, isolates from particular countries were more closely related to one another than to isolates from other countries lending credence to previous observations that FMDV evolve independently in different regions of the subcontinent.
Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished.