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This work focuses on the functionalization of agave xylan-type hemicellulose functionalized with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate and crosslinked with N-vinylcaprolactam to obtain a thermoresponsive material for potential applications in drug delivery. The hydrogels showed an interconnected and porous architecture with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) close to poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)’s (PNVCL) LCST. These materials showed a good capacity to load ciprofloxacin (in the range 9.5 × 10−3–8.4 × 10−3 mg/mL), above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 0.004 × 10−3–0.5 × 10−3 mg/mL) for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The hybrid hydrogel inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Although many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. ‘Core health care’ refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. ‘Other care’ is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills. In such a definition, ‘other care’ does not necessarily mean being funded or governed differently. The aims of the study were: (1) using a standard classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long Term Care, DESDE-LTC) to identify ‘core health’ and ‘other care’ services provided to adults with mental health problems; and (2) to investigate the balance of care by analysing the types and characteristics of core health and other care services.
The study was conducted in eight selected local areas in eight European countries with different mental health systems. All publicly funded mental health services, regardless of the funding agency, for people over 18 years old were identified and coded. The availability, capacity and the workforce of the local mental health services were described using their functional main activity or ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) as the standard for international comparison, following the DESDE-LTC system.
In these European study areas, 822 MTCs were identified as providing core health care and 448 provided other types of care. Even though one-third of mental health services in the selected study areas provided interventions that were coded as ‘other care’, significant variation was found in the typology and characteristics of these services across the eight study areas.
The functional distinction between core health and other care overcomes the traditional division between ‘health’ and ‘social’ sectors based on governance and funding. The overall balance between core health and other care services varied significantly across the European sites. Mental health systems cannot be understood or planned without taking into account the availability and capacity of all services specifically available for this target population, including those outside the health sector.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus and Universidad Central del Caribe, through the Title V Cooperative Project, devised a clinical and translational research (CTR) platform to pipeline students/faculty of undergraduate health sciences programs into CTR. Educational interventions in CTR—introductory intervention (II) and Annual Symposium (AS)—were designed to promote awareness, stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the II the participants (n=159) were surveyed before and after a presentation and panel discussion about CTR. In addition, after the sessions—plenary, panel, and workshop—about CTR, the participants of AS (n=42) were surveyed for satisfaction and learning experience in CTR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most participants of the II, 134 (84.3%) were students. In total, 58 (58, 36.5%) completed the post II survey. Of these, 53.4% satisfactorily defined the CTR concept Versus only 31.0% that could define CTR in the pre survey, 47 (81.7%) were unable to identify a CTR researcher and 45 (78.3 %) expressed interest in learning about CTR. In total, 28 (28, 66.7%) participants of the AS completed the satisfaction survey, out of which 17 (60.6%) were students. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that the AS served as a vehicle to increase their knowledge in CTR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The educational interventions demonstrated to be an effective strategy to promote awareness and stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. In addition, the results obtained, provided valuable baseline information for the planning—development of training cycles in CTR.
This sixth date list for the prehistoric site of El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain) reports on new age determinations for the earliest and last Solutrean occupations (20.4 and 18.0 14C kyr BP) and for a Lower/Initial Magdalenian level with a possible rock wall (16.75 14C kyr BP). The site has now been dated by 92 radiocarbon (14C) assays. In addition, to help resolve inconsistencies in the 14C chronology of La Riera Cave (Asturias)—the first Paleolithic site in Spain to be extensively 14C-dated back in the 1970s—two AMS assays were done on bones from the Lower and Upper Magdalenian collections (15.1 and 13.5 14C kyr BP).
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
Previous cafeteria studies suggested that a moderate natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection did not modify the resource selection of adult Criollo goats towards tannin-rich plants compared with worm-free goats. A higher infection with Haemonchus contortus could trigger a change in the resource selection behaviour towards tannin-rich foliage. Alternatively, goats might select plant species solely to meet their nutritional requirements. A cafeteria study investigated the effect of a high artificial infection with H. contortus on the feed resource selection of goats. Adult Criollo goats (37.5±4.8 kg BW) with browsing experience were distributed in two groups: the infected group (IG) with six animals artificially infected with H. contortus (6000 L3/animal); and the non-infected group (NIG) with six animals maintained worm-free. The experiment included two 5-day periods with additional 5-day adaptation period. In the first period, animals were offered foliage of five plant species with a decreasing gradient of condensed tannins (CT) (Mimosa bahamensis, Gymnopodium floribundum, Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliqum), and three plant species with negligible CT content (Leucaena leucocephala, Piscidia piscipula and Brosimum alicastrum). In the second period the foliage of B. alicastrum was withdrawn. A grain-based concentrate feed was offered daily at 1% BW in DM basis. Dry matter and nutrient intake was determined. Foliage selection of each experimental group was determined using the Chesson selection index. The H. contortus egg count per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined for infected goats twice daily. Chesson index showed a similar pattern of foliage selection on periods 1 and 2. Mean EPG of goats in IG was 2028±259 EPG during period 1 and 1 293±198 EPG during period 2 (P>0.05). During period 1, the selection pattern was highest for B. alicastrum (tannin-free), followed by a tannin-rich plant (M. bahamensis). These two plants remained as highly selected during period 2. The Chesson index showed that both experimental groups (IG and NIG) selected the same plant species in both periods. Thus, a high H. contortus infection did not affect selection of goats fed with CT-rich plants. Apparently, goats balanced their nutrient intake with the plants selected, showing evidence of nutritional wisdom. This balance may have helped to prevent excess protein in the diet and also to maintain a low GIN infection, both considered as examples of prophylactic self-medication.
The LIGO/Virgo detections of gravitational waves from merging black holes of ≃ 30 solar mass suggest progenitor stars of low metallicity (Z/Z⊙ ≲ 0.3). In this talk I will provide constrains on where the progenitors of GW150914 and GW170104 may have formed, based on advanced models of galaxy formation and evolution combined with binary population synthesis models. First I will combine estimates of galaxy properties (star-forming gas metallicity, star formation rate and merger rate) across cosmic time to predict the low redshift BBH merger rate as a function of present day host galaxy mass, formation redshift of the progenitor system and different progenitor metallicities. I will show that the signal is dominated by binaries formed at the peak of star formation in massive galaxies with and binaries formed recently in dwarf galaxies. Then, I will present what very high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of different galaxy types can learn us about their black hole populations.
The LIGO direct-detection of gravitational waves arriving from cosmic sources—now, happily including (as of this meeting!) the merging of two neutron stars—opens a new chapter in our understanding of physics itself: for General Relativity, conceptually so extremely simple, has robustly produced predictions that have invariably been found to be correct when tested. My poster (page 3 of this paper) is intended for high school students who have just learned simple algebra. My derivation of the famous E = mc2 from the Pythagorean Theorem necessarily requires an algebraic expansion that is due to Newton, but apart from that it is simplicity itself: a transparent introduction to what all of physics is today: the construction of mathematics that, miraculously, reproduces our observations of the world—and which also successfully predicts the results of future observations—as so magnificently demonstrated at this glorious Symposium!
On August 17, 2017 LIGO/Virgo detected a binary neutron star via gravitational waves. We observed 70 sq-degrees in the LIGO/Virgo spatial localization with the DECam on the 4m Blanco telescope covering 80% of the final map. Our group independently discovered an optical counterpart in NGC 4993. We searched our entire imaged region: the object in NGC 4993 was the only viable candidate. Our observations of NGC4993 show complicated morphology but simple star formation history. Our x-ray and radio observations indicate an off-axis jet as afterglow. Our high-cadence optical and infrared spectra show a source that must be described by at least two components, one of which is dominated by the r-process nucleosynthesis elements characteristic of a kilonova. Our modeling of the light curve demonstrates such a model in which 0.05 M⊙ of material is ejected from the system. Finally, we discuss the first standard siren measurement of H0.
Motivated by the prospect of the wealth of data arising from the inauguration of the era of gravitational wave detection by ground-based interferometers the DES collaboration, in partnership with members of the LIGO collaboration and members of the astronomical community at large, have established a research program to search for their optical counterparts and to explore their use as cosmological probes. In this talk we present the status of our program and discuss prospects for establishing this new probe as part of the portfolio of the Dark Energy research program in the future, in particular for the next generation survey, LSST.
Compact object mergers are promising candidates for the progenitor system of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using gravitational wave (GW) triggers to identify a merger, any electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from the jet can be used to constrain the dynamics and structure of short GRB jets. GW triggered searches could reveal a hidden population of optical transients associated with the short-lived jets from the merger object. If the population of merger-jets is dominated by low-Lorentz-factors, then a GW triggered search will reveal the on-axis orphan afterglows from these failed GRBs. By considering the EM counterparts from a jet, with or without the prompt GRB, the jet structure and dynamics can be constrained. By modelling the afterglow of various jet structures with viewing angle, we provide observable predictions for the on- and off- axis EM jet counterparts. The predictions provide an indication for the various features expected from the proposed jet structure models.