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In today's engineering projects, interdisciplinary work leads to an increase in interfaces between different departments and domains. As each stakeholder pursues different goals and tasks, a heterogeneous model landscape is required. In each domain, a variety of different model and software implementations provide the essential basis for efficient work. On the interfaces, the risk of model inconsistencies increases. To handle occurring inconsistencies, various approaches have been presented. For model-based systems engineering projects, rule-based methods are considered as the most suitable technique. However, said approaches require a high manual effort in identifying model dependencies and establishing consistency rules. Unfortunately, in particular these steps are not well described and supported. Therefore, this paper presents an easily applicable approach for the identification of model dependencies in interdisciplinary projects. The method is supported by a software implementation and is directly integrated in engineering workflows. A first industrial case study has shown positive effects of the approach and revealed further research goals.
We report on the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) deep drilling operation. Starting with the scientific questions that led to the outline of the EPICA project, we introduce the setting of sister drillings at NorthGRIP and EPICA Dome C within the European ice-coring community. The progress of the drilling operation is described within the context of three parallel, deep-drilling operations, the problems that occurred and the solutions we developed. Modified procedures are described, such as the monitoring of penetration rate via cable weight rather than motor torque, and modifications to the system (e.g. closing the openings at the lower end of the outer barrel to reduce the risk of immersing the drill in highly concentrated chip suspension). Parameters of the drilling (e.g. core-break force, cutter pitch, chips balance, liquid level, core production rate and piece number) are discussed. We also review the operational mode, particularly in the context of achieved core length and piece length, which have to be optimized for drilling efficiency and core quality respectively. We conclude with recommendations addressing the design of the chip-collection openings and strictly limiting the cable-load drop with respect to the load at the start of the run.
We present liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (liquid-cell TEM) imaging of fixed and non-fixed prostate cancer cells (PC3 and LNCaP) with high resolution in a custom developed silicon nitride liquid cell. Fixed PC3 cells were imaged for 90–120 min without any discernable damage. High contrast on the cellular structures was obtained even at low electron doses (~2.5 e−/nm2 per image). The images show distinct structures of cell compartments (nuclei and nucleoli) and cell boundaries without any further sample embedding, dehydration, or staining. Furthermore, we observed dynamics of vesicles trafficking from the cell membrane in consecutive still frames in a non-fixed cell. Our findings show that liquid-cell TEM, operated at low electron dose, is an excellent tool to investigate dynamic events in non-fixed cells with enough spatial resolution (few nm) and natural amplitude contrast to follow key intracellular processes.
We present constraints on the variability and binarity of young stars in the central 10 arcseconds (~ 0.4 pc) of the Milky Way Galactic Center (GC) using Keck Adaptive Optics data over a 12 year baseline. Given our experiment’s photometric uncertainties, at least 36% of our sample’s known early-type stars are variable. We identified eclipsing binary systems by searching for periodic variability. In our sample of spectroscopically confirmed and likely early-type stars, we detected the two previously discovered GC eclipsing binary systems. We derived the likely binary fraction of main sequence, early-type stars at the GC via Monte Carlo simulations of eclipsing binary systems, and find that it is at least 32% with 90% confidence.
Meta-analyses link childhood trauma to depression, mania, anxiety disorders, and psychosis. It is unclear, however, whether these outcomes truly represent distinct disorders following childhood trauma, or that childhood trauma is associated with admixtures of affective, psychotic, anxiety and manic psychopathology throughout life.
We used data from a representative general population sample (NEMESIS-2, n = 6646), of whom respectively 1577 and 1120 had a lifetime diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder, as well as from a sample of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (GROUP, n = 825). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess whether childhood trauma was more strongly associated with isolated affective/psychotic/anxiety/manic symptoms than with their admixture.
In NEMESIS-2, largely comparable associations were found between childhood trauma and depression, mania, anxiety and psychosis. However, childhood trauma was considerably more strongly associated with their lifetime admixture. These results were confirmed in the patient samples, in which it was consistently found that patients with a history of childhood trauma were more likely to have a combination of multiple symptom domains compared to their non-traumatized counterparts. This pattern was also found in exposed individuals who did not meet criteria for a psychotic, affective or anxiety disorder and who did not seek help for subclinical psychopathology.
Childhood trauma increases the likelihood of a specific admixture of affective, anxiety and psychotic symptoms cutting across traditional diagnostic boundaries, and this admixture may already be present in the earliest stages of psychopathology. These findings may have significant aetiological, pathophysiological, diagnostic and clinical repercussions.
We have used data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite over the period 2004–11 to describe the characteristics of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at Escudero Station (62°12′S, 58°57′W). The station is located on King George Island (northern Antarctic Peninsula). Temperatures in summer are frequently above 0°C, and the surrounding ocean is typically ice-free. We found that the UV irradiance at Escudero is driven by the Antarctic ozone hole (which annually in spring leads to significant variations in the ozone) and by clouds (which are more frequent and have a larger optical depth compared with other Antarctic sites). The combined effect of ozone and clouds led to significant variations in the surface UV. The variability (taken as the standard deviation of the UV estimates retrieved from OMI) is typically greater than 30% at Escudero, but may reach values greater than 50% in spring. The consistency of OMI-derived data was checked by using ground-based spectral measurements carried out under controlled conditions in January 2011.
‘Soleo eniin et in aliena castra transire, non tamquam transfuga, sed tamquam explorator.’ Seneca, Epistul. Mor. I., Ep. II.
Some years ago it occurred to the author that certain submerged ruins in the Bay of Naples were sufficiently well preserved to repay investigation with a view to supplementing the history of the post-Roman land-movements, as recorded upon the columns of the Macellum of Puteoli, commonly known as the “Temple of Serapis.”
The Object of the present communication is to bring together again three closely related items of antiquarian interest, which have got separated, and thus to recombine the parts of a long-forgotten scientific instrument of the Elizabethan Age, the invention of John Blagrave of Reading. Were any one of these three cluesto be lost, it would be impossible to reconstruct his Uranical Astrolabe.
During the past summer a number of parts of ancient English astronomical instruments were found in the University Observatory at Oxford, during the refitting of certain rooms for the new programme of work of Professor Plaskett, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy. Professor Plaskett was kind enough to draw my attention to the find, and, on my expressing the opinion that it was of historic value, was gracious enough to present the instruments to the Oxford Museum of the History of Science in the Old Ashmolean.
Synthetic zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) doped with rare earth elements (REEs) and Hf has been subjected to corrosion tests in a closed system at elevated temperature and pressure in fluids with various compositions. Together with previous studies, the results indicate only a very weak corrosion below 250°C at a pressure of 50 MPa. Above that temperature and up to 500°C zirconolite suffers from relatively rapid corrosion and, depending on the fluid composition, it may be covered by various secondary phases. Above 500°C in Na-rich fluids, zirconolite is replaced by perovskiteand calzirtite (nominally CaTiO3 and Ca2r5Ti2O16, respectively), but theREEs and Hf (acting as actinide analogues and/or neutron absorbers) are almost quantitatively incorporated into the secondary phases. The breakdown of zirconolite and its replacement by other phases in the laboratory tests are comparable to reactions observed in natural systems. Additional experiments with U-doped zirconolite revealed differences in the behavior of the used actinide analogues (Nd, Ce, Gd)and U during corrosion. The results of this study, together with observations on natural samples, strongly support the use of zirconolite-based ceramic waste forms for actinide-rich wastes.
Nanoparticles of indium oxide, tin oxide and indium oxide doped with tin oxide (ITO) have been prepared by Chemical Vapor Synthesis, CVS (a modified CVD process), starting with In- (tmhd)3 as precursor. A modification of the CVS process using a novel radio-frequency reaction zone has been developed in order to avoid the rapid decomposition of the nanocrystalline indium oxide particles at high temperatures. These oxides are candidates for applications as transparent conducting oxides, catalysts and gas sensors. Structural characterization by high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray-diffraction has been used to determine the phase, grain size, grain size distribution and crystallinity of the nanoparticles. The specific surface area, and particle or agglomerate size of the powders have been measured by nitrogen sorption. Agglomerate sizes in aqueous dispersions have been determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Zeta-potentials were measured. As well CVS powders exhibit a narrow size distribution with an average size of about 5 nm.
Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of an n-doped ZnO nanowire array and a p-doped polymer layer appears to be a promising candidate for low-cost production of environment-friendly solar cells. In this work, we investigate hybrid devices consisting of a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate, ZnO-nanowires (ZnO-NW) or a sol-gel prepared ZnO layer, a ruthenium dye (N719) and a PEDOT:PSS or P3HT layer. The dense polycrystalline ZnO layer is able to prevent short circuits, which have a strong effect on the performance of the solar cells. This is demonstrated by the use of only the ZnO layer which improves the open circuit voltage by a factor of 2 and the efficiency by a factor of 1.7 compared to cells with nanowires. That indicates that the system combined with a thin but dense ZnO layer and NW grown on it will show further improvement. Furthermore three different TCO substrates were investigated. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) reveals at least one additional Schottky barrier formed with ZnO:Al substrates. Spectral photovoltage measurements clearly show distinct absorption features correlated with the ZnO and N719 dye.
A new technique is presented for the determination of concentration depth profiles. Surface atoms are sputtered by an ion beam and deposited on a clean silicon wafer. The wafer is rotated behind a slit in step with the sputtering progress. In this way the depth profile of the sample is transferred into a lateral distribution of the sputtered atoms on the target wafer. Subsequently the wafer is scanned by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) which is capable of detecting traces of metallic impurities on wafers down to 10-4 of an atomic monolayer. The sequence of ion-beam sputtering, deposition of the sputtered atoms and TXRF analysis results in an excellent depth resolution in the case of areal structures. Using an ion source of the Kaufmann type, an extrapolated perpendicular resolution better than 0.1 nm was obtained for a 1500 mm2 surface. For a surface area of 3 mm2 a depth resolution of 1 nm is expected. 1.4 nm was actually measured to be the width of a coherent Ti/Al-interface within a layered structure.
Synthetic zirconolites doped with rare earth elements (REEs) are corroded in a closed system at elevated temperature and pressure for various fluid compositions. Together with previous studies, the results indicate only a weak corrosion below 250°C at 50 MPa. Above that temperature and up to 500°C zirconolite (CaZrT2O7) displays more rapid rates of corrosion and may be covered by various secondary phases, depending on the fluid composition. Above 500°C in Na-rich fluids, zirconolite is replaced by perovskite (CaTiO3) and calzirtite (Ca2Zr5Ti2O16), but the REEs and Hf (as actinide analogues and/or neutron absorbers) are incorporated into the secondary phases. Perovskite and calzirtite exhibit an unusual crystal chemistry as determined by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis.
A remote plasma enhanced-metal organic chemical vapor deposition (RPE-MOCVD) process was developed for the preparation of non-crystalline (ZrO2)x-(SiO2)1−x (x ≤ 0.5) alloys, targeting the compound composition ZrSiO4with k ∼ 12.5. Shifts in Si LVV and Zr LMM AES energies with respect to elemental values showed that the deposited film was a fully-oxidized zirconium/silicon alloy. FTIR results were consistent with AES, and a Zr-O-Si bonding mode was identified in the spectra. The films were amorphous before and after RTA at 900°C for 30 sec, as monitored via RHEED. Optical absorption measurements indicated the onset of band-to-band transitions at an energy of approximately 6 eV. Finally, C-V testing showed that the films were insulating.
Our dear friend and respected colleague Giacomo Sani died on Sunday, June 20, 2010, in Milan, Italy, at the age of 78. He is survived by his wife, Marina Dotti, his children, Giulia and Laura, and two grandchildren.
The adhesion of Candida albicans to the genital epithelium has not been fully investigated in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrastructural aspects of C. albicans adhesion in the lower genital system of female Wistar rats through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The genital infection persisted until the end of the experiment, and all rats showed the same adhesion aspects. Various associated yeast/hyphae were observed in the lumen and adhered both at the vaginal and endocervical levels where the fungal filamentation process occurred. In the vaginal epithelium, closely adhered yeasts were observed as stretched strands bridging between yeasts and the epithelium surface. Different stages of the adhesion, where yeasts internalized into the epithelial cell inside a cytoplasmic vacuole, resembling endocytosis, and a wide fibrillar-floccular, glycocalyx-like layer on the yeasts were observed. On the endocervix, the adhesion occurred between the cilia. In the uterine body, only a yeast-like form was observed with superficial contact. This study reached the initial goal of demonstrating an experimental model for in vivo studies. Continuation of this line of research is important for studies of vulvovaginal candidiasis.
A low-dimensional Galerkin model is proposed for the flow around a high-lift configuration, describing natural vortex shedding, the high-frequency actuated flow with increased lift and transients between both states. The form of the dynamical system has been derived from a generalized mean-field consideration. Steady state and transient URANS (unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes) simulation data are employed to derive the expansion modes and to calibrate the system parameters. The model identifies the mean field as the mediator between the high-frequency actuation and the low-frequency natural shedding instability.