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The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant
medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive–behavioural
therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo.
To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on
efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which
CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with
pill-placebo control in adults with major depression.
A systematic review and an individual-participant data meta-analysis
using mixed models that included trial effects as random effects. We used
multiple imputation to handle missing data.
We identified five RCTs, and we were given access to individual-level
data (n = 509) for all five. The analyses revealed that
the difference in changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between
CBT and pill placebo was not influenced by baseline severity (interaction
P = 0.43). Removing the non-significant interaction
term from the model, the difference between CBT and pill placebo was a
standardised mean difference of –0.22 (95% CI –0.42 to –0.02,
P = 0.03, I2 = 0%).
Patients suffering from major depression can expect as much benefit from
CBT across the wide range of baseline severity. This finding can help
inform individualised treatment decisions by patients and their
This study aimed to evaluate the systemic and renal renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) at birth in male and female offspring and in mothers fed a high sodium diet (HSD) before and during gestation. Female Wistar rats were fed a HSD (8.0% NaCl) or a normal sodium diet (1.3% NaCl) from 8 weeks of age until delivery of their first litter. Maternal body weight, tail blood pressure, and food and water intake were evaluated. The litter sizes were assessed, and the body and kidney weights of the offspring were measured. Both mothers and offspring were euthanized immediately following the birth of the pups to evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA), renal renin content (RRC), renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal angiotensin (Ang) II content, serum aldosterone (ALDO) levels, and renal cortical and medullary renin messenger RNA expression. In mothers in the HSD group, water intake and kidney mass were higher, whereas renal ACE activity, Ang II, PRA, ALDO and RRC were decreased. In the offspring of HSD-fed dams, the body and kidney mass were lower in both genders, renal ACE activity was lower in females and renal Ang II was lower in males. PRA, RRC, renin gene expression and ALDO levels did not differ between the groups of offspring. The data presented herein showed that a maternal HSD during pregnancy induces low birth weight and a sex-specific response in the RAAS in offspring.
In this study we investigated whether an Internet-based computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program can decrease the risk of DSM-IV-TR major depressive episodes (MDE) during a 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Japanese workers.
Participants were recruited from one company and three departments of another company. Those participants who did not experience MDE in the past month were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (n = 381 for each). A 6-week, six-lesson iCBT program was provided to the intervention group. While the control group only received the usual preventive mental health service for the first 6 months, the control group was given a chance to undertake the iCBT program after a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a new onset of DSM-IV-TR MDE during the 12-month follow-up, as assessed by means of the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), version 3.0 depression section.
The intervention group had a significantly lower incidence of MDE at the 12-month follow-up than the control group (Log-rank χ2 = 7.04, p < 0.01). The hazard ratio for the intervention group was 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.06–0.75), when estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model.
The present study demonstrates that an iCBT program is effective in preventing MDE in the working population. However, it should be noted that MDE was measured by self-report, while the CIDI can measure the episodes more strictly following DSM-IV criteria.
We report photo induced minority carrier annihilation at the silicon surface in a metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structure using 9.35 GHz microwave transmittance measurement. 7 Ωcm n-type 500-μm-thick crystalline silicon substrate coated with 100-nm-thick thermally grown SiO2 layers was used. 0.2-cm-long Al electrode bars were formed at the top and rear surfaces. 635 nm light illumination onto the top surface caused photo induced carriers to be in one side of the silicon region of the Al electrode. Microwave transmittance system detected photo induced carriers diffused from the light illuminated region via the MOS structured region. When the bias voltage was applied at +2.0 and -2.2 V to the electrode at the top surface, the surface recombination velocity increased from 44 (initial) to 83 and 86 cm/s, respectively because of depletion region formation at rear and top surface respectively. Those voltage applications caused change in the distribution of photo induced carriers in a 0.6-cm-wide region including light illuminated, MOS structured, microwave irradiated regions.
Schottky barrier contacts have been made on CVD—grown β - SiC on Si substrates, and their C—V and I—V characteristics are measured. Dependence of the Schottky characteristics on Si substrate orientation ((n11),(n=1,3,4,5,6), and (100)) is examined. The Schottky diodes of the β-SiC films on Si (611), Si(411), and Si (111) show excellent characteristics compared with the conventional Schottky diodes using Si(100) substrates. That is, reverse leakage currents are small, ideality factors are close to unity, and barrier heights are larger.
Heteroepitaxial growth of CaF2 films on (511)Si and GaAs films on CaF2/Si(511) structures is investigated. CaF2 films and GaAs films are grown by vacuum evaporation and molecular beam epitaxy, respectively. Ion channeling measurements and replica transmission electron microscopy show that CaF2 films having good crystalline quality and surface steps can be formed by annealing at 900°C for 30 sec after the growth at 550° C. GaAs films having smooth surfaces and good crystalline quality can be grown on the annealed CaF2/Si(511) structures.
Ion beam mixing effects on metals and highly doped semiconductors on GaAs for formation of ohmic contacts have been studied. In this study, we have principally selected Pt as metal and Ge as semiconductors electrodes for GaAs. In Pt/GaAs system, we observed alloying phenomena induced by Si+, Ar+, Ge+ ion mixing effects. The amount of GaAs reacted with Pt was found to be proportional to the mass of the incident ions for constant dose. Concernig with the formation of ohmic contacts, only in the case of Si implantation through Pt films, the conversion from Schottky- to ohmic-contact was observed due to ion beam mixing effects. In Ge/GaAs system, we observad the solid state epitaxy for implanted Ge layer by the first annealing at 450°C in the two step annealing, but no activation of the implanted species. For activating implanted species, the second annealing at 800°C was effective. Concerning with the formation of ohmic contacts, we observed that the ohmic I-V characteristics for Ge/GaAs system could be obtainable when the following conditions were satisfied at the same time: 1) high dose implantation of As+ into Ge layer, 2) low dose implantation of Si into Ge/GaAs boundary and 3) relatively short period annealing in the second annealing step. From such study, it is concluded that ion beam mixing in conjunction with rapid annealing would be most promising for forming stable and reproducible ohmic contacts.
The initial stage of Ge overgrowth on CaF2/Si structures was controlled by electron beam (e-beam) exposure through a room-temperature-deposited thin Ge layer on CaF2. It was found that the island growth of Ge was prevented in the e-beam exposed region and the crystalline quality and the surface flat-ness of the Ge film were much improved. From several experimental results, a growth model that e-beam dissociates the surface F atoms of CaF2 and improves the wettability between Ge and CaF2 is proposed.
Control of epitaxial relationship of CaF2 films grown on Si(111) substrates was considered to be important to improve surface morphology and crystallini ty of GaAs films on CaF2/Si(111) structures. We successfully grew CaF2 films with the “type-A” epitaxial relationship on Si(111) substrates, that is, the crystallographic orientation of the CaF2 films were aligned in the same direction as that of the Si(111) substrates. These “type-A” CaF2 films were grown by a two step growth method. It was found that surface morphology of GaAs films on the CaF2/Si(111) structures was drastically improved by growth of the “type-A” CaF2 films.
To obtain informations about the correlation between structure and electrical property in metallic multilayers, we have fabricated Ni/Co superlattices with and without Pb as a surfactant by molecular beam epitaxy. From the observations of RHEED and x-ray diffraction patterns, we confirmed that the surfaces of Ni/Co superlattices with Pb are flatter and the interfaces are sharper than one without Pb, which means that Pb operates as an effective surfactant.We have investigated the electrical properties of superlattices by measuring magnetoresistance. The initial change of resistance with magnetic field from 0 to 1 kOe was larger for the superlattices with a surfactant, while once magnetic field was applied, the effect of a surfactant to resistivity change was not observed. This suggests that Pb also changes the initial magenetic domain structure and the magnetotransport property of Ni/Co superlattice is not sensitive to interface structure.
Effects of ion-irradiation on oxidation of silicon at low temperatures (130°C) in an argon and oxygen mixed plasma excited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) interaction are investigated. First, dependence of energy and flux of incident ions on the flow rate and the microwave power is evaluated. It is shown that the flow rate and the microwave power are key parameters for controlling the energy and the flux of incident ions, respectively. Second, growth kinetics of the oxide films are studied. The growth rate depends on the energy and the flux of argon ions irradiated to the substrate, and the growth thickness increases proportionally to the root square of the oxidation time. Thus, the growth rate is limited by diffusion of oxidants enhanced by irradiation with argon ions. The effect of substrate bias on oxidation characteristics is also discussed. The electrical properties of the oxide films are improved by increasing the bias. The improvement is due to the reduction of damage at the surface of the substrate induced by the irradiation.
Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) films with low stress were deposited successfully at room temperature using sputtering-type electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. Films were deposited for a wide range of flow rate ratio of O2 to N2 at a constant Ar flow rate. Film properties were verified by characterizations of refractive index (ellipsometry), structural properties (Fourier transform infrared and Auger electron spectroscopy), intrinsic stress, and barrier strength of water penetration (thermal desorption spectroscopy). A near-stoichiometric SiOxNy (x = 1.44 and y = 0.41) film with low stress could be formed at the optimum deposition condition, under which the SiOxNy film had a refractive index of 1.54. The results of thermal desorption spectroscopy measurements showed that the SiOx Ny film had a higher barrier against moisture penetration relative to deposited SiOx and SiNy films. The SiOxNy film was directly deposited on the organic EL device and the applicability was shown clearly. These results indicate that this SiOxNy film deposited using a sputtering-type ECR plasma has the potential to be utilized as a passivation layer of organic EL devices, which are required to be formed at low temperature.
The shape of several waveguide end of samples for photoluminescence absorption spectroscopy (PLAS) was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), because there was an experimental problem where some samples for PLAS did not work. Using the result of AFM, the waveguide end was reshaped by plasma dry etching. The shortening of the etching time was an effective method to improve the structure of the waveguide end. Secondly, the PLAS method was extended to the other materials from a-Si:H. The PLAS signal of amorphous carbon nitride a-CNx was detected for the first time. Amorphous carbon nitride a-CNx film itself and the interface between a-CNx and a-Si02 are found as good as a-Si:H and the interface between a-Si:H and a-Si 3N4+x:H, respectively.
We have confirmed that grain boundaries are related to leakage problems in Ta2O5/SiON capacitors for high dielectric DRAMs. XRD studies using an intensity ratio of (200) to (001) showed that the crystallographic structure of Ta2O5 film was strongly dependent on preparation conditions. As the (200) oriented grains grew faster than the other grains, it became important to control its grain growth in forming uniform grain boundaries. TEM observation has shown that Ta2O5 film with a high intensity ratio of (200) to (001) was made up of large size grains and had SION interface intruding into grain boundaries. By using the current-mode AFM, we could monitor leakage current directly through grain boundaries on Ta2O5 film.
The high power electrical switching properties of a polymer current limiter device are studied as a function of applied voltage. It is shown that a dramatic change in switching behavior occurs at a characteristic voltage. Below this voltage, the device switches to a high resistance state whereas at higher applied voltages it does not. It is shown that the high voltage, low resistance state has similar electrical characteristics to an arc discharge. Material variation experiments are also described which demonstrate that the changeover depends sensitively on the contact resistance between the filler particles of the composite material.
The field of Electroactive Polymers has experienced a considerable amount of expansion over the last decade. Much of this work has been concentrated on developing polymeric materials that mimic biological systems or that exhibit electronic and optical properties similar to inorganic materials. This paper briefly reviews some of the nearer term applications that electroactive polymers might impact: image processing and sonar. In addition, a review of compliant actuators based on the unique properties inherent in electroactive polymers is provided. Emphasis will be placed on the mechanisms responsible for actuation and on the limited mechanical, electrical and chemical data current available. A comparison between mammalian muscle properties and electroactive polymer actuator properties is provided.
A pulsed PECVD reactor has been successfully constructed for laboratory scale studies of plasma polymerized thin films. A computer control system based on National Instrument's LABVIEW software controls power supply sequence, feed injection, and introduction of RF energy. An optical fiber and a photo diode allow the user to monitor the emitted light for each pulse. A fast ionization gauge is used to characterize the pressure evolution over time, subsequent to acetylene gas injection. Substrates with diameter as large as 10 cm can be accommodated within the reactor. Both aniline liquid and acetylene gas have been used as reactor feed. The deposited plasma-polymerized films were characterized using AFM and SEM. Electrical conductivity of plasma polymerized acetylene film was also measured