To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) have been operationalized as exhibiting a greater level of complexity than basic ADL. In the same way, incorporating more advanced ADLs may increase the sensitivity of functional measures to identify cognitive changes that may precede IADL impairment. Towards this direction, the IADL-extended scale (IADL-x) consists of four IADL tasks and five advanced ADLs (leisure time activities).
Retrospective, cross-sectional study.
Athens and Larissa, Greece.
1,864 community-dwelling men and women aged over 64.
We employed both the IADL-x and IADL scales to assess functional status among all the participants. Diagnoses were assigned dividing the population of our study into three groups: cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients. Neuropsychological evaluation was stratified in five cognitive domains: memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning and visuospatial perception. Z scores for each cognitive domain as well as a composite z score were constructed. Models were controlled for age, sex, education and depression.
In both IADL-x and IADL scales dementia patients reported the most functional difficulties and CN participants the fewest, with MCI placed in between. When we restricted the analyses to the CN population, lower IADL-x score was associated with worse cognitive performance. This association was not observed when using the original IADL scale.
There is strong evidence that the endorsement of more advanced IADLs in functional scales may be useful in detecting cognitive differences within the normal spectrum.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.