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Several elicitors, stimulating induced resistance mechanisms, have potential in preventing or mitigating pathogen infections. Some of these compounds, triggering the production of jasmonic acid (JA), a precursor of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, could also play a central role in indirect resistance to pest species, by improving beneficial arthropod performance, and necrotrophic pathogens. In the current work, Trichoderma gamsii/T. asperellum and silica gel treatments – alone and in combination – were studied to evaluate the plant defence mechanism on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) by laboratory and field trials. JA production level was measured before and after Plasmopara viticola infection on potted vines. JA production induced by silica gel was higher than that caused by Trichoderma before infection. In Trichoderma-treated plants, JA production increased after P. viticola inoculation. In vineyard field trials, Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) showed higher captures in transparent sticky traps on silica gel-treated plants, in comparison with control. On the other hand, no significant attraction was detected for Ichneumonoidea and other Chalcidoidea in silica gel and T. gamsii/T. asperellum-treated plants. The potential effects of elicitors are discussed, in the frame of attract and reward strategy.
Intake in sugar-rich diets can be limited either via rumen fill or excessive rumen fermentation and source of non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the diet can affect both factors. The aim of the current study was to quantify the effect of partially replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels in sugarcane-based diets on digestibility, rumen ecosystem and metabolism of Nellore steers. Six rumen-cannulated steers were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square, replicated in time, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two levels of concentrate (600 or 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter [DM]) and three NFC sources. Each steer within a period was considered an experimental unit. Feeding more concentrate increased total tract digestibility of organic matter and decreased fibre intake and passage rate. It also reduced rumen populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Streptococcus bovis and increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Substituting PCP for GM increased rumen pH, acetic acid and organic matter digestibility. Feeding PCP also reduced R. flavefaciens and R. amylophilus rumen populations. Substituting SRM for GM increased starch digestibility and rumen propionic acid, but decreased rumen ammonia concentration. Feeding SRM increased rumen populations of Megasphaera elsdenii with the high-concentrate diet but reduced Ruminococcus albus populations at both concentrate levels. In conclusion, partial replacement of GM by PCP decreased intake in sugar-rich diets, while increasing total tract neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Replacement of GM with SRM increases rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility of starch.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
Let (R, 𝔪) be a Noetherian local ring and I an arbitrary ideal of R with analytic spread s. In  the authors proved the existence of a chain of ideals I ⊆ I[s] ⊆ ⋅⋅⋅ ⊆ I such that deg(PI[k]/I) < s − k. In this article we obtain a structure theorem for this ideals which is similar to that of K. Shah in  for 𝔪-primary ideals.
Introduction: Delays in transfer to an in-patient bed of admitted patients boarded in the ED has been identified as one of the chief drivers of ED overcrowding. Our study aims to replicate findings from a previous study in identifying patient characteristics associated with increased boarding time, and the impact of increased boarding time on in-patient length of stay (IPLOS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-centre observational study during the period between January 1, 2015 December 31, 2015 at a very high volume community hospital (~ 75,000 ED visits/year). All patients admitted from the ED to Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, and Critical Care were identified. The mean time to in-patient bed (TTB), as well as patient-specific and institutional factors that were associated with prolonged boarding times ( 12 hours) were identified. Mean IP LOS was calculated for those with prolonged boarding times and compared to those without prolonged boarding times. Results: There were 8,096 unique admissions during the study period. Patients admitted to the Medicine service exhibited significantly higher boarding times than those admitted to other services, with a mean boarding time of 17.4 hrs, as compared to 4.2 hrs, 5.7 hrs, and 4.0 hrs for those admitted to Surgery, Critical Care and Pediatrics respectively. Within Medicine patients, there was a statistically significant greater odds of prolonged boarding time for patients who were older, had a greater comorbidity burden, and required more specialized in-patient care (i.e. an isolation bed or telemetry bed). Medicine patients with prolonged boarding times also experienced 0.7 days longer IP LOS, even after correcting for age and comorbidity (mean adjusted IP LOS 10.6 days versus 11.3 days). Conclusion: Within our study period, older, sicker patients and those patients requiring more resource-intensive in-patient care have the longest ED boarding times. These prolonged ‘boarding’ times are associated with significantly increased IP LOS.
L. J. Spilker, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California, USA,
C. Ferrari, Université Paris-Diderot Paris, FRANCE,
N. Altobelli, European Space Agency Madrid, SPAIN,
S. Pilorz, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
R. Morishima, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California, USA
Our view of planetary ring particles and the characteristics of their thermal emission has undergone a major paradigm shift since the arrival of Cassini at Saturn. Our understanding of the microstructure and microphysics of the rings has evolved from rings randomly filled with individual particles to Saturn's A and B rings containing particles that tend to clump into transient structures of characteristic sizes and orientations. The dynamics and evolution of rings strongly depend on the outcome of interparticle collisions and on the self-gravity of the rings. Energy loss, mass transfer, and sticking probability for relevant impact velocities will favor either aggregation or disruption and erosion of particles, modifying the size distribution and velocity dispersion, and thus the dynamics and structure of the rings.
The thermal response of a ring is determined by absorbed and emitted radiation or conducted heat within the particles. The radiation source functions depend upon the ring structure. Energy sources include direct, reflected and scattered solar light, mutual heating by neighboring ring particles, and thermal and visible radiation from Saturn. Because of mutual shading and heating between particles, the thermal emission is determined not only by the physical properties of the ring particles, but also by the structural and dynamical properties of the ring disk itself. Friction in mutual dissipative collisions between particles, due to their irregular surfaces, transforms orbital kinetic energy into spin. The particle surface temperature and its thermal emission are expected to vary on the surface along the rotation axis and azimuthally. Ring particles, as they collide into one another, are tumbling around the ring mid-plane with a vertical excursion governed by the local ring dynamics. The thermal history of a particle along its orbit is then an indicator of vertical dynamics. The particle is conditioned by the time it spends in sunlight and in the planetary shadow. At the exit of the shadow, its ability to warm up is a function of the thermal inertia. Any difference in the heating curves between the lit and unlit sides should reveal the time each particle spends on each side.
Exercise during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring’s health in humans and mice. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This comparative study aimed to determine the long-term effects of an exercise program on metabolism, weight gain, body composition and changes in hormones [insulin, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]. Pregnant women (n=34) and mouse dams (n=44) were subjected to an exercise program compared with matched controls (period I). Follow-up in the offspring was performed over 6 months in humans, corresponding to postnatal day (P) 21 in mice (period II). Half of the mouse offspring was challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks between P70 and P112 (period III). In period I, exercise during pregnancy led to 6% lower fat content, 40% lower leptin levels and an increase of 50% BDNF levels in humans compared with controls, which was not observed in mice. After period II in humans and mice, offspring body weight did not differ from that of the controls. Further differences were observed in period III. Offspring of exercising mouse dams had significantly lower fat mass and leptin levels compared with controls. In addition, at P112, BDNF levels in offspring were significantly higher from exercising mothers while this effect was completely blunted by HFD feeding. In this study, we found comparable effects on maternal and offspring’s weight gain in humans and mice but different effects in insulin, leptin and BDNF. The long-term potential protective effects of exercise on biomarkers should be examined in human studies.
We discuss wind-type solutions for flows from accretion funnels, and show under what physical conditions such flows can become supersonic and relativistic already very ciose to the stagnation point within the funnel. The acceleration is due to radiation emitted by the funnel walls, while the location of the transonic points is also affected by the geometrical shape of the funnel's cross-section.
One of the major discoveries in solar physics over the past decade has been the association of coronal holes with high-speed solar wind streams (Zirker 1977 and references therein). On the other hand, advances in X-ray and radio instrumentation (e.g., Einstein, VLA, VLBI, etc.) in the past few years have allowed detailed observations of collimated outflows from rather more distant objects, such as young stars and active galaxies (Beer 1981, Lada 1982, Ferrari and Pacholczyk 1983 and references therein). The remarkable structural similarities between jets of magnetized gas from our Sun, other active stars, and active galactic nuclei suggest that these phenomena may be manifestations of similar hydrodynamic processes operating on both small and large scales. In this article, we shall use the experience gained by studying the nearest known astrophysical jet - high-speed solar wind streams - to address some of the problems of astrophysical jet acceleration and collimation associated with objects as diverse as SS 433, star-forming molecular clouds and, in particular, jets associated with galaxies and quasars.
In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman’s correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R2partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R2partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.
The Einstein Observatory survey of stellar coronae (Vaiana et al. 1981) and, specifically, the results on cool, low luminosity stars has suggested a correlation between stellar X-ray luminosity and stellar rotational velocity (Pallavicini et al. 1982, Walter 1981, Vaiana et al. 1981). In addition the Skylab observations of the solar corona have demonstrated a tight correlation between photospheric surface magnetic structures, which emerge from the interior in the form of “loops” above the photosphere by, viz., buoyancy instabilities, (Parker 1979; see also Acheson 1979, Schmitt & Rosner 1982, and references therein), and coronal X-ray emission (Golub et al. 1980). It therefore becomes important to ask how a coronal state (i.e. low density and high temperature plasma) of a stellar atmosphere is formed , presumably from a pure radiative equilibrium configuration.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors, EDLC, using Cobalt sulfide- Graphene (CoSG) composite electrodes, were fabricated and the storage process was studied. CoSG composite was prepared by a simple chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterized the as prepared composites which indicated formation of Co S phase. Solutions of perfluorosulfonic acid and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) were used as electrode binding material. The storage capacitance of the composites were studied in 1M KCl and 6M KOH electrolytes using standard electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry, CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, and discharge profiles. The capacitance was estimated for various binder concentrations for both the electrolytes. The concentration of perflurosulfonic acid binder of 0.8 wt% and PVDF of 0.04 wt% showed optimized specific capacitances of 657.8 F/gm and 1418.8 F/g, respectively. Some of the problems in storage density in activated carbon, like varying micro or meso pores, poor ion mobility due to varying pore distribution, low electrical conductivity, can be overcome by using Graphene and composites of Graphene. Graphene in various structural nomenclatures have been used by different groups for charge storage. Optimization of the electrode structure in terms of blend percentage, binder content and interface character in the frequency and time domain provides insights to the double layer interface structure.
Controlled amounts of colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), electrochemically pre-synthesized, were directly deposited on MWCNTs sensor devices by electrophoresis. Pristine and Au-functionalized MWCNT networked films were tested as active layers in resistive gas sensors for detection of pollutant gases. Au-modified CNT-chemiresistor demonstrated higher sensitivity to NO2 detecting up to sub-ppm level compared to pristine one. The investigation of the cross-sensitivity towards other pollutant gases revealed the decrease of the sensitivity to NO2 with the increase of Au content, and, on the other side, the increase of that to H2S; therefore the fine tune of the metal loading on CNTs has allowed to control not only the gas sensitivity but also the selectivity towards a specific gaseous analyte. Finally, the sensing properties of Au-decorated CNT sensor seem to be promising in environmental and automotive gas sensing applications, based on low power consumption and moderate operating temperature.
X Per is a variable emission line star which shows among other peculiarities a weak X-ray emission (4U 0352+30) and a strongly variable IR excess (Ferrari-Toniolo et al. 1978, Viotti et al. 1980). In the past decade the star has undergone three phases of enhanched “activity” (1972–73, 1978 and 1980) characterized by brighter visual luminosity, excess in the Balmer continuum and in the IR, stronger X-ray emission, with intermediate periods of minimum activity (1974–77, 1979) when the optical-infrared energy distribution was closer to that of a normally reddened early type star (figure 2). But during most of its history the energy distribution largely deviated from that of a non-emission line early type star, and the first problem is to determine the interstellar extinction, disregarding any “local” effect. The strength of the 2200 A band in the UV spectrum of X Per is consistent with E(B-V)=0.35, a value close to the extinction towards other Per II stars: Per (0.34), o Per (0.31), Per (0.32, Viotti & Lamers 1975). The i.s. Ly∝ line observed in the high resolution IUE spectrum of X Per obtained on 1979, December 23, has a FWHM of 11.0 A corresponding to N(HI)=4.9 1020 cm−2. The Copernicus observation of H2 lines (of not good quality) gives N(H2)≅1.1 1021 (Mason et al. 1976). A much lower value of 3–5 1020was derived by Snow (1976, 1977) for o and Per. Taking for X Per N(H2)≅5 1020we have N(H total)≅1.5 1021, yielding to N(H)/E(B-V)=4.3 1021 cm−2/mag in agreement with Bohlin law (1975).
In this paper we present an innovative on-chip platform suitable for the simultaneous manipulation and detection of the transit of a single magnetic bead. This system is based on the controlled displacement of constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) that are used to move and sense particles in suspension over the chip. To this scope, the high stray field from the transverse DWs created at the corners of ferromagnetic zig-zag structures is used for particles manipulation, while electrical contacts flanking a single corner are employed to simultaneously monitor the DW passage through that corner, via anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) measurements. A single DW carrying a magnetic particle is nucleated and manipulated within the zig-zag shaped magnetic conduit, trough the action of external magnetic fields. At the same time, the variation of the voltage drop across a corner flanked by a pair of electrical leads is measured, allowing to detect the transit of the DW thanks to the change of the relative orientation of current and spins at the corner related to the peculiar micromagnetic configuration of the DW (AMR). Work is in progress in order to selectively distinguish the transit of a naked DW from that of a DW bound to a magnetic particle. This work paves the way to the development of a closed-loop microlfuidic platform for on-chip bead manipulation, where single bead can be finely moved and their motion continuously checked, via AMR electrical detection and without need of optical monitoring, in a fully integrated closed-loop system.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved gut environment of post-weaning piglets when administered a blend of essential oils (EO; thymol and cinnamaldehyde) and an enzyme combination (xylanase and β-glucanase (XB)) either alone or in combination. To assess the effect of dietary treatments, faecal nutrient digestibility and microbial counts, as well as ileum histology and gene expression of inflammatory mediators were evaluated. One hundred and ninety-two weaned piglets were allocated into four experimental treatments, and fed the basal diet (CTRL) either without or with EO, XB or their combination (EO+XB) for a 42-day period. The experiment concerning digestibility was designed with two periods (period I: days 15 to 21; period II: days 29 to 35) and the faeces were collected on days 20, 21, 34 and 35. On day 42, six piglets from each treatment were slaughtered. It was found that EO, XB and EO+XB supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the growth performance of the piglets from days 0 to 42. Moreover, no dietary effect on faecal score was observed. Faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ash, dietary fibre, lipid, CP and NDF were increased from period I to period II (P<0.01 to P=0.06), while no effect (P>0.05) of EO, XB or their combination on the faecal digestibility was observed at both periods. Compared with the CTRL diet, dietary XB reduced the faecal Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli counts but increased the Lactobacillus to Coliforms ratio on day 42 (P=0.02, 0.03 and 0.03, respectively), and all the additives supplementations decreased the counts of faecal Coliforms on day 42 (P<0.01). XB supplementation increased the villus to crypt ratio (P=0.04) and reduced the mucosal macrophages number (P<0.01) in the ileum compared with the CTRL group, and dietary EO or EO+XB decreased the number of lymphatic follicles (P=0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) and mucosal macrophages (P=0.02 and P<0.01, respectively). In addition, the interleukin (IL)-1α was downregulated in piglets treated with EO+XB compared with the EO group (P=0.02). In conclusion, the administration of EO, XB or their combination was effective in improving ileum histology, and EO+XB supplementation might benefit the modulation of the expression of ileum inflammatory cytokines in piglets.