To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
We report ∆14C measurements of cellulose extracted from near monthly tree ring growth for the 1960s of a white oak that grew in western Oregon, USA. Comparison with ∆14C measurements of atmospheric CO2 reveals that the tree ring ∆14C values were equal to or lower than those in atmospheric CO2 at the time of ring formation. We suggest that the low tree ring ∆14C values during the period 1962–1963 were caused by the presence of an atmospheric front or blocking between subpolar and temperate air masses that delayed the arrival of the bomb signal at the tree’s site.
The SkyMapper Transient survey (SMT) is exploring variability in the southern sky by performing (a) a rolling search to discover and study supernovæ, and (b) a Target of Opportunity programme that uses the robotic SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The supernova survey is obtaining a non-targeted sample of Type Ia supernovæ (SNe Ia) at low redshifts, z < 0.1, and studying other interesting transients found with the search strategy. We have a Target of Opportunity programme with an automatic response mechanism to search for optical counterparts to gravitational-wave and fast radio-burst events; it benefits from SkyMapper’s large field of view of 5.7 sq. deg. and a rapid data reduction pipeline.
We present first results of the SMT survey. The SMT pipeline can process and obtain potential candidates within 12 hours of observation. It disentangles real transients from processing artefacts using a machine-learning algorithm. To date, SMT has discovered over 60 spectroscopically confirmed supernovæ, several peculiar objects, and over 40 SNe Ia including one (SNIa 2016hhd) which was found within the first few days of explosion. We have also participated in searches for optical counterparts of gravitational waves, fast radio bursts and other transients, and have published observations of the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817. We also participate in coordinated observations with the Deeper Wider Faster programme, and the Kepler K2 cosmology project.
Annual radiocarbon from a massive Porites lutea coral collected from Hon Tre Island, Vietnam, South China Sea (SCS) was analyzed over a ~100-yr-long period from AD 1900 to 1986. The pre-bomb results from 1900–1953 show a steady Δ14C value of –54.4±1.8‰ (n=60). These values are similar to coral records located in the central and southern SCS and from Indonesian waters, but are lower than those from Japan. Following the input of anthropogenic bomb 14C, our results show a sharp increase in Δ14C from 1960, reaching a peak value of 155.3‰ in 1973. The Hon Tre Island post-bomb Δ14C values are lower than those of other corals located in the SCS and Japan, but higher compared to those in the Indonesian Seas. This study infers a seasonal input of upwelled water depleted in 14C from the deeper SCS basin that originates from the tropical Pacific via the Luzon Strait. The bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current feeds the surface and intermediate currents in the SCS and Makassar Strait region. However, unlike the Makassar site, this study’s coral Δ14C does not receive lower 14C water from the South Pacific Equatorial Current. The Vietnam record therefore represents a unique oceanographic position, reflecting the seasonal influence of older, deeper SCS waters that upwell periodically in this area and have modified the surface waters locally in this region over the last 100 yr.
We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Good measurements of visual binary stars (position angle and angular separation) have been made for nearly 200 years. Radial-velocity observers have exhibited less patience; when the orbital periods of late-type stars in the catalogue published in 1978 are sorted into bins half a logarithmic unit wide, the modal bin is the one with periods between 3 and 10 days. The same treatment of the writer's orbits shows the modal bin to be the one between 1000 and 3000 days. Of course the spectroscopists cannot quickly catch up the 200 years that the visual observers have been going, but many spectroscopic orbits with periods of decades, and a few of the order of a century, have been published. Technical developments have also been made in ‘visual’ orbit determination, and orbits with periods of only a few days have been determined for certain ‘visual’ binaries. In principle, therefore, the time domains of visual and spectroscopic binaries now largely overlap. Overlap is essential, as it is only by combining both techniques that orbits can be determined in three dimensions, as is necessary for the important objective of determining stellar masses accurately. Nevertheless the actual overlap—objects with accurate measurements by both techniques—remains disappointingly small. There have, however, been unforeseen benefits from the observation of spectroscopic binaries that have unconventionally long orbital periods, not a few of which have proved to be interesting and significant objects in their own right. It has also been shown that binary membership is more common than was once thought (orbits have even been determined for some of the IAU standard radial-velocity stars!); a recent study of the radial velocities of K giants that had been monitored for 45 years found a binary incidence of 30%, whereas a figure of 13.7% was given as recently as 2005 for a similar group.
Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual breakfast frequency (self-report questionnaire) was assessed in 877 adolescents (43 % male, age 14·5 (sd 0·5) years old). PA was measured over 5 d (accelerometry, average counts/min; cpm). Associations between daily PA and breakfast frequency were assessed using linear regression adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. Effect modification by sex and associations with PA during the morning (06.00–12.00 hours) were explored. For boys, there were no significant associations between breakfast frequency and PA. For girls, less frequent breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower PA (cpm) during the morning (occasional v. frequent β − 6·1 (95 % CI − 11·1, − 1·1), P = 0·017) when adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. There were no associations between PA and breakfast consumption over the whole day; however, for girls, less frequent breakfast consumption may be associated with lower PA levels during the morning, suggesting that breakfast consumption should perhaps be taken into consideration when aiming to promote PA in adolescent girls.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating the effect of dietary lipids on vascular function. The workshop highlighted the need for intervention studies to be sufficiently powered for these measures and that they should be corroborated with other, more validated, risk factors for CVD. Work presented at the workshop suggested a beneficial effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA and a detrimental effect of trans fatty acids. The workshop also considered the importance of the choice of study population in dietary intervention studies and that ‘at risk’ subgroups within the general population may be more appropriate than subjects that are unrepresentatively healthy.
Deep-sea corals are a promising new archive of paleoclimate. Coupled radiocarbon and U-series dates allow 14C to be used as a tracer of ocean circulation rate in the same manner as it is used in the modern ocean. Diagenetic alteration of coral skeletons on the seafloor requires a thorough cleaning of contaminating phases of carbon. In addition, 10% of the coral must be chemically leached prior to dissolution to remove adsorbed modern CO2. A survey of modern samples from the full δ14C gradient in the deep ocean demonstrates that the coralline CaCO3 records the radiocarbon value of the dissolved inorganic carbon.
The silicide formation for Ni/Pd and Pd/Ni bilayers on Si(100) substrates was investigated. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling have been applied to study the phase formation of the silicide. We found that with addition of Pd into Ni/Si, a uniform layer of ternary Ni1−xPdxSi layer formed and kept stable for a wide temperature range. The lattice parameter of Ni1−xPdxSi as a function of Pd addition was calculated. The nucleation temperature of NiSi2 was delayed due to the addition of Pd. The higher the Pd addition, the larger the increase in NiSi2 nucleation temperature. We also studied the effect on the addition of Ni to the Pd/Si reaction. For pure Pd/Si reaction PdSi nucleated from Pd2Si at 750°C or above. For Ni/Pd/Si reaction, Pd2Si changed to Ni1−xPdxSi at temperature lower than 750°C due to the incorporation of Ni. The phenomena were explained by classic nucleation theory taking into account the effect of mixing entropy effect.