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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
We report ∆14C measurements of cellulose extracted from near monthly tree ring growth for the 1960s of a white oak that grew in western Oregon, USA. Comparison with ∆14C measurements of atmospheric CO2 reveals that the tree ring ∆14C values were equal to or lower than those in atmospheric CO2 at the time of ring formation. We suggest that the low tree ring ∆14C values during the period 1962–1963 were caused by the presence of an atmospheric front or blocking between subpolar and temperate air masses that delayed the arrival of the bomb signal at the tree’s site.
We show part of a tracing of π Ceti, an example of a uniform series of high-quality tracings of standard stars covering the wavelength region 3850–4650 Å and derived from 10 Å/mm photographic spectrograms taken with the coudé spectrograph of the Mount Wilson 100-inch reflector.
Spectrograms of very high quality have been obtained of Vega and Sirius with the Mount Wilson 100-inch (2.5-m) telescope and coudé spectrograph. Examples of these plates, showing the Be II region in the ultraviolet, are exhibited. The reciprocal dispersion is 0.83 Å/mm (83 nm/m) and the FWHM is about 19 mÅ (1.9 pm). The spectrograms have a trailed width of 3 mm and are on IIa or IIIa emulsions.
Deep-sea corals are a promising new archive of paleoclimate. Coupled radiocarbon and U-series dates allow 14C to be used as a tracer of ocean circulation rate in the same manner as it is used in the modern ocean. Diagenetic alteration of coral skeletons on the seafloor requires a thorough cleaning of contaminating phases of carbon. In addition, 10% of the coral must be chemically leached prior to dissolution to remove adsorbed modern CO2. A survey of modern samples from the full δ14C gradient in the deep ocean demonstrates that the coralline CaCO3 records the radiocarbon value of the dissolved inorganic carbon.
This is a progress report of a project designed to find the component, perpendicular to the Galactic plane, of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy. The principle is to measure the radial velocities and distances of a large number of K-giant stars near the North Galactic Pole. My student G. A. Radford is masterminding the project; collaborating with us are Drs. J. E. Gunn of the Hale Observatories and L. Hansen and K. Gyldenkerne of Copenhagen.
We have measured the radial velocities of all the HD stars of type KO and later, and many of the G5 stars, within 15°of the Galactic Pole, using the Cambridge photoelectric spectrometer. In addition, we have observed all the stars classified as K giants by Upgren in his declination zones 25° to 31°, using the spectrometer on the Hale telescope. There are about 900 stars observed altogether, including about 200 Upgren stars, running down to twelfth magnitude or so, which are not in the Henry Draper Catalogue. To determine the distances of all these stars we are now trying to determine the absolute magnitudes by narrow-band photoelectric photometry in the Copenhagen system. Most of the observations have been made, thanks largely to the very generous grants of observing time given by the Hale Observatories earlier this year; but the reductions have only been completed for about 300 stars (including 244 K giants) which were observed last year at Kitt Peak, and the present, very preliminary, discussion is based on those stars alone.
Annual radiocarbon from a massive Porites lutea coral collected from Hon Tre Island, Vietnam, South China Sea (SCS) was analyzed over a ~100-yr-long period from AD 1900 to 1986. The pre-bomb results from 1900–1953 show a steady Δ14C value of –54.4±1.8‰ (n=60). These values are similar to coral records located in the central and southern SCS and from Indonesian waters, but are lower than those from Japan. Following the input of anthropogenic bomb 14C, our results show a sharp increase in Δ14C from 1960, reaching a peak value of 155.3‰ in 1973. The Hon Tre Island post-bomb Δ14C values are lower than those of other corals located in the SCS and Japan, but higher compared to those in the Indonesian Seas. This study infers a seasonal input of upwelled water depleted in 14C from the deeper SCS basin that originates from the tropical Pacific via the Luzon Strait. The bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current feeds the surface and intermediate currents in the SCS and Makassar Strait region. However, unlike the Makassar site, this study’s coral Δ14C does not receive lower 14C water from the South Pacific Equatorial Current. The Vietnam record therefore represents a unique oceanographic position, reflecting the seasonal influence of older, deeper SCS waters that upwell periodically in this area and have modified the surface waters locally in this region over the last 100 yr.
We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Good measurements of visual binary stars (position angle and angular separation) have been made for nearly 200 years. Radial-velocity observers have exhibited less patience; when the orbital periods of late-type stars in the catalogue published in 1978 are sorted into bins half a logarithmic unit wide, the modal bin is the one with periods between 3 and 10 days. The same treatment of the writer's orbits shows the modal bin to be the one between 1000 and 3000 days. Of course the spectroscopists cannot quickly catch up the 200 years that the visual observers have been going, but many spectroscopic orbits with periods of decades, and a few of the order of a century, have been published. Technical developments have also been made in ‘visual’ orbit determination, and orbits with periods of only a few days have been determined for certain ‘visual’ binaries. In principle, therefore, the time domains of visual and spectroscopic binaries now largely overlap. Overlap is essential, as it is only by combining both techniques that orbits can be determined in three dimensions, as is necessary for the important objective of determining stellar masses accurately. Nevertheless the actual overlap—objects with accurate measurements by both techniques—remains disappointingly small. There have, however, been unforeseen benefits from the observation of spectroscopic binaries that have unconventionally long orbital periods, not a few of which have proved to be interesting and significant objects in their own right. It has also been shown that binary membership is more common than was once thought (orbits have even been determined for some of the IAU standard radial-velocity stars!); a recent study of the radial velocities of K giants that had been monitored for 45 years found a binary incidence of 30%, whereas a figure of 13.7% was given as recently as 2005 for a similar group.
The silicide formation for Ni/Pd and Pd/Ni bilayers on Si(100) substrates was investigated. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling have been applied to study the phase formation of the silicide. We found that with addition of Pd into Ni/Si, a uniform layer of ternary Ni1−xPdxSi layer formed and kept stable for a wide temperature range. The lattice parameter of Ni1−xPdxSi as a function of Pd addition was calculated. The nucleation temperature of NiSi2 was delayed due to the addition of Pd. The higher the Pd addition, the larger the increase in NiSi2 nucleation temperature. We also studied the effect on the addition of Ni to the Pd/Si reaction. For pure Pd/Si reaction PdSi nucleated from Pd2Si at 750°C or above. For Ni/Pd/Si reaction, Pd2Si changed to Ni1−xPdxSi at temperature lower than 750°C due to the incorporation of Ni. The phenomena were explained by classic nucleation theory taking into account the effect of mixing entropy effect.
Thin-film Al-C60-Al trilayered structures were sublimated under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions for the purpose of investigating their current-voltage (I-V) properties. These metal-semiconductor-metal devices exhibited rapid and irreversible drop in resistance of about two orders of magnitude under an applied voltage of 0.67 to 0.75V. Approximate initial and final resistances were 1050 Ω and 8 Ω respectively. Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) indicated no noticeable change in phase of the fullerene inter-layer after the irreversible drop in resistance. These results, SEM micrographs and concentration profiles were concordant with diffusion of top layer Al through the fullerene layer as the most likely cause of the change in resistance.