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To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case–control study among persons who use drugs. During June–October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case–control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1–51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3–109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8–3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1–18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a range of ‘gas cell’ microtargets produced by the Target Fabrication Group in the Central Laser Facility (CLF) for academic access experiments on the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The experiments were carried out by an academic consortium led by Imperial College London. The underlying target methodology was an evolution of a range of targets used for experiments on radiative shocks and involved the fabrication of a precision machined cell containing a number of apertures for interaction foils or diagnostic windows. The interior of the cell was gas-filled before laser irradiation. This paper details the assembly processes, thin film requirements and micro-machining processes needed to produce the targets. Also described is the implementation of a gas-fill system to produce targets that are filled to a pressure of 0.1–1 bar. The paper discusses the challenges that are posed by such a target.
In observations of six binary millisecond pulsars with the Hubble Space Telescope, we have discovered white dwarf companions to PSRs J0034-0534, J1022+1001, J1713+0747, and J2019+2425 and improved photometry on PSRs J1640+2224 and J2145-0750. Three of the white dwarfs are among the coolest and oldest known. We have determined that the masses for the helium companions are consistent with the expectation based on the core mass of a progenitor that filled its Roche lobe. The cooling times for many of the white dwarfs are much less than the characteristic spin-down times, implying that the spin period at the end of the accretion stage was close to the current period. The initial spin periods calculated are used to place limits on the accretion rate at the end of the low-mass X-ray binary phase. The accretion rates are found to be over an order of magnitude less than the Eddington rate.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Reactive ion etching of features down to 100 nm in linewidth in tungsten has been studied using an SF6 based chemistry. The studies were carried out in a PlasmaTherm 500 etcher operated at low pressure (2 mTorr) and power (100 mWatts/cm2). Key processing parameters have been identified to achieve the resolution and aspect ratio required for high contrast x-ray masks. The critical parameters include sample temperature, gas dilution and end point detection. However, even with all of these parameters optimized, additional sidewall passivation is required to obtain the necessary 6.5:1 aspect ratio. A novel method of achieving such passivation based on an intermittent etching process is described.
The solid source MOCVD technique1,2, employing a single powder vaporization source composed of mixed beta-diketonate metalorganic compounds, has been used to grow thin films of a variety of electro-optic materials, including lithium niobate, strontium barium niobate, and potassium niobate. Results for potassium niobate films are quite preliminary, but indicate that a volatile potassium organometallic source can be synthesized which is useful for growing potassium niobate by MOCVD. High quality single phase (001) oriented strontium barium niobate films have been deposited which exhibit waveguiding behavior. The most extensive work has been done on lithium niobate, which has been deposited epitaxially on a variety of substrates. Oriented z-axis (001) films have been grown on c-axis sapphire with and without a (111) oriented platinum base electrode and on a bulk grown lithium niobate substrate. Films grown directly on c-axis sapphire at 700 C exhibit x-ray rocking curve linewidths as low as.044 degrees, nearly perfect in-plane orientation as determined by x-ray phi scans, and peak-to-peak surface roughness less than 40 Å. Optical waveguiding has been demonstrated by a single prism coupling technique on similar films 1175 – 2000 Å thick grown at 500 C, with optical losses of approximately 2 db/cm at 632.8 nm measured over 3.5 cm long films. Polarization vs. electric field measurements on 1100 Å thick films grown on platinum show a hysteresis loop indicating ferroelectric behavior.
A unique approach to MOCVD of complex oxides enables deposition of a number of materials of technological importance through the use of liquid delivery of metalorganic precursors. Methodologies for control of composition and exploration of. process space are compared for two film systems, one in a relatively mature state of development ((Ba,Sr)Ti03), the other in an early state of development (Ni-ferrite). In both cases, composition was controlled by mixing metalorganic precursors dissolved in solvents using a liquid delivery system. Films with excellent crystalline quality were deposited in both cases. Polycrystalline BST films displayed properties suitable for DRAM applications: charge storage densities > 80 fF/μm2 and leakage current density < 10−8 A/cm2 for films as thin as 15 nm. Growth mechanisms and rates were determined for the single component oxides of the ferrite films. Epitaxial NiFe204 films were deposited on MgO single crystal substrates at 650°C; x-ray rocking curves yielded FWHM values of 0.046°, commensurate with the substrate.
CeO2 is nearly lattice matched to Si and has the CaF2 cubic structure thus it offers the potential for the epitaxial growth of an insulating film on Si. Laser ablation of a CeO2 target in an ultra high vacuum system was used for the deposition of single crystal CeO2. The effect of post growth thermal and rapid thermal annealing in O2, N2 and Ar atmosphere was found to have pronounced effects on the electrical properties measured by C-V and the optical properties measured by photoluminescence.
We report on our initial results for the growth of epitaxial Si on the deposited CeO2 using low pressure CVD. Both RHEED and TEM studies showed that single crystal epitaxial Si was deposited on CeO2. The details of the Si deposition on CeO2 films for potential of SOI (silicon on insulator) structures will be discussed.
Negative working photodefinable benzocyclobutene formulations capable of obtaining patterned dielectric films from 1 to 20 microns thick are being developed using bisaryl azides as photocrosslinkers. Three different formulations are used to cover this range of film thicknesses. The formulations are very sensitive to the 365 nm and 405 nm wavelengths of light (i-line and h-line) of the high pressure mercury spectrum and require low exposure doses to produce resolved patterns. Twenty five micron round and square vias with sloping sidewalls (geometry good for metallization) have been successfully patterned in 10 micron thick films. The photodefined patterns can be obtained with good film retention using several developing solvents including: Stoddard solvent, ProglydeTM DMM, and n-butyl butyrate.
The relationship between the magnetic and crystalline microstructure of SrRu03 thin films is analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Regions with a stripe magnetic domain structure in different orientations are observed in Lorentz imaging mode when the specimens are zero-field-cooled through the ferromagnetic transition temperature, Tc ≈ 150K. The different orientations of the stripe regions correspond to different crystallographic domains as determined by electron diffraction and magnetic image contrast; all of the six possible orientations of the orthorhombic SrRuO3 structure grown epitaxially on a SrTiO3 cubic substrate are identified. The results show that the uniaxial anisotropy indicated for these multi(crystal)domain films is the same as that determined for single crystal films by bulk magnetization measurements, and is therefore primarily magnetocrystalline in nature.
Piezoelectric thin films are useful for application in microelectromechanical devices. A series of sol-gel derived PZT (lead zirconate titanate) thin films with various Zr/Ti ratios were prepared on platinized substrates. These films were fired to 650C - 700C to crystallize them into single-phase perovskite films, and their piezoelectric properties were measured using optical lever-based instrumentation. Large d33 piezoelectric coefficients up to 400 pm/V were obtained at the morphotropic phase boundary (PZT 53/47), making such films attractive in applications such as thin film transducers, microcanti levers and surface acoustic wave devices.
We present and discuss experiments designed to demonstrate the effects of ramping substrate temperature during the deposition of TIBA sourced aluminum on Si(100) and TiNx coated silicon (TiN) wafers. We also present results from experiments in which the precursor flow was pulsed (started and stopped) for a short time at a higher temperature followed by temperature ramp down and deposition at a lower (constant) temperature on TiN wafers. Aluminum growth rates and crystal orientation data are presented for different deposition conditions on Si(100) wafers. Aluminum nucleation densities, crystal orientation, average grain size, surface roughness, growth rate and resistivity data are presented for different deposition conditions on TiN wafers. During substrate temperature ramp down from 673 K on TiN wafers, when the precursor flow was pulsed for a short time at higher temperatures, and then resumed at a lower (constant) temperature 573 K, there was a significant increase in both deposition rates and fraction of (111) orientation. The resistivities of these films were close to that of bulk aluminum. Films deposited during substrate temperature ramp down on TiN substrates resulted in higher fractions of (111) oriention and higher resistivities as compared to the films deposited at constant substrate temperature and during the ramp up of substrate temperature. The films deposited on Si(100) wafers during substrate temperature ramp down from 673 K to 573 K had strong Al(200) orientation.
A series of sol-gel derived PB(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) films, with various PbTiO3 contents, have been prepared on platinized Si wafers. The (l-x)PZN - xPT films fired to 700C became single phase perovskite for x > 0.7. In the PZN-0.1PT films, the films still contain pyrochlore phase at a firing temperature of 850C; the perovskite phase appeared at a firing temperature of 800C. The dielectric constant increased with increasing PT content, with a peak in dielectric constant at x = 0.8. PZN-PT films with x = 0.8 exhibited dielectric constant, dissipation factor, remanent polarization and coercive field values of 600, 0.10, 6 and 45 kV/cm respectively.
Results from a statistically designed experiment studying the effects of initial substrate temperature (A), precursor pulse time (B), diluent gas flow rate (C), and their interactions on film properties of programmed rate chemical vapor deposited aluminum are presented. Deposition rate, reflectivity, absolute and normalized roughness, and grain orientation were the response variables investigated. A two level, three factor (23) full factorial experimental design was used. Five center cell replicates were used to estimate cell standard deviations. The experiments were conducted using tri-isobutyl aluminum (TIBA) as the precursor in a lowpressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) cold wall reactor. Effects were considered significant at the 95% confidence level. Initial substrate temperature (A) affected deposition rate and reflectivity. Diluent gas flow rate (C) affected deposition rate, normalized roughness and film texture. The precursor pulse time/diluent gas flow rate interaction (BC) affected film reflectivity and absolute surface roughness, while the initial substrate temperature/diluent gas flow rate interaction (AC) affected film texture.
Suboptimal vitamin D status among the South Asian UK population is widely reported; however, its impact on bone health is unclear. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comparative investigation of vitamin D status in postmenopausal South Asian (SA) and Caucasian (C) women and its relationship to parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone quality. A cross-sectional study of community-dwelling women aged 50–66 years was carried out. A total of sixty-six SA women of Pakistani origin and forty-two C women living in the same community were recruited. Fasting blood was taken for the measurement of vitamin D, PTH and biochemical markers of bone turnover, including type-1 collagen β C-telopeptide (βCTX), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity. Bone quality was assessed using broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was significantly lower in the SA women than the C women (medians: SA 10·5 v. C 47·1 nmol/l; P < 0·001) This was associated with a significantly elevated serum PTH concentration in the SA group (medians: SA 7·3 v. C 4·5 pmol/l; P < 0·01). BAP activity was also significantly higher in the SA group, indicating elevated osteoblast activity and bone turnover (medians: SA 23·0 v. C 20·0 U/l; P < 0·05). No significant differences were observed between the two groups for P1NP, βCTX or BUA. Although the SA women had significantly higher serum PTH and lower 25(OH)D concentrations than C women, this was not associated with significantly higher markers of bone resorption, or reduced bone quality in the SA women.