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Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
Despite the perception that doctors should be ‘invincible’, mental illness is common in this population. Doctors and medical students have low levels of help-seeking for their own mental health problems often only presenting to mental health services once a crisis arises. Fear of exposure to stigmatization is a crucial factor to symptom concealment.
‘The Wounded Healer’ is an anti-stigma intervention that has been described as an innovative method of pedagogy that blends science with the humanities. The Wounded Healer has been delivered to more than 5000 medical students and doctors in countries all over the world.
We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Immediately following the intervention we distributed paper questionnaires to participants who attended the Wounded Healer that contained stigma constructs. Answers were on a Likert-type scale and there was also space for free-text comments.
303/378 (80%) of participants recruited for the study responded. 246/303 (81%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that the talk made them more accepting of medics suffering from psychopathology. 223/303 (73%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that they were more aware of the importance of engaging in help-seeking behavior when under mental distress.
Many respondents reported in the free-text comments that the Wounded Healer was inspirational and that every medical student should receive this intervention.
A majority of respondents responded positively to the stigma constructs. This may have implications for medical students and doctors in mental distress by helping to reduce stigma and by encouraging help-seeking behavior.
The unprecedented growth, availability and accessibility of sophisticated image analysis algorithms and powerful computational resources led to the idea of developing web-based computational infrastructures that could meet users’ new requirements. On the other hand the gap between the pace of data generation and the capability to extract clinically or scientifically relevant information is rapidly widening.
Integration of the power of sophisticated mathematical models, efficient computational algorithms and advanced hardware infrastructure provides the necessary sensitivity to detect, extract and analyze subtle, dynamic and distributed patterns distinguishing one brain from another, and a diseased brain from a normal brain.
neuGRID is the leading e-Infrastructure where neuroscientists can find core services and resources for brain image analysis. The neuGRID platform makes use of grid services and computing, and was developed with the final aim of overcoming the hurdles that the average scientist meets when trying to set up advanced experiments in computational neuroimaging, thereby empowering a larger base of scientists. Although originally built for neuroscientists working in the field of AD, the infrastructure is designed to be expandable to services from other medical fields (e.g. multiple sclerosis, psychiatric conditions).
“neuGRID for Users” will provide an e-Science environment by further developing and deploying the neuGRID infrastructure to deliver a Virtual Laboratory offering neuroscientists access to a wide range of datasets and algorithm pipelines, access to computational resources, services, and support. Information from this abstract is intended to make aware researchers working with neuroimaging of all possibilities when it comes to resources.
This article was first conceived as a commemorative address for the centenary of the extinction of the Habsburg monarchy, which occurred in November 1918. It seeks to take a correspondingly broad view, geographically and chronologically, of the factors that occasioned that collapse. It addresses three main themes, structured loosely around three classic historiographical analyses of the monarchy as a whole. The great irony of the last phase of Habsburg rule in Central Europe is that it was undermined by precisely those elements in the politics and society of the region that seemed, on the face of things, to derive most advantage from it. The article concentrates on the long-term dysfunctionality caused by the evolution of the Hungarian and German problems, and by the progressive enfeeblement of dynastic institutions. It also engages more briefly with a countervailing phenomenon, that some of those interests most conspicuously spurned by central government might have been the readiest to rescue it. On the argument presented here, World War I, which finally brought the monarchy low, was a catalyst rather than an independent determiner of that outcome.
This note reflects on my collaborations with Nick Martin and the GenEpi group over the past 20 years. Over the past two decades, our work together has focused on gene mapping and understanding the genetic architecture of a wide range of traits with particular foci on migraine and common baldness. Our migraine research has included latent class and twin analyses cumulating in genome-wide association analyses which had identified 44 (34 new) risk variants for migraine. Leveraging these results through polygenic risk score analyses identified subgroups of patients likely to respond to triptans (an acute migraine drug), providing the first step toward precision medicine in migraine [Kogelman et al. (2019) Neurology Genetics, 5, e364].
Twins, data and emails. Some of the words that first come to mind when I think of Nick. Lots of twins. With lots of data. And short single-finger-typed emails. And great wine. Well, it works, there is no doubt. That’s how I ended up in Australia, working on asthma genetics.
Nick Martin is a pioneer in recognizing the need for large sample size to study the complex, heterogeneous and polygenic disorders of common mental disorders. In the predigital era, questionnaires were mailed to thousands of twin pairs around Australia. Always quick to adopt new technology, Nick’s studies progressed to phone interviews and then online. Moreover, Nick was early to recognize the value of collecting DNA samples. As genotyping technologies improved over the years, these twin and family cohorts were used for linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. These cohorts have underpinned many analyses to disentangle the complex web of genetic and lifestyle factors associated with mental health. With characteristic foresight, Nick is chief investigator of our Australian Genetics of Depression Study, which has recruited 16,000 people with self-reported depression (plus DNA samples) over a time frame of a few months — analyses are currently ongoing. The mantra of sample size, sample size, sample size has guided Nick’s research over the last 30 years and continues to do so.
The Meeting Centre Support Programme (MCSP) is a community-based approach to support people living with dementia and their families. It was developed in the Netherlands and has been implemented in other European Countries (Italy, Poland and the UK) within the JPND-MEETINGDEM project.
To assess the relationship between background characteristics of people with dementia participating in MCSP, mood, quality of life (QoL) and experienced stigma, and to explore if and how the experienced stigma changed after 6 months of participation in MCSP.
A pretest (M1) post-test (M7) control group design with matched groups regarding severity of dementia was applied. In each country, a minimum of 25 participants using MCSP were compared with people with dementia receiving ‘usual care’. Data were collected with the Stigma Impact Scale, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Global Deterioration Scale and two QoL scales (QoL-AD & DQoL). Differences in background characteristics were taken into account in the analyses.
The preliminary analysis on 116 participants at baseline shows that the level of stigma was low to moderate. People felt more socially rejected in the UK than in Poland and Italy. The level of perceived stigmatization appeared negatively correlated with QoL areas and positively correlated with negative mood. Changes after 6 months will be presented.
It is expected that after 6 months people living with dementia participating in MCSP will experience less stigma, as in contrast with usual care MCSP promotes social integration of people with dementia and person-centered support.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To identify patient and provider characteristics associated with high-volume antibiotic prescribing for children in Tennessee, a state with high antibiotic utilization.
Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of pediatric (aged <20 years) outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in Tennessee using the 2016 IQVIA Xponent (formerly QuintilesIMS) database.
Patient and provider characteristics, including county of prescription fill, rural versus urban county classification, patient age group, provider type (nurse practitioner, physician assistant, physician, or dentist), physician specialty, and physician years of practice were analyzed.
Tennessee providers wrote 1,940,011 pediatric outpatient antibiotic prescriptions yielding an antibiotic prescribing rate of 1,165 per 1,000 population, 50% higher than the national pediatric antibiotic prescribing rate. Mean antibiotic prescribing rates varied greatly by county (range, 39–2,482 prescriptions per 1,000 population). Physicians wrote the greatest number of antibiotic prescriptions (1,043,030 prescriptions, 54%) of which 56% were written by general pediatricians. Pediatricians graduating from medical school prior to 2000 were significantly more likely than those graduating after 2000 to be high antibiotic prescribers. Overall, 360 providers (1.7% of the 21,798 total providers in this dataset) were responsible for nearly 25% of both overall and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions; 20% of these providers practiced in a single county.
Fewer than 2% of providers account for 25% of pediatric antibiotic prescriptions. High antibiotic prescribing for children in Tennessee is associated with specific patient and provider characteristics that can be used to design stewardship interventions targeted to the highest prescribing providers in specific counties and specialties.
A guideline for the prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in 127 Veterans Health Administration acute-care facilities was implemented in July 2012. Beginning in 2015, a targeted assessment for prevention strategy was used to evaluate facilities for hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDIs to focus prevention efforts where they might have the most impact in reaching a reduction goal of 30% nationwide.
We calculated standardized infection ratios (SIRs) and cumulative attributable differences (CADs) using a national data baseline. Facilities were ranked by CAD, and those with the 10 highest CAD values were targeted for periodic conference calls or a site visit from January 2016–September 2019.
The hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDI rate in the 10 facilities with the highest CADs declined 56% during the process improvement period, compared to a 44% decline in the 117 nonintervention facilities (P = .03).
Process improvement interventions targeting facilities ranked by CAD values may be an efficient strategy for decreasing CDI rates in a large healthcare system.
Propagating inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be excited by free-space beams on corrugated conducting surfaces at resonance angles determined by corrugation period, permittivity, and optical frequency. SPPs are coupled to and co-propagate with surface charge displacements. Complete electrical isolation of individual conducting corrugations prevents the charge displacement necessary to sustain an SPP, such that excitation resonances of traveling SPPs are absent. However, SPPs can be excited via electric induction if a smooth conducting surface exists below and nearby the isolated conducting corrugations. The dependence of SPP excitation resonances on that separation is experimentally investigated here at long-wave infrared wavelengths. We find that excitation resonances for traveling SPPs broaden and disappear as the dielectric’s physical thickness is increased beyond ~1% of the free-space wavelength. The resonance line width increases with refractive index and optical thickness of the dielectric.
A previously unrecognized specimen of Protoichthyosaurus prostaxalis, LEICT G142.1991, from the Lower Jurassic of Barrow-upon-Soar, Leicestershire, UK, includes an almost complete three-dimensional skull that provides new information on the configuration of the skull roof. The position of the pineal foramen (between the frontals and the parietals) and an elongated internasal foramen in a depression along the midline of the nasals are clearly shown. The maxilla makes up a significant portion of the external naris ventral margin, an unusual character for the genus/species. This reflects intraspecific variation, not evidence of a new taxon. The specimen enables comparisons of skull roof morphology with Ichthyosaurus and Stenopterygius, two common Early Jurassic taxa. In particular, the position of the pineal foramen is similar to Stenopterygius, but distinguishes Protoichthyosaurus from Ichthyosaurus. The lack of a frontal–prefrontal contact and the posteriorly wide nasals distinguishes Protoichthyosaurus from Stenopterygius. We also present a revised reconstruction of the skull roof morphology of Ichthyosaurus. Three additional specimens of Protoichthyosaurus are referred to the genus: another partial skull, referred to P. prostaxalis, and two isolated forefins, identified by their unique morphology.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Small mountain glaciers are an important part of the cryosphere and tend to respond rapidly to climate warming. Historically, mapping very small glaciers (generally considered to be <0.5 km2) using satellite imagery has often been subjective due to the difficulty in differentiating them from perennial snowpatches. For this reason, most scientists implement minimum size-thresholds (typically 0.01–0.05 km2). Here, we compare the ability of different remote-sensing approaches to identify and map very small glaciers on imagery of varying spatial resolutions (30–0.25 m) and investigate how operator subjectivity influences the results. Based on this analysis, we support the use of a minimum size-threshold of 0.01 km2 for imagery with coarse to medium spatial resolution (30–10 m). However, when mapping on high-resolution imagery (<1 m) with minimal seasonal snow cover, glaciers <0.05 km2 and even <0.01 km2 are readily identifiable and using a minimum threshold may be inappropriate. For these cases, we develop a set of criteria to enable the identification of very small glaciers and classify them as certain, probable or possible. This should facilitate a more consistent approach to identifying and mapping very small glaciers on high-resolution imagery, helping to produce more comprehensive and accurate glacier inventories.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The rotational behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow is studied by Lagrangian tracking of spheroidal point particles in a directly simulated flow. The focus is on the complex rotation modes of the spheroidal particles, in which the back reaction on the flow field is ignored. This study is a sequel to the letter by Zhao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 115, 2015, 244501), in which only selected results in the near-wall buffer region and the almost-isotropic channel centre were presented. Now, particle dynamics all across the channel is explored to provide a complete picture of the orientational and rotational behaviour with consideration of the effects of particle aspect ratio ranging from 0.1 to 10 and particle Stokes number from 0 (inertialess) to 30. The rotational dynamics in the innermost part of the logarithmic wall layer is particularly complex and affected not only by modest mean shear, but also by particle inertia and turbulent vorticity. While inertial disks exhibit modest preferential orientation in either the wall-normal or cross-stream direction, inertial rods show neither preferential tumbling nor spinning. Examination of the co-variances between particle orientation, particle rotation and fluid rotation vectors explains the qualitatively different ‘wall mode’ rotation and ‘centre mode’ rotation. Inertialess spheroids transition between the two modes within a narrow zone (
) in the buffer region. If the spheroids have inertia, the transition zone between the two modes shifts to the inner part of the logarithmic layer, i.e.
. We ascribe the transition of inertialess spheroids from the ‘wall mode’ to the ‘centre mode’ rotation to the changeover between the time scales associated with mean shear and small-scale turbulence. Inertial spheroids, however, transition between the two rotational modes when the Kolmogorov time scale becomes comparable to the time scale for particle rotation, i.e. the effective Stokes number is of order unity. The aforementioned findings reveal, in addition to the effects of particle shape and alignment, the importance of the characteristic local time scale of fluid flow for the rotation of both tracer and inertial spheroids in turbulent channel flows.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.