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Dynamical effects of non-conservative forces in long, defect free atomic wires are investigated. Current flow through these wires is simulated and we find that during the initial transient, the kinetic energies of the ions are contained in a small number of phonon modes, closely clustered in frequency. These phonon modes correspond to the waterwheel modes determined from preliminary static calculations. The static calculations allow one to predict the appearance of non-conservative effects in advance of the more expensive real-time simulations. The ion kinetic energy redistributes across the band as non-conservative forces reach a steady state with electronic frictional forces. The typical ion kinetic energy is found to decrease with system length, increase with atomic mass, and its dependence on bias, mass and length is supported with a pen and paper model. This paper highlights the importance of non-conservative forces in current carrying devices and provides criteria for the design of stable atomic wires.
During outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 a minority of patients with suspected infection develop haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The ability to identify this subgroup at an early stage is beneficial as mortality from HUS is high and may be influenced by intervention. During the 1996 Central Scotland E. coli O157 outbreak, of 886 patients from the community with suspected infection monitored at an outbreak clinic, nine developed HUS. We assessed factors associated with the development of HUS in this group. Children and the elderly were at increased risk of HUS. However, high white cell count was as least as good a predictor of HUS as age. High white cell counts predicted development of HUS with a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 87%, positive predictive value of 7% and a negative predictive value of over 99%. We have used the results from this study along with other currently available evidence to propose a monitoring protocol for patients from the community with suspected E. coli O157 infection.
A 53-year-old female presented with a painful swelling within her external auditory meatus. Biopsies revealed this to be a B-cell lymphoma and she underwent surgical treatment followed by chemotherapy. This is the first reported case of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the external auditory meatus in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patient.