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We explored how positive and negative life experiences of caregivers are associated with household food insecurity.
The Midlands Family Study (MFS) was a cross-sectional study with three levels of household food security: food secure, food insecure without child hunger and food insecure with child hunger. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used for analyses of negative and positive life experiences (number, impact, type) associated with food insecurity.
An eight-county region in South Carolina, USA, in 2012–2013.
Caregivers (n 511) in households with children.
Caregivers who reported greater numbers of negative life experiences and greater perceived impact had increased odds of household food insecurity and reporting their children experienced hunger. Each additional negative life experience count of the caregiver was associated with a 16 % greater odds of food insecurity without child hunger and a 28 % greater odds of child hunger. Each one-unit increase in the negative impact score (e.g. a worsening) was associated with 8 % higher odds of food insecurity without child hunger and 12 % higher odds of child hunger. Negative work experiences or financial instability had the strongest association (OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·5, 2·2) with child hunger. Positive life experiences were generally not associated with food security status, with one exception: for each unit increase in the number of positive experiences involving family and other relationships, the odds of child hunger decreased by 22 %.
More research is needed to understand approaches to build resilience against negative life experiences and strengthen positive familial, community and social relationships.
We present a method for measuring the shear complex modulus of hydrogels by oscillatory nanoindentation, with unprecedented attention to procedure and uncertainty analysis. The method is verified by testing a typical low-molecular-weight gelator formed from the controlled hydrolysis of glucono-δ-lactone. Nanoindentation results are compared with those obtained by rheometry using both vane-in-cup and parallel-plate fixtures. At 10 Hz, the properties measured by oscillatory nanoindentation were G′ = 38.1 ± 2.8 kPa, tan δ = 0.22 ± 0.02. At the same frequency, the properties measured by rheometry were G′ = 15.3 ± 2.9 kPa, tan δ = 0.11 ± 0.016 (vane-in-cup) and G′ = 7.9 ± 1.1 kPa, tan δ = 0.05 ± 0.004 (parallel-plate). The larger shear modulus measured by nanoindentation is due to the scale of testing. Whereas rheometry characterizes the bulk material response, nanoindentation probes the fibrous network of the gel. The procedure and analysis presented here are valuable for nanoindentation testing of other compliant materials such as hydrogels, soft biological tissue, and food products.
The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic.
Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES–D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State–Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer).
A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted “U” relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels.
Significance of Results:
Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.
The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with Mr' > -14 in low-density volumes correlates with dark matter halos and how they affect galaxy formation. We are conducting a redshifted Hα imaging survey for dwarf galaxies with Mr' > -13 in the heart of the well-defined voids FN2 and FN8 using the KPNO 4m Mayall telescope and Mosaic Imager. These data have furnished over 600 strong candidates in a four square degree area. Follow-up spectra finding none of these candidates to be within the void volumes will constrain the dwarf population there to be 2 to 8% of the cosmic mean. Conversely, finding even one Hα dwarf in the void heart will challenge several otherwise successful theories of large-scale structure formation.
We use a WISE-2MASS-Pan-STARRS1 galaxy catalog to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. We obtain photometric redshifts using our multicolor data set to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial density profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, 5°, and 15°. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al. 2010, are consistent with a large Rvoid=(192 ± 15)h−1 Mpc (2σ) supervoid with δ ≃ −0.13 ± 0.03 centered at z=0.22 ± 0.01. Such a supervoid, constituting a ∼3.5 σ fluctuation in the ΛCDM model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.
Investigations describing the utilization pattern and comparing the outcome from emergency and mass casualty situations are limited by the lack of a reliable and valid patient classification system. In this study we briefly describe the use of APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation), a physiologically based classification system for measuring severity of illness in groups of critically ill patients, as a tool in comparing outcomes of 1437 ICU admissions from eight European and five American hospitals. Because of the successful results from this pilot effort, we believe that APACHE could be used to compare the performance of hospitals in an emergency or mass casualty situation.
Following nanosecond-duration laser surface-melting, lattice locations of illIn probe atoms in Ni and Pt samples were studied using the technique of perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations (PAC). After melting and annealing, no probe atoms were observed to become associated with unique vacancy clusters observed after other methods of damaging, while many probe atoms were found on non-unique sites. 111In probe atoms were observed to move to the surface and to be expelled at anomalously low temperatures. These observations are partially reconciled by the hypothesis that probe atoms diffusing in the molten surface layer become trapped on dislocations during resolidification, and during later annealing return to the surface via pipe diffusion.
Fourier series solutions have been obtained for the temperature distributions in melt spinning cooling belts and drums. These solutions have been used to determine drum and belt designs for producing 0.050 inch steel sheet. This paper discusses thermal design parameters for cooling drums used in melt spinning rapid solidification.
Commercial aluminum bronze (Cu-Al-Fe) alloys have been laser quenched with both continuous and pulsed CO2 laser sources. Metastable near surface regions of approximately 10 μm thickness have been produced. The quenched surfaces have been characterized by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX, AES and glancing angle XRD. The behavior of both laser quenched and “as received” conventional surfaces have been tested in both cavitation erosion and corrosion environments. In some cases significant differences are observed and can be rationalized from the microstructural changes accompanying the self quenching.
The need for the rehabilitation of the infrastructure has lead to the adaptation of modem analytical methods for the characterization of concrete. These techniques are not commonly associated with evaluating concrete but promise to be very useful both as tools of quality assurance and in the determination of existing damage. This paper describes two such techniques, namely, coordinated electron-optical microscopy and gamma-ray tomography. Examples of the use and interpretation of each method are given.
Thin slices of directionally solidified, fibrous composite, monotectic alloy samples have been selectively etched to remove the fibrous phase, so to produce fine sieves of filters having pore diameters ≲10μm. Alloys in systems Al-In, Al-Bi and CuAl-Pb have been examined using as etchants aqueous nitric acid (Al-In, Al-Bi) and aqueous citric acid (CuAl-Pb) without applied anode voltages. These alloys and etchants illustrate examples in which fiber and matrix are attacked to different extents (Al-In), the phase interface is selectively attacked (Al-Bi) or only the fibers are attacked (CuAl-Pb). Hole sizes and perfection are compared for etching times, concentrations and anode voltage.
Laser melting of the surface of CuAl-Pb samples has been used to screen or frame areas of the composite microstructure and also shows how local melting of the fibrous Pb phase can be used to assess the heat affected zone.
Strength degradation of single crystal Al2O3 fibers due to the effect of fiber/matrix interaction and processing of NiAl and superalloy matrix composites, was investigated. Strength loss was quantified by tensile testing fibers that were exposed to the matrix alloy using two different methods. In one method, the fibers were incorporated into a composite by either the Powder Cloth (P-C) or binderless powder technique. The fibers were then extracted from the composite by chemical dissolution of the matrix and subsequently tensile tested and examined by scanning electron microscopy. In the other method, fibers were sputter-coated with a similar matrix composition and heat-treated to simulate conditions similar to those experienced during composite powder fabrication methods. In the sputter coating method, the contribution of fiber-matrix reaction on fiber strength loss was isolated from the effects of the various mechanical loads which are present during powder fabrication. For all matrices studied, significant strength loss was observed both in fibers extracted from composites and in fibers sputter-coated and annealed. Although surface ridges and pores were observed on the degraded fibers, it remains uncertain whether these features were responsible for the strength loss.
The perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied to study the local environment of tantalum in nickel after ion implantation of hafnium and after laser-pulse melting. The magnetic hyperfine interaction at the daughter nucleus tantalum in nickel is used to determine the uniqueness of the tantalum lattice site. Several hafnium concentrations were employed and auxiliary measurements using ion-beam channeling, Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy were performed.
In Wisniewski et al. (2010), paper I, we analyzed 15 years of spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric data from the Ritter and Pine Bluff Observatories of 2 Be stars, 60 Cygni and π Aquarii, when a transition from Be to B star occurred. Here we analyze the intrinsic polarization, where we observe loop-like structures caused by the rise and fall of the polarization Balmer Jump and continuum V-band polarization being mismatched temporaly with polarimetric outbursts. We also see polarization angle deviations from the mean, reported in paper I, which may be indicative of warps in the disk, blobs injected at an inclined orbit, or spiral density waves. We show our ongoing efforts to model time dependent behavior of the disk to constrain the phenomena, using 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes.
Despite the continuing development of effective cognitive and behavioural interventions for Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) less attention has been paid to the important issue of improving treatment accessibility and affordability. Self-management approaches that utilise the convenience of the Internet may provide a means by which more people can avail themselves of effective treatments. To date, studies examining the effectiveness of such approaches for GAD lag behind the work conducted with other clinical problems. This study describes the response of three individuals with a primary diagnosis of GAD to an Internet-based treatment completed at their own pace. The intervention (‘What? Me Worry!?!; Saulsman, Nathan, Lim, and Correia, 2005) combines several cognitive and behavioural components with the inclusion of a significant metacognitive component. All participants achieved clinically significant improvement on measures of worry, GAD symptomatology, and metacognitions. Moreover, none of the participants met the diagnostic criteria for GAD at the completion of the study. A larger randomised controlled trial of this intervention is indicated.