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We investigated the impact of culturally relevant social, educational, and language factors on cognitive test performance among Spanish speakers living near the US–Mexico border.
Participants included 254 healthy native Spanish speakers from the Neuropsychological Norms for the US–Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) project (Age: M = 37.3, SD = 10.4; Education: M = 10.7, SD = 4.3; 59% Female). A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered in Spanish. Individual test scaled scores and T-scores (based on region-specific norms adjusted for age, education, and sex) were averaged to create Global Mean Scaled and T-scores. Measures of culturally relevant factors included a self-reported indicator of educational quality/access (proportion of education in Spanish-speaking country, quality of school/classroom setting, stopped attending school to work), childhood socioeconomic environment (parental education, proportion of time living in Spanish-speaking country, childhood socioeconomic and health status, access to basic resources, work as a child), and Spanish/English language use and fluency.
Several culturally relevant variables were significantly associated with unadjusted Global Scaled Scores in univariable analyses. When using demographically adjusted T-scores, fewer culturally relevant characteristics were significant. In multivariable analyses, being bilingual (p = .04) and working as a child for one’s own benefit compared to not working as a child (p = .006) were significantly associated with higher Global Mean T-score, accounting for 9% of variance.
Demographically adjusted normative data provide a useful tool for the identification of brain dysfunction, as these account for much of the variance of sociocultural factors on cognitive test performance. Yet, certain culturally relevant variables still contributed to cognitive test performance above and beyond basic demographics, warranting further investigation.
INTRODUCTION Facebook is the world’s leading social network with 2,449 million users. Around 22 million of those users are registered in Spain, and 30% of them are aged between 16 and 31. Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia pages have found a space to promote Eating Disorders (ED) as a ‘lifestyle’ using their own code.
OBJECTIVE To study the characteristics of Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia Facebook profiles in Spanish.
METHODS A non-computerized research of Facebook pages related to ED advocacy was conducted. The opened time, publications, photos, type of profiles (public/private) and link to a WhatsApp group of 58 Facebook pages were analyzed. A qualitative and descriptive analysis was carried out.
RESULTS From Facebook profiles: 62.07% contained ‘Ana’ in their profile name; 18.97% had been opened for more than 3 years; 79.31% had been shared; 48.28% mentioned Whatsapp groups; 91.38% were public profiles; 50% named other social networks; 75.86% added text to their publications; 25.86% had shared more than 20 photos on their profiles.
CONCLUSIONS On platforms like Facebook, people with ED can: advocate for their disease, set up networks, share tips/tricks and encourage other users to become part of their community. Technological developments have made it easier to access to this type of resources. Despite the platform’s policy, there are still these kind of profiles that make a case for ED.
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus syndrome (OMS), also known as Kinsbourne syndrome, is a paraneoplasic pediatric condition characterized by erratic eye movements and generalized myoclonus. Previous studies have described a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities in children with this syndrome. Cognitive impairment (especially intellectual capacity and language), affective symptoms (irritability, poor mood regulation) and behavioral problems are the most frequent presentations (1). However, there is a lack of literature describing the progression of this symptoms when the patient reaches the adulthood.
To illustrate the psychiatric comorbidity of an adult patient with Opsoclonus-Myoclonus syndrome.
We present one case-report and literature research of the topic.
We present a 18 year old girl diagnosed with OMS and Graves-Basedow hyperthyroidism. During her childhood she started presenting attention and comprehension difficulties. She was diagnosed with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and started treatment with methylphenidate. She completed elementary and secondary education. During the adulthood, the main psychiatric comorbidity was related to affective symptoms. We observed an impaired mood regulation, hypothymia, anhedonia, and frequent episodes of irritability, which persisted after the thyroid regulation. This caused incremented anxious symptoms and insomnia that were treated with mirtazapine and lormetazepam. After some weeks, she fulfilled criteria of a depressive episode and we started antidepressant treatment with vortioxetine.
- Adult patients diagnosed with OMS during childhood can persist presenting ADHD as a comorbidity. - Affective symptoms, and even a major depressive episode, should be considered during the follow-up of this population. Insight of the cognitive limitations could be a risk factor for a depression.
Persistent negative symptoms are associated with worse outcome in both first-episode and chronic subjects with schizophrenia. The identification of these symptoms in recent-onset subjects is still controversial as retrospective data are often unavailable. The prospective assessment of persistence of negative symptoms might represent a valid alternative but the length of the persistence is still to be established. The present study investigated the prevalence of negative symptoms of moderate severity, unconfounded by depression and extrapyramidal symptoms at baseline in a large cohort of patients in the early stage of a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, recruited to the OPTiMiSE trial. Persistent unconfounded negative symptoms were assessed at 4, 10 and 22 weeks of treatment. Symptomatic remission, attrition rate and psychosocial functioning was evaluated in subjects with short-term (4 weeks) persistent negative symptoms (PNS) and in those with negative symptoms that did not persist at follow-up and/or were confounded at baseline (N-PNS). Negative symptoms of moderate severity were observed in 59% of subjects at baseline and were associated to worse global functioning. PNS were observed in 7.9% of the cohort, unconfounded at both baseline and end of 4-week treatment. PNS subjects showed lower remission and higher attrition rates at the end of all treatment phases. Fifty-six percent of subjects completing phase 3 (clozapine treatment) had PNS, and 60% of them were non-remitters at the end of this phase. The presence of short-term PNS during the first phases of psychosis was associated with poor clinical outcome and resistance to antipsychotic treatment, including clozapine.
Prof Mucci has been a consultant and/or advisor to or has received honoraria from Gedeon Richter Bulgaria, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer and Pierre Fabre.
Eating Disorders are a frequent pathology, particularly among teenagers, a group characterized by its vulnerability and body dissatisfaction. Social networks (SN) can be a gateway to ED, mainly with Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources. Despite the aforementioned, SN can also be helpful for professionals, either as a tool of approach to vulnerable groups or as a way of interaction in patients already diagnosed.
To study the relationship between ED and SN, using the open access evidence available in Pubmed over the last 5 years.
A single-phase computerised search was carried out in Pubmed. The search terms were: (“Anorexia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Bulimia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Feeding and Eating Disorders”[Mesh] OR “Eating Disorders”[Tiab] OR “Eating Disorder”[Tiab] OR “Disorder, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Disorders, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Anorexia”[Tiab] OR “Bulimia”[Tiab]) AND (“blogging”[Mesh] OR “social media”[Mesh]). The filters applied were: “free Full Text” and publications for the last 5 years.
36.84% studied SN as a positive tool for ED. 47.37% revealed negative influence, only 44.44% focused on Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia. 15.79% provided both positive and negative arguments. The most studied SN were Twitter and Facebook.
Despite the known negative effect that SN can have on ED, they can also be used as a supportive recovery framework. They can be used to identify dangerous behaviours and intervene or as a prevention tool.
Eating Disorders (ED) have increased both in number of cases and diagnoses in recent years, partly due to the ease of searching on the Internet. This “community” as they call themselves has a proper language, which makes them easier to connect.
To know the search frequency of Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia terms in Spanish in the Google search engine.
A manual screening was carried out based on the word analysis of Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia blogs to obtain their search frequency in Spanish. Using the Google Trends tool, a total of 19 word combinations related to ED and their advocacy were reviewed in the time period from 01/01/2019 to 01/12/20. Some of them such as: “carrera de kilos” (kilos race), “princesa de cristal” (glass princess), “princesa de porcelana” (porcelain princess) and “dieta ABC” (ABC diet) among other terms.
From 2019 to 2020 there has been an increase in the searches related to Eating Disorders (41.63%), ABC diet (9.72%), porcelain princess (25.52%) and kilos race (38.53%). There has also been a decrease in the search for thinspo ana (30.9%), tips ana (4.15%), blog mia (13.09%) or blog ana (0.79%).
Search trends change over time as they meet the evolving needs. In several media we can find a clear increase in ED during this 2020 due to the confinement related to COVID-19. This is something that we can also relate to this increase in searches for some terms.
Nowadays Social Networks (SN) are used not only in a playful way but also as a ‘health’ means of communication. The Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia accounts or profiles -whereby Eating Disorders are advocated as a ‘lifestyle’- increased by 300% over the last decade.
To analyze Instagram Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia accounts and compare them with Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia Blogs.
A non-computerized research of Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia Blogs and Instagram profiles was performed. Accepting a risk of Alpha=0.05 and Beta=0.15 in a two-tailed test, 29 subjects were required in each group to detect a difference equal to or greater than 0.2 units. The common standard deviation is assumed to be 0.25. Publication averages, photos, opening years, WhatsApp links and number of followers were analysed and compared. Transversal descriptive study.
Blogs: 100% had no groups in other SN, 33.33% had been opened for more than 3 years, 30% included personal pictures, 16.67% contained Ana in their title, 53.3% named other Blogs. Instagram: 56.67% included personal pictures, 13.33% mentioned WhatsApp groups, 73.33% had a public profile, 43.33% contained ‘Ana’ in their user name and 53.33% had more than one hundred followers.
These tools are constantly adapting to the times in which they coexist. There has also been a current increase in Instagram profiles. This study shows a greater linkage to WhatsApp groups on Instagram than on Blogs, together with a higher number of followers, ease of ownership and difficulty of control.
INTRODUCTION TikTok is a social network (SN) that allows users to share short videos about different issues. Since the COVID-19 lockdown, there has been an increase in Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia videos in this specific SN.
OBJECTIVES To know the main characteristics about Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia contents among TikTok users.
METHODS A search was carried out using uncontrolled language with the term “TCA” (ED in English). The study included only Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources in Spanish. Resources under the category “recovery” were excluded. A random sample of 16 TikTok was used, since it is enough to estimate, with a confidence of 95% and an accuracy of +/- 20 percentage units, a population percentage that is expected to be around 20%. The studied variables were images, type of resources, “challenges” and misspelled words.
RESULTS In the sample, 68.75% of the profiles were created upon confinement, 56.25% had more than 500 followers and 68.75% had more than 3000 “likes”. 43.75% included more than 30% of ED advocacy content, 18.75% promoted challenges and 37.5% used misspelled words to avoid SN censorship.
CONCLUSIONS There has been a remarkable increase in ED-related content as a result of lockdown. In turn, the increasing number of users who are part of TikTok reveals that this is a SN that can be associated with ED advocacy.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins is an uncommon disorder that affects the lung vasculature development in the neonatal period and leads to pulmonary hypertension. We describe two patients with alveolar capillary dysplasia associated with left-sided obstructive heart defects with two different genetic variants. Our cases highlight the importance of early recognition of this disease in the setting of persistent and supra-systemic pulmonary hypertension despite surgical correction of the associated lesions. Identification of these cases will facilitate the development of a multidisciplinary approach and provide guidance to the affected families.
Vaccination remains the best strategy to reduce invasive meningococcal disease. This study evaluated an investigational tetanus toxoid-conjugate quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACYW-TT) vs. a licensed tetanus toxoid-conjugate quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV4-TT) (NCT02955797). Healthy toddlers aged 12–23 months were included if they were either meningococcal vaccine-naïve or MenC conjugate (MCC) vaccine-primed (≥1 dose of MCC prior to 12 months of age). Vaccine-naïve participants were randomised 1:1 to either MenACYW-TT (n = 306) or MCV4-TT (n = 306). MCC-primed participants were randomised 2:1 to MenACYW-TT (n = 203) or MCV4-TT (n = 103). Antibody titres against each of the four meningococcal serogroups were measured by serum bactericidal antibody assay using the human complement. The co-primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the non-inferiority of MenACYW-TT to MCV4-TT in terms of seroprotection (titres ≥1:8) at Day 30 in both vaccine-naïve and all participants (vaccine-naïve and MCC-primed groups pooled). The immune response for all four serogroups to MenACYW-TT was non-inferior to MCV4-TT in vaccine-naïve participants (seroprotection: range 83.6–99.3% and 81.4–91.6%, respectively) and all participants (seroprotection: range 83.6–99.3% and 81.4–98.0%, respectively). The safety profiles of both vaccines were comparable. MenACYW-TT was well-tolerated and demonstrated non-inferior immunogenicity when administered to MCC vaccine-primed and vaccine-naïve toddlers.
The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in a Paraguayan population.
Participants were recruited through an Internet-based survey. All participants whose scores in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Fear Questionnaire (FQ) were greater than zero were included. 1245 subjects responded voluntarily: 1077 subjects, scoring >0, were considered.
To establish construct validity of the FCV-19S, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using the KMO test, which was adequate, and the Bartlett sphericity test, which was significant (p <.0001). The CFI, NFI, GFI, TLI and RMSEA indices were used to evaluate the model and showed good adjustment. Cronbach’s α showed valid internal consistency (α = 0.86). This validation was supported by significant correlation (p <.001) with the HADS scale for anxiety and depression and with the FQ scale for specific phobia.
The Spanish version of the FCV-19S is a 7-item scale with two dimensions, psychological symptoms and physiological symptoms, which demonstrated robust psychometric properties in a Paraguayan population.
An annotated checklist of the cestode parasites of Argentinean wild birds is presented, as the result of a compilation of parasitological papers published between 1900 and April 2021. This review provides data on hosts, geographical distribution, sites of infection, location of material deposited in helminthological collections, references and taxonomic comments. A host/parasite list is also provided. During this period, 38 papers were published that gather information about 34 cestode nominal species and 11 taxa identified at generic level, belonging to three orders, ten families and 35 genera. The highest number of cestode taxa was recorded in the family Hymenolepididae, with 12 nominal species and two taxa identified at generic level, followed by Dilepididae, with eight nominal species and three taxa identified at generic level. Of the 1042 species of birds reported in Argentina, only 29 (2.8%) were reported as hosts of adult cestodes. The families of birds with the highest number of reported taxa were Laridae and Anatidae, with 20 and 14 taxa, respectively.
Agroforestry systems can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change given their capacity to increase tree diversity and to store more carbon than conventional farming. This study aims at assessing carbon stocks and the use of shade trees in different coffee growing systems in the Northeast Peruvian Amazon. Carbon stocks in trees were estimated by field-based measurements and allometric equations. Carbon stocks in dead wood, litter and soil (upper 60 cm) were determined using field sampling and laboratory analysis. The diversity analysis drew on the Shannon–Weiner diversity index, and focus groups were used to obtain information about the local use of shade trees. The total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded coffee system was 189 t C/ha, while the Inga-shaded and unshaded systems totalled 146 and 113 t C/ha, respectively. The soil compartment contributed the largest carbon stock in the coffee growing systems and contained 67, 82 and 96% of the total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded, Inga-shaded and unshaded coffee systems, respectively. The Shannon–Weiner index and tree species richness values were highest for the polyculture-shaded coffee system, with a total of 18 tree species identified as important sources of fodder, food, wood, firewood and medicine. Therefore, coffee agroforestry systems play a significant role in carbon storage, while promoting conservation of useful trees in agricultural landscapes in the Peruvian Amazon.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging technique increasingly used for both patient care and clinical research. This techniche provides a space-time high-resolution able to detect small changes in regional brain activation.Ojbectives: the aim of this study was to compare patterns of regional brain activation in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy volunteers during emotional stimulation.
Materials and methods
A group of 13 young female ED outpatients was selected using DSM-IV criteria and 13 young healthy female volunteers with no significant differences in sociodemographic or environmental data. fMRI was used to examine the neural responses after visual stimulation with neutral and fearful images, taken from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) and selected a region of interest (ROI) aproach to examine the function of the amygdala in emotional processing.Data processing and higher level analysis were carried out using FSL (fMRI's Software Library).
ED patients showed significantly greater rigth amygdala activation to the fearful images versus neutral images than healthy control subjects (p < 0.02)
A higher right amygdala response to processing of fearful stimuli was observed in ED patients compared to healthy volunteers. This emotional dysregulation in the affective response to unpleasant stimuli would correlate with a maladaptative response and therefore justify disruptive behaviours in this patients.
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.