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The purpose of this work was to develop accurate calibration standards which were fully characterized in terms of uniformity and concentration using fundamental measuring methods. Three similar sets of vacuum deposits were commercially made, each set containing the single deposits CuS, KCl, CaF2, Cr, Fe, Cu, RbNO3, SrF2, MoO3 , BaF2, and Pb. Thickness variations in each deposit were measured with PIXEA (proton induced x-ray excitation analysis) measurements taken at 6 to 8 positions along the deposit diameters. Relative elemental concentrations on corresponding deposits from each set were measured using multiple XRF intercomparisons. One set of deposits was destructively analyzed at the National Bureau of Standards with isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (IDMS) in order to calibrate the remaining sets of vacuum deposits. The calibrated deposits were compared with standards from two commercial sources. For seven elements heavier than chlorine there was an average deviation of 13.5% between the calibrated deposits and the commercial standards. Disagreements as large as 15% were observed between standards from the two commercial suppliers.
We present an age-structured mathematical model of malaria and pneumonia to study the effect of two capacity-building interventions: Integrated Management of Infectious Diseases (IMID) and On-site Support Services (OSS). IMID leads to a reduction in malaria prevalence by more than 2·4% across the [0,5), [5,14) and [14,50) age groups. IMID + OSS reduces it by more than 16·0% across all age groups. IMID decreases pneumonia prevalence by more than 3·0% across all age groups while IMID + OSS decreases it by more than 1·0% across all age groups. The number of malaria and pneumonia deaths is reduced by 7·8% by IMID across all age groups and IMID + OSS decreases this number by 30·5% across all age groups, which translates to saving a life of a child per month. Prevalence of malaria-pneumonia for the [0,5) age group is 0·52% at baseline, and IMID and IMID + OSS reduce it by 6·6% and 23·6%, respectively. There is no change in incidence of malaria or pneumonia disease episodes. The results also indicate that triaging of children contributes more than 50% to the effect of the interventions in reduction of deaths and a range of 14–91% in reduction of disease cases.
A rapid and dramatic change in our views of the Universe which we have witnessed during the past two decades or so is often compared with what happened at the time of Galileo. Revolutionary role of the optical telescope then may be analogized with that of space-astronomy today which has drastically opened the new observational window to the Universe. The revolution is ongoing with a rapid pace or even being accelerated.
On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2–73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
This article examines the extent of stigma and discrimination as reported by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The hypothesis is that when people express in their own words the discrimination they experience such discrimination will be found to be widespread.
Seventy-five people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia from 15 different countries were interviewed with a mixed methods instrument to assess reported discrimination. The data were analysed for frequency counts and then a thematic analysis was performed. A conceptual map is provided.
The study was a cross-cultural one but, contrary to expectations, few transnational differences were found. The main hypothesis was supported. Conversely, we found that when participants reported ‘positive discrimination’, this could as easily be conceptualised as being treated similarly to how others in society would expect to be treated.
Negative discrimination is ubiquitous and sometimes connotatively very strong, with reports of humiliation and abuse. ‘Positive discrimination’ conversely indicates that people with a mental illness diagnosis expect discrimination and are grateful when it does not occur. The literature on self-stigma is discussed and found wanting. Similarly, the theory that contact with mentally ill people reduces stigma and discrimination is not fully supported by our results.
The superconducting transition temperature of sintered YBa2Cu3O7 decreases at a rate of 2.7 K/1018 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV) for fast neutron irradiation. The critical current density Jc increases a factor of three at zero field and more than three at nonzero fields for fluences up to 2×1018 n/cm2. At both 7 and 75 K, Jc is decreasing with fluence near 3×1018 n/cm2.
We present elastic He-beam scattering data of the Pd(111)/H system. Diffraction intensities were measured as a function of surface temperature in the range 140°K–320°K. Two remarkable features are observed : the first is the presence of C3v symmetry at (1 × 1) saturation coverage (140°K) and its transformation to C6v symmetry at lower coverages (270°K). The second feature is the anomalous attenuation of the specular He beam accompanying this transformation. Taken together these features provide strong evidence of a fundamental change in the surface charge density corrugation. A classical interpretation of the motion of hydrogen either fails to reproduce the measured attenuation or leads to contradictory and unphysical conclusions regarding the H-metal bond length or surface equilibrium. An alternative quantum mechanical interpretation is developed and is shown to provide consistent and satisfactory explanation of the measurements.
The properties of sulfur-related defects in silicon are shown to differ dramatically from those that would have been expected on the basis of effective mass theory for a simple substitutional double donor. The ratio of the densities of the sulfur states as measured by capacitance-voltage techniques has been observed to vary in specimens fabricated from the same starting resistivity. Optical absorption studies have shown that the deepest sulfur level has a manifold of ground states which anneal at unequal rates at 550°C. Deep-level measurements show that the thermal emission rate at a given temperature and the variety of effects produced depends on annealing history and total sulfur density. The variability of properties of samples of sulfur-doped silicon is similar to those found for the oxygen donors in silicon, thus suggesting a chemical trend for the column VI impurities in silicon.
Migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) of GaAs on (001) GaAs substrates was studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In MEE, Ga and As species are alternately deposited on the growing surface. Ga adatom migration can be enhanced by the low arsenic pressure environment. The STM study was performed ex-situ by the arsenic capping and decapping procedure. We have demonstrated the correlation between the peak RHEED specular intensity during MEE growth and the variation of the lateral step density on the surface, even though the surface stoichiometry changes repetitively during MEE. The peak RHEED intensity during MEE is inversely dependent on the surface step density. The MEE surface exhibited a lower step density than the MBE surface, as shown by both RHEED and STM. However, the MEE surface still exhibited a much higher step density than a well-annealed surface. Consequently we believe that to achieve an atomically flat interface, annealing at high temperature in an arsenic flux is still necessary even if MEE is employed.
Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study the miscibility of methyl silsesquioxane (MSSQ)/poly(methyl methacrylate-co-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) [P(MMA-co-DMAEMA)] hybrid nanocomposites, which are useful in fabricating the next generation of spin-on, ultra-low dielectric constant materials in the microelectronic industries. In this work, we have attached the pyrene group into the PMMA side chains. MSSQ with different amount of initial -SiOH (silanol) endgroups are used to study the effect of endgroup functionality on the phase separation behavior of the hybrid nanocomposites. Pyrene excimer fluorescence results reveal that MSSQ is miscible with P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) only up to 6 wt% P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) loading level, thus establishing an upper limit on local miscibility with MSSQ. As the P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) loading level increases, the excimer to monomer ratios also increase, suggesting that the MSSQ/P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) hybrid nanocomposites move toward greater immiscibility. This ratio approaches that of the neat polymer for domain sizes > 5 nm (SAXS, SANS). The fluorescence results also show that, the lower the amount of initial silanol groups in MSSQ, the greater the immiscibility of the MSSQ and porogen, which ultimately translates into larger pores upon porogen burnout.
Proton radiography using laser-driven sources has been developed as a diagnostic since the beginning of the decade, and applied successfully to a range of experimental situations. Multi-MeV protons driven from thin foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, offer, under optimal conditions, the possibility of probing laser-plasma interactions, and detecting electric and magnetic fields as well as plasma density gradients with ~ps temporal resolution and ~ 5–10 µm spatial resolution. In view of these advantages, the use of proton radiography as a diagnostic in experiments of relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion is currently considered in the main fusion laboratories. This paper will discuss recent advances in the application of laser-driven radiography to experiments of relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion. In particular we will discuss radiography of hohlraum and gasbag targets following the interaction of intense ns pulses. These experiments were carried out at the HELEN laser facility at AWE (UK), and proved the suitability of this diagnostic for studying, with unprecedented detail, laser-plasma interaction mechanisms of high relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion. Non-linear solitary structures of relevance to space physics, namely phase space electron holes, have also been highlighted by the measurements. These measurements are discussed and compared to existing models.
Much research has been conducted on mesotrione activity on crops and weeds, but information is lacking in regards to the relative contribution of soil and foliar absorption of mesotrione. Three experiments conducted at Virginia Tech's Glade Road Research Facility in Blacksburg, VA, evaluated the effects of 50 and 90% relative humidity (RH) on the activity of mesotrione applied to foliage, soil, and soil plus foliage. Tall fescue injury ranged from 0 to 21% and was significant in 6 of 20 comparisons. Three of these injury events were caused by soil plus foliar applications, which were always more injurious than foliar only applications, which were more injurious than soil-only applications. Both application placement and RH significantly influenced smooth crabgrass responses to mesotrione. Smooth crabgrass phytotoxicity was lowest when mesotrione was applied only to foliage and highest when mesotrione was applied to soil and foliage. Increasing RH from 50 to 90% caused a 4- to 18-fold increase in plant phytotoxicity when mesotrione was applied only to foliage. By dissecting the plant canopy, it was noted at 14 d after treatment, when averaged over RH, that white leaves comprise 16% of leaves when only foliage was treated and 55 and 62% when applied to soil plus foliage and soil only, respectively. Furthermore, white tissue was found predominately in the two youngest leaves when mesotrione was applied to soil or both soil and foliage, but in older leaves when applied only to foliage. Data indicate mesotrione entering plants through soil travels quickly to growing points and has an equal or greater effect on plant phytotoxicity than foliar-absorbed mesotrione. In addition, foliar-absorbed mesotrione appears to increase in plants significantly with increasing RH, but does not move rapidly to growing points.
The use of laser-accelerated protons as a particle probe for the detection of electric fields in plasmas has led in recent years to a wealth of novel information regarding the ultrafast plasma dynamics following high intensity laser-matter interactions. The high spatial quality and short duration of these beams have been essential to this purpose. We will discuss some of the most recent results obtained with this diagnostic at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and at LULI - Ecole Polytechnique (France), also applied to conditions of interest to conventional Inertial Confinement Fusion. In particular, the technique has been used to measure electric fields responsible for proton acceleration from solid targets irradiated with ps pulses, magnetic fields formed by ns pulse irradiation of solid targets, and electric fields associated with the ponderomotive channelling of ps laser pulses in under-dense plasmas.
Polarimetry in gamma-rays has the capability to enhance our understanding of compact object emission in our galaxy. In particular this diagnostic method could provide useful insight into the geometrical arrangement of these emitting objects and the roles that magnetic fields play in their emisson mechanisms. Gamma Ray Bursts have been studied in this way but the results, perhaps indicating a high degree of polarisation, remain unverified [Coburn & Boggs (2003), Wigger et al. (2004), Willis et al. (2005)]. The nature of GRBs solve many instrumental problems in polarimetry, however their true nature is less well defined and so a study of a better understood object such as the Crab Pulsar, for now, may reveal more as to the physics of the system.