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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
A modern pedagogical treatment of the latest industry trends in rocket propulsion, developed from the authors' extensive experience in both industry and academia. Students are guided along a step-by-step journey through modern rocket propulsion, beginning with the historical context and an introduction to top-level performance measures, and progressing on to in-depth discussions of the chemical aspects of fluid flow combustion thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium, solid, liquid, and hybrid rocket propellants, mission requirements, and an overview of electric propulsion. With a wealth of homework problems (and a solutions manual for instructors online), real-life case studies and examples throughout, and an appendix detailing key numerical methods and links to additional online resources, this is a must-have guide for senior and first year graduate students looking to gain a thorough understanding of the topic along with practical tools that can be applied in industry.