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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Provisia™ rice was developed recently by the BASF Corporation for control of grass weeds and is complementary to existing Clearfield® technology. Our previous research showed that resistance of Provisia™ rice to the ACCase herbicide quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) in laboratory and greenhouse environments is governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene. However, these results may not be consistent in different populations or field environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current research is to determine the inheritance of resistance to QPE in rice using different segregating populations evaluated under U.S. field environments. The second objective is to evaluate response of QPE resistant breeding lines to various herbicide concentrations at two U.S. (Louisiana) locations. Chi-square tests of 12 F2 populations evaluated in Louisiana environments during 2014 and 2015 indicated that QPE seedling resistance at 240 g ai ha−1 was governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene with no observable maternal effects. Similar results were obtained in 5 F3 populations derived from the aforementioned F2 populations. Allele-specific SNP markers for QPE resistance also followed Mendelian segregation in the five F2 populations. For the second objective, six QPE resistant inbred lines showed transient leaf injury at 1X (120 g ai ha−1) or 2X (240 g ai ha−1) field rates, 7 and 21 d after treatment (DAT). However, a trend of reduced injury (recovery) from 7 through 33 DAT was observed for all breeding material. No differences in grain yield were found between untreated QPE resistant lines and those treated with 1X or 2X QPE field rate. Single gene inheritance and good levels of QPE herbicide field resistance in different genetic populations suggest feasibility for rapid and effective development of new QPE resistant varieties and effective stewardship of the Provisia™ technology.
The physics of a rotary wing in forward flight are highly complex, particularly when flow separation is involved. The purpose of this work is to assess the role of three-dimensional (3-D) vortex dynamics, with a focus on Coriolis forces, in the evolution of vortices in the reverse flow region of a rotating wing. High-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to recreate the flow about a representative rotating wing in forward flight. A vorticity transport analysis was performed to quantify and compare the magnitudes of 2-D flow physics, vortex tilting and Coriolis effects in the resulting flow fields. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics was found to have a very small impact on the growth and behaviour of vortices in the reverse flow region; in fact, the rate of vortex growth was successfully modelled using a simple 2-D vortex method. The small role of 3-D physics was attributed to the Coriolis and vortex tilting terms being approximately equal and opposite to one another. This ultimately lead to vortex behaviour that more closely resembled a surging wing as opposed to a conventional rotating wing, a feature unique to the reverse flow region.
The Fontan procedure is the final stage of surgical palliation for a single-ventricle circulation. Significant complications are common including rhythm disturbance necessitating implantation of a permanent pacemaker. This has been widely considered a negative prognostic indicator.
This single-centre, retrospective case control study involved all patients who underwent the Fontan procedure at the Leeds Congenital Heart Unit between 1990 and 2015 and have had regular follow-up in Yorkshire and Humber, United Kingdom. 167 Fontan patients were identified of which 2 were excluded for having a pre-procedure pacemaker. Of the remainder, 23 patients required a pacemaker. Outcomes were survival, early and late complications, need for further intervention and oxygen saturation in long-term follow-up.
There was no difference in survival (30-day survival pacemaker 92.6%, sinus rhythm 90.5%, p = 0.66, 1-year pacemaker 11.1%, sinus rhythm 10.1%, p = 1). The pacemaker group was more likely to have cerebral or renal complications in the first-year post-procedure (acute kidney injury: sinus rhythm 0.8%, pacemaker 19.1%, p = 0.002). No difference was observed in longer term complications including protein losing enteropathy (sinus rhythm 3.5%, pacemaker 0% p = 1). There was no difference in saturations between the two groups at follow-up. Paced patients were more likely to have required further intervention, with a higher incidence of cardiopulmonary bypass procedures (sinus rhythm 6.3%, pacemaker 35%, p < 0.001).
Despite an increase in early complications and the need for further interventions, pacemaker requirement does not appear to affect long-term survival following the Fontan procedure.
Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
The second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) – a nationwide, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey - was initiated in 2016 with the intent of tracking the state of mental health of the general population in Singapore. The study employed the same methodology as the first survey initiated in 2010. The SMHS 2016 aimed to (i) establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (which included alcohol abuse and dependence) and (ii) compare the prevalence of these disorders with reference to data from the SMHS 2010.
Door-to-door household surveys were conducted with adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above from 2016 to 2018 (n = 6126) which yielded a response rate of 69.0%. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method and assessed using World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI 3.0). The diagnoses of lifetime and 12-month selected mental disorders including MDD, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, GAD, OCD, and AUD (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence), were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
The lifetime prevalence of at least one mood, anxiety or alcohol use disorder was 13.9% in the adult population. MDD had the highest lifetime prevalence (6.3%) followed by alcohol abuse (4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorders was 6.5%. OCD had the highest 12-month prevalence (2.9%) followed by MDD (2.3%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders assessed in SMHS 2016 (13.8% and 6.4%) was significantly higher than that in SMHS 2010 (12.0% and 4.4%). A significant increase was observed in the prevalence of lifetime GAD (0.9% to 1.6%) and alcohol abuse (3.1% to 4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of GAD (0.8% vs. 0.4%) and OCD (2.9% vs. 1.1%) was significantly higher in SMHS 2016 as compared to SMHS 2010.
The high prevalence of OCD and the increase across the two surveys needs to be tackled at a population level both in terms of creating awareness of the disorder and the need for early treatment. Youth emerge as a vulnerable group who are more likely to be associated with mental disorders and thus targeted interventions in this group with a focus on youth friendly and accessible care centres may lead to earlier detection and treatment of mental disorders.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
The Commensal Real-time Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Fast Transients survey is the first extensive astronomical survey using phased array feeds. Since January 2017, it has been searching for fast radio bursts in fly’s eye mode. Here, we present a calculation of the sensitivity and total exposure of the survey that detected the first 20 of these bursts, using the pulsars B1641-45 and B0833-45 as calibrators. The beamshape, antenna-dependent system noise, and the effects of radio-frequency interference and fluctuations during commissioning are quantified. Effective survey exposures and sensitivities are calculated as a function of the source counts distribution. Statistical ‘stat’ and systematics ‘sys’ effects are treated separately. The implied fast radio burst rate is significantly lower than the 37 sky−1 day−1 calculated using nominal exposures and sensitivities for this same sample by Shannon et al. (2018). At the Euclidean (best-fit) power-law index of −1.5 (−2.2), the rate is
(sys) ± 3.6 (stat) sky−1 day−1 (
(sys) ± 2.8 (stat) sky−1 day−1) above a threshold of 56.6 ± 6.6(sys) Jy ms (40.4 ± 1.2(sys) Jy ms). This strongly suggests that these calculations be performed for other FRB-hunting experiments, allowing meaningful comparisons to be made between them.
A new species, Contarinia brassicola Sinclair (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), which induces flower galls on canola (Brassica napus Linnaeus and Brassica rapa Linnaeus (Brassicaceae)), is described from Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada. Larvae develop in the flowers of canola, which causes swelling and prevents opening, pod formation, and seed set. Mature larvae exit the galls, fall to the soil, and form cocoons. Depending on conditions, larvae will either pupate and eclose in the same calendar year or enter facultative diapause and emerge the following year. At least two generations of C. brassicola occur each year. Adults emerge from overwintering cocoons in the spring and lay eggs on developing canola flower buds. The galls produced by C. brassicola were previously attributed to the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) in Saskatchewan; here, we compare and list several characters to differentiate the two species.
A robust biomedical informatics infrastructure is essential for academic health centers engaged in translational research. There are no templates for what such an infrastructure encompasses or how it is funded. An informatics workgroup within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards network conducted an analysis to identify the scope, governance, and funding of this infrastructure. After we identified the essential components of an informatics infrastructure, we surveyed informatics leaders at network institutions about the governance and sustainability of the different components. Results from 42 survey respondents showed significant variations in governance and sustainability; however, some trends also emerged. Core informatics components such as electronic data capture systems, electronic health records data repositories, and related tools had mixed models of funding including, fee-for-service, extramural grants, and institutional support. Several key components such as regulatory systems (e.g., electronic Institutional Review Board [IRB] systems, grants, and contracts), security systems, data warehouses, and clinical trials management systems were overwhelmingly supported as institutional infrastructure. The findings highlighted in this report are worth noting for academic health centers and funding agencies involved in planning current and future informatics infrastructure, which provides the foundation for a robust, data-driven clinical and translational research program.
Hyperbolic polariton modes are highly appealing for a broad range of applications in nanophotonics, including surfaced enhanced sensing, sub-diffractional imaging, and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here we show that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-spectroscopy using standard spectroscopic tools can launch hyperbolic polaritons in a Kretschmann–Raether configuration. We measure multiple hyperbolic and dielectric modes within the naturally hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride as a function of different isotopic enrichments and flake thickness. This overcomes the technical challenges of measurement approaches based on nanostructuring, or scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy. Ultimately, our ATR approach allows us to compare the optical properties of small-scale materials prepared by different techniques systematically.
To determine the efficacy in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carriage of a 5-day preoperative decolonization bundle compared to 2 disinfectant soap showers, with both regimens self-administered at home.
Open label, single-center, randomized clinical trial.
Ambulatory orthopedic, urologic, neurologic, colorectal, cardiovascular, and general surgery clinics at a tertiary-care referral center in the United States.
Patients at the University of Minnesota Medical Center planning to have elective surgery and not on antibiotics.
Consenting participants were screened for SA colonization using nasal, throat, axillary, and perianal swab cultures. Carriers of SA were randomized, stratified by methicillin resistance status, to a decolonization bundle group (5 days of nasal mupirocin, chlorhexidine gluconate [CHG] bathing, and CHG mouthwash) or control group (2 preoperative showers with antiseptic soap). Colonization status was reassessed preoperatively. The primary endpoint was absence of SA at all 4 screened body sites.
Of 427 participants screened between August 31, 2011, and August 9, 2016, 127 participants (29.7%) were SA carriers. Of these, 121 were randomized and 110 were eligible for efficacy analysis (57 decolonization bundle group, 53 control group). Overall, 90% of evaluable participants had methicillin-susceptible SA strains. Eradication of SA at all body sites was achieved for 41 of 57 participants (71.9%) in the decolonization bundle group and for 13 of 53 participants (24.5%) in the control group, a difference of 47.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.1%–65.7%; P<.0001).
An outpatient preoperative antiseptic decolonization bundle aimed at 4 body sites was significantly more effective in eradicating SA than the usual disinfectant showers (ie, the control).
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is described as a progressive alteration of kidney function, resulting from multiple factors, including behaviours. We investigated the association of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) with prevalent CKD in adult Americans. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants with measured data on kidney function markers from 2005 to 2012 were included in this study. Prevalent CKD was based on an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 or urinary albumin/creatinine≥30 mg/g. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DIITM) scores were calculated from 24-h dietary recalls. Statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights. We included 21 649 participants, with 1634 (6·8 %) having prevalent CKD. Participants with high E-DII scores had greater BMI, fasting blood glucose and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be diabetic or hypertensive (all P<0·001) compared with those with lower E-DII scores. In regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, BMI, hypertension and diabetes status, mean eGFR significantly decreased across increasing quartiles of E-DII, whereas serum uric acid level and log urinary albumin:creatinine ratio significantly increased (all P<0·001). Prevalent CKD increased from 5·3 % in the lowest to 9·3 % in the highest E-DII quartile (P=0·02). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the odds of prevalent CKD were 29 % higher in the highest compared with the lowest E-DII quartile. Pro-inflammatory diet is associated with declining kidney function and high prevalence of CKD. Dietary changes that reduce inflammation have a potential to prevent CKD.
Hemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90).
A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort.
In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system.
MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS – A Descriptive Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):230–236.