To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Indiana CTSI is investigating innovative approaches to integrate resources that will enrich scientific investigators. Our goals are to enhance the availability and communication among CTSI resources, for example internal funding, and to expand existing mentorship. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Developed a reviewer database that serves to streamline reviewer identification, decrease reviewer fatigue, and promote collaboration among disciplines. We started with a pool of NIH-funded investigators from across the Indiana CTSI core institutions and merged this list with previous CTSI reviewers and internal funding awardees. To expand this list, names and expertise from new faculty hires were added. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Though this tool is relatively new, we have already observed an increase in junior faculty awareness and engagement with the CTSI. This database allows for increased opportunities of junior faculty to serve as reviewers and to refine grant writing skills and provides a platform for networking and collaborating across disciplines. It also allows for increased integration of programs with a shared reviewer database and promotes grant review standardization. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our database utilization seeks to decrease the time for junior faculty to obtain their first extramural grant, to enhance promotion and tenure packages, strengthen integration among CTSI programs, increase interactions between clinical and basic science investigators, and promote team science.
We present preliminary results from a number of deep radio polarization surveys being made of the Magellanic Clouds at 2.3 GHz, 4.75 GHz and 8.55 GHz. Extended and linearly polarized radio emission has been found at 2.3 and 4.75 GHz from both the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). However, as the analysis of these data is not yet complete we present only some of the 4.75 GHz results at this time.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
We assessed the impact of a reflex urine culture protocol, an intervention aimed to reduce unnecessary urine culturing, in intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Significant decreases in urine culturing rates and reported rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection followed implementation of the protocol.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
Anxiety disorders are assumed to increase suicide risk, although confounding by comorbid psychiatric disorders may be one explanation. This study describes the characteristics of older patients with an anxiety disorder who died by suicide in comparison to younger patients.
A 15-year national clinical survey of all suicides in the UK (n = 25,128). Among the 4,481 older patients who died by suicide (≥ 60 years), 209 (4.7%) suffered from a primary anxiety disorder, and 533 (11.9%) from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Characteristics of older (n = 209) and younger (n = 773) patients with a primary anxiety disorder were compared by logistic regression adjusted for sex and living arrangement.
Compared to younger patients, older patients with a primary anxiety disorder were more often males and more often lived alone. Although 60% of older patients had a history of psychiatric admissions and 50% of deliberate self-harm, a history of self-harm, violence, and substance misuse was significantly less frequent compared to younger patients, whereas physical health problems and comorbid depressive illness were more common. Older patients were prescribed significantly more psychotropic drugs and received less psychotherapy compared to younger patients.
Anxiety disorders are involved in one of every six older patients who died by suicide. Characteristics among patients who died by suicide show severe psychopathology, with a more prominent role for physical decline and social isolation compared to their younger counterparts. Moreover, treatment was less optimal in the elderly, suggesting ageism. These results shed light on the phenomenon of suicide in late-life anxiety disorder and suggest areas where prevention efforts might be focused.
Tool use is widespread in the animal kingdom. It has been reported in taxa ranging from insects to primates (see reviews in Beck, 1980; Bentley-Condit & Smith, 2010; Shumaker et al., 2011). However, although it is taxonomically widespread, tool use is relatively rare. The rarity of tool use is surprising given the potential evolutionary advantages that a species can gain. Tools can be used to extract rich food sources such as termites and wood-boring larvae that would otherwise be extremely difficult to obtain. Given the obvious advantages of tool use, an equally obvious question is why tool use is seen in very few species.
A glance across the species that use objects as tools rules out any simple association between the presence or absence of tool use and level of cognitive ability. Tool use is seen in insects, marine invertebrates and fish, as well as in birds and mammals. Indeed, Jane Goodall (1970) recognized that the evolutionary processes underpinning tool use across the animal kingdom will be very different. Beck (1980) emphasized that there was no simple correlation between the presence of tool use and cognitive abilities. Hansell and Ruxton (2008) recently proposed another possible explanation for the rarity of tool use in animals – that tool use was rare simply because of the lack of ecological contexts in which it was advantageous (we call this the lack-of-utility hypothesis). However, we will show here that an “excess of opportunity” clearly contradicts the lack-of-utility hypothesis because in evolutionary terms tool use appears to be potentially much more useful than its frequency in the animal kingdom indicates. Given its potential usefulness, why is tool use so rare?
Stable perovskite and metastable post-perovskite NaCoF3 were deformed in pure-shear geometry in a deformation-DIA press with radiographic monitoring of the sample strain. In isothermal experiments where there was no transformation, post-perovskite was found to be 5 times weaker than perovskite. In temperature-ramping experiments where post-perovskite transformed to perovskite during the deformation experiment the initial post-perovskite sample was 5–10 times weaker than perovskite under comparable conditions and their strengths converged during the transformation, being equal on completion of the transformation. These results confirm recent findings which show that postperovskite is weaker than perovskite, regardless of the prior history of the sample.
The thermal diffusivity of diopside, jadeite and enstatite were measured at simultaneous pressures and temperatures of up to 7 GPa and 1200 K using the X-radiographic Ångström method. The measurements herein show that the pressure dependency of thermal diffusivity in pyroxenes is significantly greater than in olivine or garnet and that in the MORB-layer of a subducting slab the thermal diffusivity of pyroxenes are a factor of 1.5 greater than that of olivine. The temperature dependence of all the data sets is well described by a low-order polynomial fit to 1/K and the pressure dependence is exponential in 1/K, formulations which are consistent with the damped harmonic oscillator model for thermal properties.
The interactions between shear-free turbulence in two regions (denoted as + and − on either side of a nearly flat horizontal interface are shown here to be controlled by several mechanisms, which depend on the magnitudes of the ratios of the densities, ρ+/ρ−, and kinematic viscosities of the fluids, μ+/μ−, and the root mean square (r.m.s.) velocities of the turbulence, u0+/u0−, above and below the interface. This study focuses on gas–liquid interfaces so that ρ+/ρ− ≪ 1 and also on where turbulence is generated either above or below the interface so that u0+/u0− is either very large or very small. It is assumed that vertical buoyancy forces across the interface are much larger than internal forces so that the interface is nearly flat, and coupling between turbulence on either side of the interface is determined by viscous stresses. A formal linearized rapid-distortion analysis with viscous effects is developed by extending the previous study by Hunt & Graham (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 84, 1978, pp. 209–235) of shear-free turbulence near rigid plane boundaries. The physical processes accounted for in our model include both the blocking effect of the interface on normal components of the turbulence and the viscous coupling of the horizontal field across thin interfacial viscous boundary layers. The horizontal divergence in the perturbation velocity field in the viscous layer drives weak inviscid irrotational velocity fluctuations outside the viscous boundary layers in a mechanism analogous to Ekman pumping. The analysis shows the following. (i) The blocking effects are similar to those near rigid boundaries on each side of the interface, but through the action of the thin viscous layers above and below the interface, the horizontal and vertical velocity components differ from those near a rigid surface and are correlated or anti-correlated respectively. (ii) Because of the growth of the viscous layers on either side of the interface, the ratio uI/u0, where uI is the r.m.s. of the interfacial velocity fluctuations and u0 the r.m.s. of the homogeneous turbulence far from the interface, does not vary with time. If the turbulence is driven in the lower layer with ρ+/ρ− ≪ 1 and u0+/u0− ≪ 1, then uI/u0− ~ 1 when Re (=u0−L−/ν−) ≫ 1 and R = (ρ−/ρ+)(v−/v+)1/2 ≫ 1. If the turbulence is driven in the upper layer with ρ+/ρ− ≪ 1 and u0+/u0− ≫ 1, then uI/u0+ ~ 1/(1 + R). (iii) Nonlinear effects become significant over periods greater than Lagrangian time scales. When turbulence is generated in the lower layer, and the Reynolds number is high enough, motions in the upper viscous layer are turbulent. The horizontal vorticity tends to decrease, and the vertical vorticity of the eddies dominates their asymptotic structure. When turbulence is generated in the upper layer, and the Reynolds number is less than about 106–107, the fluctuations in the viscous layer do not become turbulent. Nonlinear processes at the interface increase the ratio uI/u0+ for sheared or shear-free turbulence in the gas above its linear value of uI/u0+ ~ 1/(1 + R) to (ρ+/ρ−)1/2 ~ 1/30 for air–water interfaces. This estimate agrees with the direct numerical simulation results from Lombardi, De Angelis & Bannerjee (Phys. Fluids, vol. 8, no. 6, 1996, pp. 1643–1665). Because the linear viscous–inertial coupling mechanism is still significant, the eddy motions on either side of the interface have a similar horizontal structure, although their vertical structure differs.
Attempts were made to identify the causative organism of Lyme disease in Australia from possible tick vectors.
Ticks were collected in coastal areas of New South Wales, Australia, from localities associated with putative human infections. The ticks were dissected; a portion of the gut contents was examined for spirochaetes by microscopy, the remaining portion inoculated into culture media. The detection of spirochaetes in culture was performed using microscopy, and immunochemical and molecular (PCR) techniques. Additionally, whole ticks were tested with PCR for spirochaetes.
From 1990 to 1992, approximately 12000 ticks were processed for spirochaetes. No evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi or any other spirochaete was recovered from or detected in likely tick vectors. Some spirochaete–like objects detected in the cultures were shown to be artifacts, probably aggregates of bacterial flagellae.
There is no definitive evidence for the existence in Australia of B. burgdorferi the causative agent of true Lyme disease, or for any other tick–borne spirochaete that may be responsible for a local syndrome being reported as Lyme disease.