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To evaluate risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) versus placebo in prevention of mood episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder.
A 12-week open-label period with RLAI (N=585) was followed by an 18-month randomized, double-blind period with RLAI (25, 37.5 or 50 mg/2 weeks; N=137) or placebo (N=140); a third group (N=138) was randomized to olanzapine for reference and exploratory comparisons. Primary efficacy endpoint: time to relapse of any mood episode for risperidone LAI vs. placebo in the double-blind period (Kaplan-Meier analysis). Relapse was defined by criteria including DSM diagnosis, further treatment, hospitalisation, or Clinical Global Impression score ≥4 combined with YMRS or MADRS >12.
Dosing was fixed during the double-blind period at patients’ final open-label dose (25 mg, 66%; 37.5 mg, 31%; 50 mg, 4%). Time to recurrence (any mood episode) was longer with RLAI versus placebo (log-rank test stratified by region and patient type, p=0.062; stratified by region only, p=0.032); the difference was significant for time to recurrence of elevated mood episodes (p=0.005) but not depressive episodes (p=0.587). Discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs) occurred in 2% of patients in the open-label period, and 4% and 1% in the RLAI and placebo groups, respectively, in the double-blind period. The most frequently reported AE in the open-label period was insomnia (15%). During double-blind treatment, the most frequently reported AEs with RLAI were weight increased (24%; placebo, 9%) and insomnia (16%; placebo, 17%).
Type of recurrence
Type of episode, n (%)
Risperidone LAI (N=135)
All mood episodes
Elevated mood episode
RLAI significantly delayed time to relapse of elevated mood episodes and was well tolerated.
The disproportionate burden of prevalent, persistent pathogens among disadvantaged groups may contribute to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in long-term health. We assessed if the social patterning of pathogen burden changed over 16 years in a U.S.-representative sample. Data came from 17 660 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Pathogen burden was quantified by summing the number of positive serologies for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, HSV-2, human papillomavirus and Toxoplasma gondii and dividing by the number of pathogens tested, giving a percent-seropositive for each participant. We examined sex- and age-adjusted mean pathogen burdens from 1999–2014, stratified by race/ethnicity and SES (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); educational attainment). Those with a PIR < 1.3 had a mean pathogen burden 1.4–1.8 times those with a PIR > 3.5, with no change over time. Educational disparities were even greater and showed some evidence of increasing over time, with the mean pathogen burden among those with less than a high school education approximately twice that of those who completed more than high school. Non-Hispanic Black, Mexican American and other Hispanic participants had a mean pathogen burden 1.3–1.9 times non-Hispanic Whites. We demonstrate that socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in pathogen burden have persisted across 16 years, with little evidence that the gap is closing.
The field of ecological immunology currently relies on using a number of immune effectors or markers. These markers are usually used to infer ecological trade-offs (via conflicts in resource allocation), though physiological nature of these markers remains elusive. Here, we review markers frequently used in insect evolutionary ecology research: cuticle darkening, haemocyte density, nodule/capsule formation, phagocytosis and encapsulation/melanization via use of nylon filaments and beads, phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptide production. We also provide physiologically based information that may shed light on the probable trade-offs inferred when these markers are used. In addition, we provide a number of methodological suggestions to improve immune marker assessment.
West Nile virus (WNV) was probably introduced in southern and northern Mexico from the USA in two independent events. Since then, WNV activity has been reported in several Mexican states bordering the USA and the Gulf of Mexico, but disease manifestations seen there in humans and equids are quite different to those observed in the USA. We have analysed WNV seroprevalence in asymptomatic, unvaccinated equids from two Mexican states where no data had been previously recorded. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 31·6% (91/288) of equine sera from Chiapas and Puebla states (53·3% and 8·0%, respectively). Analysis by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) showed good specificity (99·4%) and sensitivity (84·9%) with the ELISA results. Further analyses to detect antibodies against three different flaviviruses (WNV, St Louis encephalitis virus, Ilheus virus) by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests on a subset of 138 samples showed that 53% of the 83 HI-positive samples showed specific reaction to WNV. These data suggest continuous expansion of WNV through Mexico.
We report transport measurements of superconducting amorphous W-based nanodeposits fabricated by focused-ion-beam-induced-deposition (FIBID) technique using W(CO)6 as the gas precursor. We have found that nanowires with width down to ˜100 nm can be grown by FIBID, maintaining the relatively high TC of �5.2 K shown by wider nanodeposits. The critical current found in these nanowires is in the range of 0.8 mA/?m2 at 2 K. At that temperature the critical field HC2 is found to be ?8 T. As previously shown by STM measurements [I. Guillam�n et al., New Journal of Physics 10, 093005 (2008)], these nanodeposits closely follow the BCS theory and are very stable under ambient conditions. All these features pave the way for a wide range of applications of these FIBID W-based nanowires in the field of Nanotechnology.
TiN/Si3N4 composite powders were obtained by a process that combines the mechanical activation of titanium and silicon powders at room temperature through high-energy milling with an isothermal annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere to complete the synthetic reaction. Mechanical activation has allowed us to complete the synthesis at 1350 °C only. The β–Si3N4 content in the final powder tends to increase as the milling time is prolonged. The microstructure of the TiN/Si3N4 composite powders has a bimodal character composed of TiN and β–Si3N4 grains and α-Si3N4 nanowires. Diameters of the nanowires range from 10 to 70 nm.
Salmon oil (16·5 kg /t), a source of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, was included in diets offered to multiparous sows during pregnancy and lactation to measure responses in pre-weaning mortality and performance of piglets in two studies. The first study, carried out under commercial conditions, included 196 sows which were offered salmon oil and control diets from immediately post service until weaning. The same diets were also offered to 10 sows per treatment from day 58 of pregnancy in a controlled nutritional study which measured the effects of salmon oil on piglet tissue fatty acid composition. Offering salmon oil to the sow significantly increased gestation length and decreased individual piglet birth weight but had no effect on litter size at birth. Overall, salmon oil reduced pre-weaning mortality from 11·7% to 10·2% mainly by reducing the incidence of deaths from crushing by the sow. More detailed analysis of mortality using a general linear mixed model and 2294 piglet records, demonstrated that the incidence of pre-weaning mortality was significantly decreased with increasing individual piglet birth weight and by inclusion of salmon oil in the diet; the incidence of mortality increased with average piglet birth weight in a litter. Salmon oil inclusion had no effect on weight of litter weaned, sow lactation food intake or subsequent reproductive performance. In both studies, dietary salmon oil increased the proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum to a similar extent. In the nutritional study, inclusion of salmon oil reduced the proportions of 20: 4 n-6 in piglet liver and brain at birth and increased the proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, despite reducing piglet birth weight, offering sows salmon oil reduced pre-weaning mortality of piglets. The nutritional study showed that the amount and type of marine oil used may not have been optimal.
Adult frog phasic skeletal muscle cells have slow inward calcium current (ICa) (Stanfield, 1977) carried through L-type voltage dependent calcium channels. It has been suggested that ICa may play a role in E-C coupling (Cota & Stefani, 1981, 1989). However, phasic skeletal muscle cells contract for several minutes after the extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) is lowered to <10-8 M (Armstrong et al, 1972). Therefore, extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o) is not essential for contraction in these fibers. It has been also shown, by blocking Ica that Ica is not essential for triggering contraction (Gonzalez-Serratos et al., 1982). These results have led to the conclusion that Ica has no obvious role in E-C coupling in adult amphibian phasic skeletal muscle. The question arises then as to what is the biological role Ica in phasic skeletal muscle? We have observed that embryonic skeletal muscle cells are capable of contracting during the first day of development in culture (Cordoba-Rodriguez, et al., 1996), before the T-system and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)may have fully developed (Flucher, et al., 1993).
Pre-weaning mortality is a major source of economic loss to the pig industry which despite improvements in husbandry and farrowing crate design remains about 10% of piglets borne alive. The causes of death are multi-factorial (Varley, 1995) but a large proportion may be due to low neonatal vigor. Commercial pig diets do not normally contain long chain n-3 fatty acids, a deficiency of which has been implicated in reduced visual and neural development in premature human babies and in experimental animals. The objectives of the present experiment were to quantify the causes of piglet mortality in sows of modern genotype and to determine the effects of salmon oil supplementation of the diet of the sow, providing long-chain n-3 fatty acids, on this mortality.
SAO 244567 (= Hen 1357) is a very young planetary nebula. It was discovered by Parthasarathy et al. (1993, A and A 267, L19). Based on the spectrum obtained around 1950 Henize (1976, ApJ Suppl 30, 491) classified it as a B or A type H-alpha emission line star. The optical spectrum of SAO 244567 obtained in 1971 shows that it was a post-AGB B1 supergiant at that time. It has turned into a planetary nebula within the last 20 years (Parthasarathy et al. 1995, A and A 300, L25).
It is traditional in the British Isles to house the working boar as an individual and this practice was the sensible policy when breeding pig herds were small and replacement boars were purchased singly. However in large herds today several boars are often purchased simultaneously, creating the possibility for group housing during their working life. Important beneficial effects of social contact of young boars up to puberty in terms of sexual behaviour and socialisation have been demonstrated. D'Arcy (1984) found that boars penned singly relative to those in groups of 8 from 30 to 240 kg liveweight took 11 days longer to first successful mount and ejaculation, had a higher number of incorrect mounts and did much more fighting with oestrus gilts. Thus group housed boars were less aggressive to oestrus gilts, had better mating dexterity and had higher mating scores at an earlier age. In addition there may be benefits in terms of comfort and welfare including leg soundness in boars by group relative to individual housing (Tonn et al, 1985; Hemsworth and Findlay, 1978) because of the increased exercise in a group due to the larger area to move in the physical interactions occurring within the group. However, there are concerns about aggressive and sodomy behaviour of mature boars kept in groups as well as the possiblitiy of increased handling difficulties. These latter aspects were studied in group housed boars in this investigation.
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