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UK trees require increased conservation efforts due to sparse and fragmented populations. Ex situ conservation, including seed banking, can be used to better manage these issues. We conducted accelerated ageing tests on seeds of 22 UK native woody species, in order to assess their likely longevity and optimize their conservation in a seed bank. Germination at four ageing time points was determined to construct survival curves, and it was concluded that multiple samples within a species showed comparable responses for most species tested, except for Fraxinus excelsior. Of all species studied, one could be classified as very short-lived, four as short-lived and 17 as medium, with none exceeding the medium category. The most important finding of this manuscript is that although some taxonomic trends were observed, the results indicate the need for caution when making broad conclusions on potential seed storage life at a species, genus or family level. Longevity predictions were compared to actual performance of older collections held in long-term storage at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew. Although most collections remain high in viability in storage after more than 20 years, for short-lived species at least, there is some indication that accelerated ageing predicts longevity in seed bank conditions. For species with reduced potential longevity, such as Fagus sylvatica and Ulmus glabra, additional storage options are recommended for long-term gene banking.
Preferential removal of W relative to other trace elements from zoned, W–Sn–U–Pb-bearing hematite coupled with disturbance of U–Pb isotope systematics is attributed to pseudomorphic replacement via coupled dissolution reprecipitation reaction (CDRR). This hematite has been studied down to the nanoscale to understand the mechanisms leading to compositional and U/Pb isotope heterogeneity at the grain scale. High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF STEM) imaging of foils extracted in situ from three locations across the W-rich to W-depleted domains show lattice-scale defects and crystal structure modifications adjacent to twin planes. Secondary sets of twins and associated splays are common, but wider (up to ~100 nm) inclusion trails occur only at the boundary between the W-rich and W-depleted domains. STEM energy-dispersive X-ray mapping reveals W- and Pb-enrichment along 2–3 nm-wide features defining the twin planes; W-bearing nanoparticles occur along the splays. Tungsten and Pb are both present, albeit at low concentrations, within Na–K–Cl-bearing inclusions along the trails. HAADF STEM imaging of hematite reveals modifications relative to ideal crystal structure. A two-fold hematite superstructure (a = b = c = 10.85 Å; α = β = γ = 55.28°) involving oxygen vacancies was constructed and assessed by STEM simulations with a good match to data. This model can account for significant W release during interaction with fluids percolating through twin planes and secondary structures as CDRR progresses from the zoned domain, otherwise apparently undisturbed at the micrometre scale. Lead remobilisation is confirmed here at the nanoscale and is responsible for a disturbance of U/Pb ratios in hematite affected by CDRR. Twin planes can provide pathways for fluid percolation and metal entrapment during post-crystallisation overprinting. The presence of complex twinning can therefore predict potential disturbances of isotope systems in hematite that will affect its performance as a robust geochronometer.
The volume of evidence from scientific research and wider observation is greater than ever before, but much is inconsistent and scattered in fragments over increasingly diverse sources, making it hard for decision-makers to find, access and interpret all the relevant information on a particular topic, resolve seemingly contradictory results or simply identify where there is a lack of evidence. Evidence synthesis is the process of searching for and summarising a body of research on a specific topic in order to inform decisions, but is often poorly conducted and susceptible to bias. In response to these problems, more rigorous methodologies have been developed and subsequently made available to the conservation and environmental management community by the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence. We explain when and why these methods are appropriate, and how evidence can be synthesised, shared, used as a public good and benefit wider society. We discuss new developments with potential to address barriers to evidence synthesis and communication and how these practices might be mainstreamed in the process of decision-making in conservation.
Public hospital systems have struggled to identify ways of cutting costs while improving quality of mental health treatment, even more since the economic downturn.
To compare mental health care expenditures and quality in two large sites, Boston and Madrid, and to analyze the amount of the expenditure corresponding to pharmacy, ER, outpatient and inpatient care.
Data are mental health electronic records from three hospitals in Madrid (n=31,183 person-years) and in Boston(n=8,805). Adequacy of care was measured as four or more visits within the last year. Unadjusted comparisons of variables were conducted using t-tests. Multivariate generalized linear regression models were computed with log link and residual variance proportional to mean squared, adjusting for covariates. Results were also adjusted for World Bank Purchasing Power Parity and converted to U.S. dollars.
The annual average treatment expenditure is $4,874 in Boston and $2,693 in Madrid . Boston patients had a bigger percentage of use (13,6% vs 5,3%) and greater annual expenditure ($25,175 vs $15,470) for inpatient services (p<0,05). Conversely, Madrid patients used and spent more on outpatient treatments (87% vs 84%;$1,670 vs $1,378;p<0,05). Being in the Boston site, having a bipolar, psychotic or alcohol disorder was a significant positive predictor of total expenditure. Adequacy of care was bigger in Boston (32,8% vs 23,1%)
Emphasis on outpatient care appears to reduce inpatient stays and global expenditures. An earlier recognition due to a more open access to treatments in Spain may help decreasing costs. Bipolar, psychotic and alcohol disorders imply bigger costs.
Guernsey is a British Protectorate island (population 65000) in the English Channel. Illicit drugs are difficult to import and expensive people look to alternative substances.
To establish patterns of drug misuse among patients referred for treatment.
Case note audit of all referred patients in 2011, cross referenced with sudden unexpected death case review results.
198 patients were referred, 80 (40%) for mainly drug dependency. Reported patterns of use tended to follow local availability and polydrug misuse was common. Of the drugs clients, 96% reported misusing prescription only medicines (POMs) and over the counter (OTC) drugs, particularly opiates and benzodiazepines. Buprenorphine products were most commonly misused (26%), followed by benzodiazepines (25%), dihydrocodeine (22%), heroin (11%) and codeine (6%) (more than 1 drug may be reported so totals <100%). A high risk sub-group (9%) injecting fentanyl (derived from fentanyl patches) was identified. On the island in 2011 there were several fentanyl-related deaths at post mortem case review.
High rates of pharmaceutical drug misuse on Guernsey may reflect the low availability of illicit drugs like heroin and cocaine. This increases demand for addictive POMs and OTCs. Prescribers in isolated communities need to be more cautious when prescribing addictive POMs, particularly fentanyl. Pharmacists may also need to monitor for OTC drug misuse, particularly of codeine-containing medications.
Prior studies have identified that individuals with comorbid substance use disorder and mental health disorder are at a greater risk of benzodiazepine abuse compared to individuals that present with mental health disorder without an accompanying substance use disorder. These studies were conducted in predominantly white populations, and little is known if the same associations are seen in safety net health care networks. Also, the literature is mixed as to whether or not psychiatrists’ prescription of benzodiazepines places individuals at undue risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
We use 2013–2015 electronic health record data from a Boston healthcare system. Patients with benzodiazapene abuse were identified if they had received treatment under the ICD-9 code 304.1. Benzodiazepine abuse was compared between patients with only mental illness and patients with existing comorbid substance and mental health disorder, in unadjusted comparisons and adjusted regression models. Covariates in regression models were used to identify subgroups at higher risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
Individuals with benzodiazepine abuse had higher rates of emergency room and inpatient use than patients with other mental health and/or substance use disorders. Those with comorbid substance and mental disorder were significantly more likely than individuals with mental or substance use disorder alone to abuse benzodiazepines (P < .01). Among those with benzodiazepine abuse, 93.3% were diagnosed with a mental illness, 75.6% were diagnosed with a substance use disorder (other than benzodiazepine), and 64.4% had comorbid anxiety disorder and substance use disorder. These analyses suggest that patients with benzodiazepine abuse have complex presentations and intensive service use.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nationwide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families. Since its inception, from preschooler to young adult, twins have been registered with the SKTR and have demonstrated that relative influences of genetic and environmental factors explaining individual differences in various psychological, mental health and physical traits in South Koreans are similar to those found in many Western twin studies. Currently, studies at the SKTR focus on identification of the process of gene-by-environment interactions as well as developmental differences in genetic and environmental influences on psychological and mental health traits in South Koreans. This report provides a brief overview, recruitment strategies, current samples, zygosity assessment, measures and future directions of the SKTR.
The bovine appeasing substance (BAS) is expected to have calming effects in cattle experiencing stressful situations. Therefore, this study investigated the impacts of BAS administration during two of the most stressful events within beef production systems: weaning and feedlot entry. In experiment 1, 186 Bos indicus-influenced calves (73 heifers, 113 bulls) were weaned at 211 ± 1 days of age (day 0). At weaning, calves were ranked by sex and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (Nutricorp, Araras, SP, Brazil; n = 94) or water (CON; n = 92). Treatments (5 ml) were topically applied to the nuchal skin area of each animal. Calf BW was recorded and samples of blood and tail-switch hair were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Calves that received BAS had greater (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 0 to 15 compared with CON. Overall BW gain (days 0 to 45) and BW on days 15 and 45 were also greater (P ≤ 0.03) in BAS v. CON. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was less (P < 0.01) in BAS v. CON on day 15, whereas cortisol concentrations in plasma and tail-switch hair did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.13). In experiment 2, 140 B. indicus-influenced bulls (∼27 months of age) from 2 different pasture-based systems (70 bulls/origin) were transported to a commercial feedlot (≤ 200-km transport; day -1). On day 0, bulls were ranked by source and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (n = 70) or CON (n = 70) and the same sampling procedures as in experiment 1. Bulls receiving BAS had greater (P = 0.04) BW gain from day 0 to 15, but less (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 15 to 45 compared to CON. No other treatment effects were detected (P > 0.14). Therefore, BAS administration to beef calves alleviated the haptoglobin response associated with weaning, and improved calf growth during the subsequent 45 days. Administration of BAS to beef bulls at feedlot entry improved BW gain during the initial 15 days, but these benefits were not sustained throughout the 45-day experiment.
Tree-ring reconstructions of temperature often target trees at altitudinal or latitudinal tree line where annual growth is broadly expected to be limited by and respond to temperature variability. Based on this principal, regions with sparse tree line would seem to be restricted in their potential to reconstruct past temperatures. In the northeastern United States, there are only two published temperature reconstructions. Previous work in the region reconstructing moisture availability, however, has shown that using a greater diversity of species can improve reconstruction model skill. Here, we use a network of 228 tree-ring records composed of 29 species to test the hypothesis that an increase in species diversity among the pool of predictors improves reconstructions of past temperatures. Chamaecyparis thyoides alone explained 31% of the variability in observed cool-season minimum temperatures, but a multispecies model increased the explained variance to 44%. Liriodendron tulipifera, a species not previously used for temperature reconstructions, explained a similar amount of variance as Chamaecyparis thyoides (12.9% and 20.8%, respectively). Increasing the species diversity of tree proxies has the potential for improving reconstruction of paleotemperatures in regions lacking latitudinal or elevational tree lines provided that long-lived hardwood records can be located.
Each of the laboratory intercomparisons (from ICS onwards) has included wood samples, many of them dendrochronologically dated. In the early years, as a result of the majority of laboratories being radiometric, these samples were typically blocks of 20–40 rings, but more recently (SIRI), they have been single ring samples. The sample ages have spanned background through to modern. In some intercomparisons, we have examined different wood pretreatment effects, in others the focus has been on background samples. In this paper, we illustrate what we have learned from these extensive intercomparisons involving wood samples and how the results contribute to the global IntCal effort.
Expression of estrus (EST) near the time of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) increases pregnancy success in beef females. This outcome has been associated with improved pregnancy establishment and maintenance, although research is still warranted to validate this theory. Hence, this experiment compared ovarian, uterine and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows according to estrous expression during a FTAI protocol. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows received a 2 mg injection of estradiol benzoate and an intravaginal progesterone (P4) releasing device on day −11, a 12.5 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α on day −4, P4 device removal in addition to 0.6 mg injection of estradiol cypionate and 300 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin on day −2, and FTAI on day 0. An estrous detection patch was attached to the tailhead of each cow on day −2, and estrous expression was defined as removal of >50% of the rub-off coating from the patch at FTAI. Overall, 39 cows expressed EST, 55 did not express EST (NOEST), and six cows lost their patch and were discarded from the experiment. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed at FTAI, and on days 7 and 15 of the experiment. Blood samples were also collected on days 7 and 15. Only cows without a corpus luteum (CL) on day 0, and with a CL on days 7 and 15 remained in the experiment (EST, n=36; NOEST, n=48). On day 15, cows were randomly selected within each group (EST, n=29; NOEST, n=30) for conceptus collection via transcervical flushing, followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Within cows not assigned to conceptus collection, blood samples were collected for whole blood RNA extraction (day 20) and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (day 30). Diameter of dominant follicle on day 0 and plasma P4 concentrations on day 7 were greater (P⩽0.02) in EST v. NOEST cows. Conceptus length and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of prostaglandin E synthase and interferon-tau were greater (P⩽0.04) in EST v. NOEST cows. Moreover, EST cows diagnosed as pregnant on day 30 had greater (P<0.01) blood mRNA expression of myxovirus resistance 2 on day 20 compared with NOEST. In summary, estrous expression near the time of FTAI enhanced pregnancy establishment factors in B. indicus cows, including conceptus development and mRNA expression of interferon-tau.
Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in developed countries, presents major public health challenges. The high clinical and economic burden from C. difficile infection (CDI) relates to the high frequency of recurrent infections caused by either the same or different strains of C. difficile. An interval of 8 weeks after index infection is commonly used to classify recurrent CDI episodes. We assessed strains of C. difficile in a sample of patients with recurrent CDI in Western Australia from October 2011 to July 2017. The performance of different intervals between initial and subsequent episodes of CDI was investigated. Of 4612 patients with CDI, 1471 (32%) were identified with recurrence. PCR ribotyping data were available for initial and recurrent episodes for 551 patients. Relapse (recurrence with same ribotype (RT) as index episode) was found in 350 (64%) patients and reinfection (recurrence with new RT) in 201 (36%) patients. Our analysis indicates that 8- and 20-week intervals failed to adequately distinguish reinfection from relapse. In addition, living in a non-metropolitan area modified the effect of age on the risk of relapse. Where molecular epidemiological data are not available, we suggest that applying an 8-week interval to define recurrent CDI requires more consideration.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: By combining clinical knowledge of hoarding disorder (HD) with qualitative methods from cultural anthropology, we hope to build a patient-centered approach that will allow us to better understand the clinician perspectives on patient motivations and explanatory models of individuals with HD, and improve treatment outcomes. We describe the ways that these methodologies are productively merged in this project as a result of TL1 collaboration, and present a preliminary picture of methodological and theoretical issues uncovered as part of this processes. We further describe the analytical methods used for this project, and explore issues raised through the combination of psychological and anthropological data and insights. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study represents an attempt to combine the qualitative methodologies of cultural anthropology with the clinical knowledge of psychology and psychiatry in order to better understand gaps between provider and patient beliefs and knowledge about hoarding disorder. This study will present preliminary methodological issues arising from interviews with hoarding experts. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study will discuss preliminary issues including shared language, strengths and limitations of both disciplines, and factors for consideration when combining these disparate methodologies. It will close with recommendations for consideration when moving forward with similar collaborations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project seeks to unite psychological and social factors that may contribute to the lived experience of individuals with HD in order to better understand the way that HD is manifested. It also unites disparate methodologies to provide us with a more holistic and complete picture of the experience of HD. While HD has been studied within psychiatry, it has never been assessed using the qualitative methods of anthropology. These methods provide the possibility of expanding knowledge about the ways that this disorder is experienced by individuals and their families, and potentially impacted by shared beliefs and cultures. Furthermore, qualitative data of this nature provides a patient perspective on the experience of HD as a psychiatric illness. This patient perspective can be used to better inform treatment, improve patient outcomes, and to allow providers and researchers to gain a fuller understanding of this complex population.
Patulous Eustachian tube is a benign but notoriously difficult condition to treat successfully. Symptoms include autophony of voice and breathing, and aural fullness.
This paper presents a series of 8 patients (12 ears) for whom a novel computed tomography guided injection of silicone elastomer suspension implant (Vox) was used to treat patulous Eustachian tube. This is the largest and only series in the current literature using this technique.
The combined complete and partial symptom resolution rate was 91 per cent. Complications related to the procedure are described. The pros and cons of this novel approach are also discussed in relation to traditional endoscopic transnasal techniques.
Computed tomography guided injection of Vox for the treatment of patulous Eustachian tube is suggested to be a feasible alternative to endoscopic transnasal approaches, particularly for refractory cases.
Solvency II came into force on 1 January 2016 and included a transitional measure on technical provisions (“TMTP”) designed to help smooth in the capital impact of Solvency II over a 16-year period. The working party’s view is that the main intention of the TMTP is to mitigate the impact of the introduction of the risk margin, which significantly increases the technical provisions of firms, relative to their Solvency I Pillar 2 liabilities.
The majority of firms who hold a TMTP have now had at least one recalculation approved by the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA); or are in the process of applying for a recalculation. Despite this large number of approved recalculations, there remains significant uncertainty in the industry around the approach and triggers for recalculation.
This paper considers aspects of TMTP recalculation for regulated UK life firms, for example practicalities of the calculation, asset and liability considerations, and communications/announcements.
In this paper, we outline the need for pragmatism when considering the approach to recalculation of a measure originally intended to serve as the bridge between two regimes. We call for an allowance for doing what is sensible in a principles-based regime balancing what might be more theoretically correct with what is practical and possible to support effective management of the business.
Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.
Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P<0.01) with evaluations on days 31, 60 and 91. During the experiment, ADQ had greater (P<0.01) mean BCS and BW gain, and less (P<0.01) mean plasma cortisol concentration compared with EXC heifers. Temperament × time interactions were detected (P<0.01) for exit velocity and exit score, which were always greater (P<0.01) in EXC v. ADQ heifers. A temperament × time interaction was also detected (P=0.03) for puberty attainment, which was delayed in EXC v. ADQ heifers. At the end of the experiment, a greater (P<0.01) proportion of ADQ were pubertal compared with EXC heifers. In summary, B. indicus heifers classified as EXC had reduced growth, increased plasma cortisol concentrations and hindered puberty attainment compared to ADQ heifers. Moreover, exit velocity may serve as temperament selection criteria to optimize development of B. indicus replacement heifers.
Febrile seizure (FS) in children is a common complication of infections with respiratory viruses and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We conducted a retrospective ecological time-series analysis to determine the temporal relationship between hospital attendances for FS and HFMD or respiratory virus infections. Epilepsy attendance was used as a control. Data from 2004 to 2012 FS and epilepsy hospital attendance, HFMD notifications to the Ministry of Health and from laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections among KK Women's and Children's Hospital inpatients were used. A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between FS and the virus time series. Relative risks of FS by age were calculated using Bayesian statistical methods. Paediatric accident and emergency (A&E) attendances for FS were found to be associated with influenza A (extra 0.47 FS per influenza A case), B (extra 0.32 per influenza B case) and parainfluenza 3 (extra 0.35 per parainfluenza type 3 case). However, other viruses were not significantly associated with FS. None of the viruses were associated with epileptic seizure attendance. Influenza A, B and parainfluenza 3 viruses contributed to the burden of FS resulting in A&E attendance. Children at risk of FS should be advised to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.
Antibodies at gastrointestinal mucosal membranes play a vital role in immunological protection against a range of pathogens, including helminths. Gastrointestinal health is central to efficient livestock production, and such infections cause significant losses. Fecal samples were taken from 114 cattle, across three beef farms, with matched blood samples taken from 22 of those animals. To achieve fecal antibody detection, a novel fecal supernatant was extracted. Fecal supernatant and serum samples were then analysed, using adapted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, for levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, IgM, and Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE (in the absence of reagents for cattle-specific nematode species). Fecal nematode egg counts were conducted on all fecal samples. Assays performed successfully and showed that IgA was the predominant antibody in fecal samples, whereas IgG was predominant in serum. Total IgA in feces and serum correlated within individuals (0.581, P = 0.005), but other Ig types did not. Results support the hypothesis that the tested protocols are an effective method for the non-invasive assessment of cattle immunology. The method could be used as part of animal health assessments, although further work is required to interpret the relationship between results and levels of infection and immunity.