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Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study a separated and rapidly reattached turbulent boundary layer over an idealized
infinite swept wing. The separation and reattachment are induced by a transpiration profile at fixed distance above the layer, with the pressure gradient applied to a well-defined, fully developed, zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) collateral state. To isolate the influence of the sweep, results are compared with one of our earlier DNS of an unswept flow, with the same chordwise transpiration distribution and appropriate upstream momentum thickness. The independence principle (IP) traditionally proposed for swept wings, which is exact for laminar flows, is found to be close to valid in some regions (bridging the separation/reattachment zone) and to fail in others (in the ZPG layers upstream and downstream of the separation). This is assessed primarily through the skin friction and integral thicknesses. The regions in which the IP is approximately valid correspond to regions of diminished Reynolds-stress divergence, compared to the pressure-gradient magnitude. The mean-velocity profiles exhibit significant skewing as the flow develops, while the velocity magnitude departs only slightly from the ZPG logarithmic profile, even above the separation zone. Implications for Reynolds-averaged turbulence modelling are discussed.
The burrowing shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis is an important ecosystem engineer that inhabits estuaries along the US Pacific Northwest coast. This species plays an important role in the estuarine ecosystem but negatively impacts oyster aquaculture through its burrowing activities. Development of population models for burrowing shrimp management requires more detailed life history information and accurate estimates of age. Ageing studies have been limited for crustaceans because it is generally believed that they do not retain structures with annual deposits commonly used to age other marine organisms, when they moult their exoskeletons. A mesocosm growth experiment and field surveys were combined to compare the performance of two ageing techniques, quantification of autofluorescent lipofuscin and gastric mill ossicular lamellae, for estimating age in N. californiensis. Animals of known age were grown in outdoor mesocosms and sampled regularly to correlate age metrics with body size and true age. Lipofuscin concentration increased with time across multiple cohorts at the rate of 1.430 ± 0.060 ng µg−1 year−1. Lamellae counts also increased with time (4.922 ± 0.337 lamellae year−1). While age estimates based on lipofuscin concentration and lamellae counts generally agreed, carapace size did not correlate to either age metric. Lamellae counts from field collections suggest they are added sequentially with age but the relationship can vary by location. When used together, the application of both techniques may provide robust estimates of crustacean age especially when size-based measurements are imprecise.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The widespread use of herbicides in cropping systems has led to the evolution of resistance in major weeds. The resultant loss of herbicide efficacy is compounded by a lack of new herbicide sites of action, driving demand for alternative weed control technologies. While there are many alternative methods for control, identifying the most appropriate method to pursue for commercial development has been hampered by the inability to compare techniques in a fair and equitable manner. Given that all currently available and alternative weed control methods share an intrinsic energy consumption, the aim of this review was to compare methods based on energy consumption. Energy consumption was compared for chemical, mechanical, and thermal weed control technologies when applied as broadcast (whole-field) and site-specific treatments. Tillage systems, such as flex-tine harrow (4.2 to 5.5 MJ ha−1), sweep cultivator (13 to 14 MJ ha−1), and rotary hoe (12 to 17 MJ ha−1) consumed the least energy of broadcast weed control treatments. Thermal-based approaches, including flaming (1,008 to 4,334 MJ ha−1) and infrared (2,000 to 3,887 MJ ha−1), are more appropriate for use in conservation cropping systems; however, their energy requirements are 100- to 1,000-fold greater than those of tillage treatments. The site-specific application of weed control treatments to control 2-leaf-stage broadleaf weeds at a density of 5 plants m−2 reduced energy consumption of herbicidal, thermal, and mechanical treatments by 97%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Significantly, this site-specific approach resulted in similar energy requirements for current and alternative technologies (e.g., electrocution [15 to 19 MJ ha−1], laser pyrolysis [15 to 249 MJ ha−1], hoeing [17 MJ ha−1], and herbicides [15 MJ ha−1]). Using similar energy sources, a standardized energy comparison provides an opportunity for estimation of weed control costs, suggesting site-specific weed management is critical in the economically realistic implementation of alternative technologies.
Blood samples from normal and Plasmodium berghei infected mice are being analyzed for trace elements by charged particle induced x-rays. Approximately 0.25 ml of the sample (whole blood, washed red cells, or plasma) is dry ashed. The ashes are mounted on a 0.003 inch Kapton foil. The analysis is performed by bombardment of the samples by a beam of 2.0 MeV protons and detection of the characteristic x-rays by a 175-eV-resolution lithium-drifted silicon detector. The data are analyzed by an on-line PDP-9 computer-based data acquisition system. Results indicate an increase in the K, Ca, Cu, and Zn per unit volume of the red cells of the malaria infected mice relative to the amounts measured for uninfected blood, and a decrease in the K, Ca, and Fe and an increase in the Cu per unit volume in the plasma of the infected mice.
The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme started in 2008, but it contained little provision for specifically meeting the needs of Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The purpose of this evaluation was to describe the experience of transition from BAME community mental health worker (CMHW) to IAPT low-intensity psychological wellbeing practitioner (PWP) in order to identify possible gains and losses for the former communities served, and the factors that might contribute to successful training of people with BAME expertise. Four former CMHWs who had transitioned into working as PWPs were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were used. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Six major themes were identified with the benefits of training emerging as an important factor for the participants in enhancing their role. Three of the themes interconnected and focused on the impact for BAME communities in terms of access to service and barriers. Evident in the interviews were descriptions of adaptations that were made as a result of CMHW having access to both new and old skills. Finally, two themes focused on the participant recommendations as to how IAPT services might become more culturally responsive. The findings suggest that there can be significant benefits for services to provide IAPT training to people already providing culturally specific services. The participants reported that low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (LICBT) was effective, but only when cultural sensitive adaptations were made. The evaluation has some clear recommendations as to how IAPT services might seek to offer culturally responsive CBT. Suggestions for carrying out further practice-based evaluations are made.
Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a parasitic nematode of terrestrial gastropods that has been formulated into a biological control agent for farmers and gardeners to kill slugs and snails. In order to locate slugs it is attracted to mucus, faeces and volatile cues; however, there is no information about whether these nematodes are attracted to snail cues. It is also unknown how wild isolates of P. hermaphrodita or different Phasmarhabditis species behave when exposed to gastropod cues. Therefore, we investigated whether P. hermaphrodita (commercial and wild isolated strains), P. neopapillosa and P. californica were attracted to mucus from several common snail species (Cepaea nemoralis, Cepaea hortensis, Arianta arbustorum and Cornu aspersum). We also examined whether snails (C. aspersum) collected from different locations around the UK differed in their attractiveness to wild isolates of P. hermaphrodita. Furthermore, we also investigated what properties of snail mucus the nematodes were attracted to, including hyaluronic acid and metal salts (FeSO4, ZnSO4, CuSO4 and MgSO4). We found that the commercial strain of P. hermaphrodita responded poorly to snail mucus compared to wild isolated strains, and C. aspersum collected from different parts of the UK differed in their attractiveness to the nematodes. We found that Phasmarhabditis nematodes were weakly attracted to all metals tested but were strongly attracted to hyaluronic acid. In a final experiment we also showed that pharmacological manipulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) increased chemoattraction to snail mucus, suggesting that the protein kinase EGL-4 may be responsible for Phasmarhabditis sp. chemoattraction.
A family of cases each containing a small separation bubble is treated by direct numerical simulation (DNS), varying two parameters: the severity of the pressure gradients, generated by suction and blowing across the opposite boundary, and the Reynolds number. Each flow contains a well-developed entry region with essentially zero pressure gradient, and all are adjusted to have the same value for the momentum thickness, extrapolated from the entry region to the centre of the separation bubble. Combined with fully defined boundary conditions this will make comparisons with other simulations and turbulence models rigorous; we present results for a set of eight Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models. Even though the largest Reynolds number is approximately 5.5 times higher than in a similar DNS study we presented in 1997, the models have difficulties matching the DNS skin friction very closely even in the zero pressure gradient, which complicates their assessment. In the rest of the domain, the separation location per se is not particularly difficult to predict, and the most definite disagreement between DNS and models is near reattachment. Curiously, the better models tend to cluster together in their predictions of pressure and skin friction even when they deviate from the DNS, although their eddy-viscosity levels are widely different in the outer region near the bubble (or they do not rely on an eddy viscosity). Stratford’s square-root law is satisfied by the velocity profiles, both at separation and reattachment. The Reynolds-number range covers a factor of two, with the Reynolds number based on the extrapolated momentum thickness equal to approximately 1500 and 3000. This allows tentative estimates of the improvements that even higher values will bring to the model comparisons. The solutions are used to assess models through pressure, skin friction and other measures; the flow fields are also used to produce effective eddy-viscosity targets for the models, thus guiding turbulence-modelling work in each region of the flow.
Surface abundance observations of halo stars hint at the occurrence of r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3), possibly within the first 108 yr after the formation of the first stars. Possible loci of early-Universe r-process nucleosynthesis are the ejecta of either black hole–neutron star or neutron star–neutron star binary mergers. Here, we study the effect of the inclination–eccentricity oscillations raised by a tertiary (e.g. a star) on the coalescence time-scale of the inner compact object binaries. Our results are highly sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the inner binary semi-major axes. Distributions with mostly wide compact object binaries are most affected by the third object, resulting in a strong increase (by more than a factor of 2) in the fraction of fast coalescences. If instead the distribution preferentially populates very close compact binaries, general relativistic precession prevents the third body from increasing the inner binary eccentricity to very high values. In this last case, the fraction of coalescing binaries is increased much less by tertiaries, but the fraction of binaries that would coalesce within 108 yr even without a third object is already high. Our results provide additional support to the compact-binary merger scenario for r-process nucleosynthesis.
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent a diverse, emerging source of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with broad application in optoelectronics and energy. Chemical functionalization has evolved into a powerful tool to tailor properties of these 2D TMDs; however, functionalization strategies have been largely limited to the metallic 1T-polytype. The work herein illustrates that 2H-semiconducting liquid-exfoliated tungsten disulfide (WS2) undergoes a spontaneous redox reaction with gold (III) chloride (AuCl3). Au nanoparticles (NPs) predominantly nucleate at nanosheet edges with tuneable NP size and density. AuCl3 is preferentially reduced on multi-layer WS2 and resulting large Au aggregates are easily separated from the colloidal dispersion by simple centrifugation. This process may be exploited to enrich the dispersions in laterally large, monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that thiol groups at edges and defects sides reduce the AuCl3 to Au0 and are in turn oxidized to disulfides. Optical emission, i.e. photoluminescence, of the monolayers remained pristine, while the electrocatalytic activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction is significantly improved. Taken together, these improvements in functionalization, fabrication, and catalytic activity represent an important advance in the study of these emerging 2D nanostructures.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
We examined the prospective associations of objective and subjective measures of stress during pregnancy with infant stress reactivity and regulation, an early-life predictor of psychopathology. In a racially and ethnically diverse low-income sample of 151 mother–infant dyads, maternal reports of stressful life events (SLE) and perceived stress (PS) were collected serially over gestation and the early postpartum period. Infant reactivity and regulation at 6 months of age was assessed via maternal report of temperament (negativity, surgency, and regulation) and infant parasympathetic nervous system physiology (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) during the Still Face Paradigm. Regression models predicting infant temperament showed higher maternal prenatal PS predicted lower surgency and self-regulation but not negativity. Regression models predicting infant physiology showed higher numbers of SLE during gestation predicted greater RSA reactivity and weaker recovery. Tests of interactions revealed SLE predicted RSA reactivity only at moderate to high levels of PS. Thus, findings suggest objective and subjective measures of maternal prenatal stress uniquely predict infant behavior and physiology, adjusting for key pre- and postnatal covariates, and advance the limited evidence for such prenatal programming within high-risk populations. Assessing multiple levels of maternal stress and offspring stress reactivity and regulation provides a richer picture of intergenerational transmission of adversity.
Observations of the water level in Beaver Lake, an epishelf lake in East Antarctica, show a regular tidal signal that is lagged and attenuated from the tides beneath the adjacent Amery Ice Shelf. The phase lag and amplitude attenuation can be created by a narrow inlet connection between Beaver Lake and the cavity beneath the Amery Ice Shelf. A forced linear damped oscillator is used to determine the inlet dimensions that are required to produce the observed phase lag and amplitude attenuation. The model shows that the observations are consistent with a tidal flow that is restricted by the drag created by flow in the narrow inlet. Analysis shows that the phase lag and amplitude attenuation of the tides in Beaver Lake has increased over the years 1991-2002, probably due to a thickening of the overlying ice shelf. The response is sensitive to subtle variations in the dimensions of the inlet.
At the time of its calving in February 2010, Mertz Glacier, East Antarctica, was characterized by a 145 km long, 35 km wide floating tongue. In this paper, we use GPS data from the Collaborative Research into Antarctic Calving and Iceberg Evolution (CRAC-ICE) 2007/08 and 2009/10 field seasons to investigate the dynamics of Mertz Glacier. Two months of data were collected at the end of the 2007/08 field season from two kinematic GPS stations situated on each side of the main rift of the glacier tongue and from rock stations located around the ice tongue during 2008/09. Using Precise Point Positioning with integer ambiguity fixing, we observe that the two GPS stations recorded vibrations of the ice tongue with several dominant periods. We compare these results with a simple elastic model of the ice tongue and find that the natural vibration frequencies are similar to those observed. This information provides a better understanding of their possible effects on rift propagation and hence on the glacier calving processes.
Ocean circulation under ice shelves and associated rates of melting and freezing are strongly influenced by the shape of the sub-ice-shelf cavity. We have refined an existing method and used additional in situ measurements to estimate the cavity shape under the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. A finite-element hydrodynamic ocean-tide model was used to simulate the major tidal constituents for a range of different sub-Amery Ice Shelf cavity water-column thicknesses. The data are adjusted in the largely unsurveyed southern region of the ice-shelf cavity by comparing the complex error between simulated tides and in situ tides, derived from GPS observations. We show a significant improvement in the simulated tides, with a combined complex error of 1.8 cm, in comparison with past studies which show a complex error of ∼5.3 cm. Our bathymetry incorporates ice-draft data at the grounding line and seismic surveys, which have provided a considerable amount of new data. This technique has particular application when the water column beneath ice shelves is inaccessible and in situ GPS data are available.