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Cygnus X-3, a Galactic X-ray binary, shows the presence of outflows in the form of radio jets. The SED in the X-ray band shows a complicated structure and evolution. We review some recent results of the long-term correlation of the radio and X-ray emissions, chiefly in the low (hard) states of the source. Comparing the results with those of other Galactic microquasars, we attempt to provide a consistent picture of the accretion — ejection mechanism in these sources.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched.
To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England.
In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR).
Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians.
Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery.
Arrhythmias are common in patients admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit. We sought to identify the rates of occurrence and types of arrhythmias, and determine whether an arrhythmia was associated with illness severity and paediatric intensive care unit length of stay.
This is a prospective, observational study of all patients admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore from March to June 2012. Patients with cardiac disease or admitted for the treatment of primary arrhythmias were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and telemetry was reviewed daily. Tachyarrhythmias were identified as supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, and arrhythmias causing haemodynamic compromise or for which an intervention was performed.
A total of 278 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. There were 97 incidences of arrhythmia in 53 patients (19%) and six tachyarrhythmias (2%). The most common types of arrhythmias were junctional rhythm (38%), premature atrial contractions (24%), and premature ventricular contractions (22%). Tachyarrhythmias included three supraventricular tachycardia (50%) and three ventricular tachycardia (50%). Of the six tachyarrhythmias, four were related to placement or migration of central venous lines and two occurred during aminophylline infusion. Patients with an arrhythmia had longer duration of mechanical ventilation and paediatric intensive care unit stay (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, central venous lines (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3–7.2, p=0.009) and aminophylline use (odds ratio 5.1; 95% confidence interval 1.7–14.9, p=0.003) were independent predictors for arrhythmias.
Arrhythmias were common in paediatric intensive care unit patients (19%), although tachyarrhythmias occurred rarely (2%). Central venous lines and use of aminophylline were identified as two clinical factors that may be associated with development of an arrhythmia.
In this paper we show that when grown by MBE at unusually high temperatures epitaxial layers of GaSb and GaAs are semi-insulating. In GaSb combination of Hall effect, TSC, SIMS and two probe resistivity profiling leads us to believe that high resistivity is due to production of midgap centers at elevated temperatures. No strong evidence of the prevalence of such midgap centers was obtained for high temperature GaAs layers and in this case we believe that high resistivity is associated with the formation of Ga-related precipitates acting as internal Schottky barriers.
The effect of hydrogen treatment at 200°C on the concentration of electrically active defects in LPE grown AIGaAsSb is reported. In n-type layers the electrical properties are shown to be dominated by DX-like deep donors of three different types all of which are strongly passivated by the hydrogen treatment as evidenced by C-V. DLTS C-T and spreading resistance measurements. In p-type layers intrinsic acceptors of defect origin are also passivated by hydrogen. Deuterium profiles in both n- and p-type layers show characteristic plateaus indicative of formation of neutral compexes between hydrogen and dopants. Hydrogen treatment also leads to decrease of the Au/n-AIGaAsSb Schottky barrier height from 1.3 to 0.85 eV.
Astrophysics is one branch of science which excites the imagination of the general public. Pioneer science popularizers like George Gamow and Fred Hoyle wrote on different aspects of astrophysics. However, of late, we see a trend which I find disturbing. While it has become extremely fashionable to write popular science books on cosmology, other areas of astrophysics are grossly neglected.
The first UK epizootic of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza in wild birds occurred in 2008, in a population of mute swans that had been the subject of ornithological study for decades. Here we use an innovative combination of ornithological, phylogenetic and immunological approaches to investigate the ecology and age structure of HP H5N1 in nature. We screened samples from swans and waterbirds using PCR and sequenced HP H5N1-positive samples. The outbreak's origin was investigated by linking bird count data with a molecular clock analysis of sampled virus sequences. We used ringing records to reconstruct the age-structure of outbreak mortality, and we estimated the age distribution of prior exposure to avian influenza. Outbreak mortality was low and all HP H5N1-positive mute swans in the affected population were <3 years old. Only the youngest age classes contained an appreciable number of individuals with no detectable antibody responses to viral nucleoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the outbreak strain circulated locally for ∼1 month before detection and arrived when the immigration rate of migrant waterbirds was highest. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that HP H5N1 epizootics in wild swans exhibit limited mortality due to immune protection arising from previous exposure. Our study population may represent a valuable resource for investigating the natural ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza.
The partial-replenishment test can be an important tool in exploring the long-term leach behavior of glasses. In order to demonstrate the use of partial-replenishment test data in modeling, experiments were conducted which show that after a relatively short period test results become largely independent of exchange interval and volume exchange fraction. The results can be characterized by the ratio between these two parameters, which corresponds to the residence time. Sampling of the leachates during a given exchange interval shows that leachate concentrations quickly recover following the exchange, and that this recovery can be satisfactorily described using a simple model based on first-order approach to equilibrium at the silica saturation level.
Low (1 × 1014 cm-2) and high (1 × 1015 cm-2) dose implants of Mg+ in undoped GaAs have been activated using the enhanced overpressure proximity (EOP) rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique. Hall measurements have yielded electrical activation efficiencies as high as 86% and 38% for low and high dose implants, respectively. For high dose implants, the outdiffusion of Mg+ from the wafer surface reduces the activation efficiency. A dramatic improvement in the activation for high dose Mg+ (1×1015 cm−-2, 100 keV) implants has been obtained by the co-implantation of As+. Compared with an activation of 18% for an implant of Mg+ only, the co-implantation of As has increased the activation to as much as 61% with a concomitant sheet resistance of 136 Ω/□. The placement of the As+ implant with respect to the position of the Mg+ profile has been found to play a significant role in the activation efficiency. This co-implantation technique in conjunction with the EOP-RTA method has been applied to the formation of thick p+ regions with high surface carrier concentrations, which has important applications in device fabrication for reducing contact resistance.
Quantum well interdiffusion has been employed, for the First time in the quaternary InGaAsP/InP system (grown lattice matched to InP substrates), in order to modify the as-grown, nominally square, shapes of single quantum wells so as to increase their bandgap energies. This was accomplished, in a spatially selective manner, by using low energy ion implantation through a mask to generate vacancies. Subsequent rapid thermal annealing drove these vacancies down to the quantum wells where their presence enhanced the thermally driven interdiffusion of atoms between the well and barrier layers. The goal of this work is to develop a simple process for the integration of optoelectronic devices with differing functions.
Lithium borohydride, magnesium hydride and the 2:1 “destabilized” ball milled mixtures (2LiBH4:MgHM2) underwent liquid phase hydrolysis, gas phase hydrolysis and air oxidation reactions monitored by isothermal calorimetry. The experimentally determined heats of reaction and resulting products were compared with those theoretically predicted using thermodynamic databases. Results showed a discrepancy between the predicted and observed hydrolysis and oxidation products due to both kinetic limitations and to the significant amorphous character of observed reaction products. Gas phase and liquid phase hydrolysis were the dominant reactions in 2LiBH4:MgH2 with approximately the same total energy release and reaction products; liquid phase hydrolysis displayed the maximum heat flow for likely environmental exposure with a peak energy release of 6 (mW/mg).
We review here work on two classes of compounds that have been promoted as potential hydrogen storage materials; alkali metal amides and borohydrides, highlighting how their crystal structure and chemical properties may be used to influence the key hydrogen absorption and desorption parameters in these materials.
We present numerical calculations of electron spectra of single and multiple coupled quantum dots based on Aluminium Gallium Nitride / Gallium Nitride heterostructures. The effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization on the confinement potential seen by the electrons is taken into account through bound interface sheet charges. We also calculated the spectra without polarization effects for reference. For some quantum dot dimensions, the energy eigenvalues shift by several hundred meVs due to the polarization charges. We calculate the spectra for the two cases of box-shaped and cylindrical quantum dots. The latter case is an approximation to quantum dots with hexagonal-facet shapes recently reported in the literature. The quantum dots in our calculations are surrounded by vacuum in the lateral direction, but the same qualitative conclusions will hold if the dots are embedded in some material, as long as the barrier heights are large. For GaN vertical confinement of less than 30 angstroms, most of the bound states are associated with the lowest eigenvalue of the vertical confinement potential. This is also true for higher vertical confinement dimensions because the triangular potential seen by the electrons is the same for the lowest energy eigenstates. The electric field in the vertical direction is a strong function of the aluminium concentration in the AlGaN layer. As the AlGaN layer composition is varied from very high Al concentration to medium Al concentration, the spectra shift by several hundred meVs, referred to the onset of the continuous spectra. The transition frequencies between bound states and between bound and the lowest continuum states lie in the low to the high infra-red range, and can be varied over a wide range by both the dimensions and the barrier aluminium concentration. For the case of 4 coupled quantum dots formed by repeated AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions, we find that the polarization-induced electric fields lead to excessive band-bending and as a consequence there are fewer bound states compared to the spectrum calculated without polarization effects.
We present numerical calculations of tunneling through ultra thin wurtzite Gallium Nitride cap layers on p-doped wurtzite silicon carbide . We demonstrate the predominance of tunneling of the split-off holes to the total carrier flux, with the contribution of the heavy and the light holes damped by the large potential barrier. We calculate the contributions of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations to the tunneling profile seen by the holes. Two orders of magnitude enhancement is seen in the transmission probabilities for a 10 angstroms thick Gallium Nitride cap layer for holes very close to the valence band edge, compared to a barrier without any gallium nitride cap. The contact resistances are also calculated for the Gallium Nitride tunneling caps and more than two orders of magnitude lowering is seen with the ultra-thin caps. Larger cap widths induce hole accumulation layers, but the advantages of hole accumulation are offset by the higher effective tunneling width. Our calculations are relevant to nanostructures and nanodevices involving heterojunctions between gallium nitride and silicon carbide and provide the basis for low contact resistances with as-deposited metals. While our calculations focus on the regime of very high barriers to the metal of the order of 1.5 - 2 electron volts, where the method of ultra-thin caps is most useful, similar conclusions also hold for lower barrier heights.
We present variational calculations of donor binding energy in rectangular wurtzite aluminium gallium nitride / gallium nitride quantum wires. We explicitly take into account the effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization on the energy levels of donors in quantum wires. Wurtzite structure nitride semiconductors have spontaneous polarization even in the absence of externally applied electric fields. They also have large piezoelectric polarization when grown as pseudomorphic layers. The magnitude of both polarization components is of the order of 1013 electrons per cm2, and has a non-trivial effect on the potential profile seen by electrons. Due to the large built-in electric fields resulting from the polarization discontinuities at heterojunctions, the binding energies of donors is a strong function of the position inside the quantum wire. The potential profile in the 0001 direction can vary by as much as 1.5eV due to polarization effects for vertical dimensions of the quantum wire up to 20 angstroms. The probability density of electrons tends to concentrate near the minimum of the conduction band profile in the 0001 direction. Donors located close to this minimum tend to have a larger concentration of electron density compared to those located closer to the maximum. As a consequence, the binding energy of the former are higher compared to the latter. We use Lorentzian variational wavefunctions to calculate the binding energy as a function of donor position. The confinement potential enhances the binding by a factor of about 3 compared to donors in bulk nitride semiconductors, from about 30 meV to about 90 meV. The variation of binding energy with position is calculated to be more than 50% for typical compositions of the quantum wire regions. Our calculations will be useful for understanding device applications involving n-type doped nitride semiconductor quantum wires.
We compute the luminosity function (LF) and the formation rate of long gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in three different scenarios: i) GRBs follow the cosmic star formation and their LF is constant in time; ii) GRBs follow the cosmic star formation but the LF varies with redshift; iii) GRBs form preferentially in low–metallicity environments. We then test model predictions against the Swift 3-year data, showing that scenario i) is robustly ruled out. Moreover, we show that the number of bright GRBs detected by Swift suggests that GRBs should have experienced some sort of luminosity evolution with redshift, being more luminous in the past. Finally we propose to use the observations of the afterglow spectrum of GRBs at z ≥ 5.5 to constrain the reionization history, and then applied our method to the case of GRB 050904.