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“Rite of passage” is an etnographic concept developed by VanGennep that defines the vital transition of an individual between two different status. It is divided in three stages: separation, liminal/threshold and aggregation. Turner described the liminal phase, and the terms of “communitas” and “liminoid” (structure of a rite without religious/spiritual elements). One widely-known Rite of Passage is the initiation of the shamans.
Study the elements of a rite of passage present in Psychiatric Trainning.
• Field study (observational, descriptive, non-experimental).
• Preliminary Sample=10trainees (5man+5women); last year of Psychiatric Trainning.
• “ad hoc” semi-structured interview (21items subdivided in open questions). 10interviews (average duration=75mins). Permanent register:digital recorder.
• Summary and analysis of the answers. Review of the literature.
- Psychiatric Trainning shared the elements and tri-phasic structure of VanGennep's “rite of passage” concept
- Trainees saw themselves as more empathic(7/10) and humanistic(8/10) than other specialties colleagues. Stigma towards mental illness(8/10) and fear of suicide(9/10) were also considered as their distinctives.
- The collective behaved as a communitas(10/10)
- No spiritual elements(0/10): liminoid process
- Resemblances of the ancestral shamans' Initiation: Despite bloody practices were over, suffering was also present(7/10), but was seen as necessary(6/10) and well tolerated(7/10).
- Trainees felt that they grew spiritual and mentally(7/10) during the trainning years
Results suggest that Psychiatric Trainning has stable phenomena that:
• are compatible with the Rite of Passage schema
• Are considered exclusive of Psychiatry by trainees
• Have not been systematically studied as a whole, which could help to improve the training.
Fiction films offer unexplored opportunities of rehabilitation for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits y distortions in the perception and comprehension of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After a year of an “ad hoc” experience, the following technique was developed:
1) Selecting a fiction film for its narrative, affective, cognitive and social cognitive content
2) Briefly presenting of the film to a group of 8-16 patients with diverse psychosis.
3) Screening of the film to the patients and the therapeutic team.
4) Summarizing of the plot by a patient. Group correcting of distortions and deficits caused by problems of attention and working memory, as well as positive, negative, affective and social cognitive symptoms (emotional perception, theory of mind, attributive style)
5) Selecting 1-2 sequences by each patient, and group commenting using the same technique.
6) Field recording of all the commentaries obtained.
7) Second screening of the film two days after, repeating points 2 to 6.
8) Comparing both field records.
An experimental study using this technique is presented. 8 patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses watched 4 fiction films (“The 39 Steps”, “Charade”, “M”, “The General”). The differences founded in both viewings by two external evaluators (using CGI and analogical scales of the main variables) are presented and commented. An evaluation of the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the participants was included.
Most of the studies about Eating Disorders in adolescents have been typically focused on females, only to conclude that the approach should be similar in males. It has been stimated that 5-10% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa are males. Later age of onset and higher prevalence of premorbid overweight are considered among the main differences with female patients.
Analysis of the anthropometric variables of a sample of males with diagnosis of Restrictive Eating Disorder.
Naturalistic, Descriptive and Retrospective study
- Sample: 22 male adolescents
- Inclusion criteria: males with Restrictive Eating Disorder diagnosis (according to DSM-IV criteria) admitted to an Eating Disorder ward during 2007 and 2008
- “ad hoc” questionnaire (15 items)
- Analysis: PASW statistics 18
Age range: 7-14years (medium age=14,79±2,50years).11 patients (50%) were older than 16 years-old
- Medium BMI (Body Mass Index) at the beginning of the admission was 17,79kg/m2.
medium weight loss: 13,5±7,02kg/m2 (corresponding to a reduction of 22,24±7,52% of the previous weight)
- Medium speed of weight loss: 0,92±1,1kg/54
- BMI at discharge: 18,69 ±3,43 kg/m2
- 19/22 patients (86%) had a premorbid history of overweight
- Binge eating: 8 patients (36,4%)
- Purgative behaviour: 10 patients (45%)
- Laxatives use: 4 patients (18%)
- Intense physical exercise: 21 patients (95,5%)
- Average duration of current restrictive episode: 13,7 months
In the studied sample we observed:
- High prevalence of premobid overweight
- Very high frequency of compulsive exercise
- Drastic weight loss and loss of a very high percentage of the previous weight, in short periods of time, reaching very low BMI.
Fiction films offer unexplored support for rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits and distortions in perception and understanding of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After two years of experience “ad hoc” we have designed an experimental case-control study in order to study the effectiveness of the proposed technique compared with conventional “cinema-forum”
20 patients treated at the Psychiatric Day Hospital in Puerta de Hierro Hospital (Majadahonda) will participate in the study. Initially, the researcher will collect information on socio-demographic and clinical data of all participants, as well as a written informed consent. There will be an initial assessment using the following instruments:
- SCIP (schizophrenia cognitive screening)
- Scale GEOPTE (social cognition in schizophrenia)
- Social Functioning Scale (SOFAS, PSP)
- Scale of disease awareness
- IPDE (TP)
- Hamilton Scale (anxiety-depression)
The material used will be the 12 chapters of the first season of TV series “The Sopranos” by David Chase (2004). Specific techniques of cognitive and affective work are compared against a “cinema-forum”. For the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technique, it will be used a measurement tool designed specifically for the activity, which includes:
1. 60 item-Scale, specific on each chapter, evaluating:
The aim of this work was to analyze Marilyn Monroe's “Fragments” using a computerized method for text analysis: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). This software has been used in recent years to examine suicide notes, letters and poems in order to characterize the quantitative linguistic features of suicidal texts. Selected texts were grouped into four periods of similar word count and then processed with LIWC. Kruskal-Wallis Test was applied for comparison of means between periods and for each of the 80 LIWC output scores. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in only five categories: use of pronouns, use of words longer than six letters, use of the third person of plural, use of swear words and use of expressions related with religion.
Our results do not support the findings described in previous studies of writings of persons who committed suicide.
ADHD in adults is associated with a significant impairment in many life activities increasing the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. Previous studies reported normal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in children with ADHD without comorbidities, nevertheless there is a lack of studies in adults.
The aim of the present research is to examine CAR in adults with ADHD and to assess possible differences between the combine and inattentive subtypes.
Patients were recruited from the Program for adults with ADHD in the Department of Psychiatry of the Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron. The clinical sample consisted of 50 adults, age between 18 and 51 years (mean 35.24 ± 9.21) fulfilling current diagnostic criteria for ADHD (DSM-IV criteria). All patients were naïve to stimulant medication. Psychiatric and organic comorbid disorders were excluded. To assess CAR, four salivary cortisol samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening.
The mean increase in CAR for the whole group of patients was 10.34±8.79 nmols/l. T-test comparisons showed no significant differences in the mean increase of CAR between the inattentive (mean: 9.47±9.04 nmols/l) and combine (mean: 11.25±8.67 nmols/l) subtypes (t=0.610; z=0.546).
Despite there were no significant differences in salivary CAR between ADHD subtypes in adults, the mean increase of CAR was higher in combine than in the inattentive subtype. Salivary CAR needs to be further explored as an index of vulnerability to stress in these patients.
Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear in childhood and may persist into adolescence and beyond.
Evaluate the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and atomoxetine in subgroups of children and adolescents with ADHD.
In this 9-week, double-blind study, patients aged 6–17 with ADHD and an inadequate response to previous methylphenidate therapy were randomized (1:1) to optimized doses of LDX or atomoxetine. Efficacy measures included ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score and dichotomized Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score (improved, 1–2; not improved, 3–7).
The full analysis set (n=262) comprised 194 children aged 6–12 (LDX, n=93; atomoxetine, n=101) and 68 adolescents aged 13–17 (LDX, n=34; atomoxetine, n=34). Mean optimized doses were: LDX, 52.5 (SD, 16.10) mg/day; atomoxetine, 40.2 (20.05) mg/day. Baseline mean ADHD-RS-IV total score was similar across treatment and age groups. Table shows efficacy results; safety profiles were consistent with previous studies.
Mean change in ADHD-RS-IV total score by visit 9 (95% confidence interval)
−26.3 (−28.4, −24.2)
−19.4 (−21.6, −17.2)
−27.5 (−29.8, −25.1)
−19.4 (−22.0, −16.7)
−22.9 (−27.3, −18.5)
−19.5 (−23.7, −15.3)
Patients (%) with improved CGI-I score by visit 9 (95% confidence interval)
81.7 (75.0, 88.5)
63.6 (55.4, 71.8)
83.9 (76.4, 91.3)
61.2 (51.6, 70.9)
75.8 (61.1, 90.4)
70.6 (55.3, 85.9)
Within each treatment group, improvements in symptomatological scales and global improvement ratings were observed in children and adolescents.
TwinsMX is a national twin registry in Mexico recently created with institutional support from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It aims to serve as a platform to advance epidemiological and genetic research in the country and to disentangle the genetic and environmental contributions to health and disease in the admixed Mexican population. Here, we describe our recruitment and data collection strategies and discuss both the progress to date and future directions. More information about the registry is available on our website: https://twinsmxofficial.unam.mx/ (content in Spanish).
Although the Cascajal Block (CB), an incised greenstone slab from southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, arguably contains the earliest written text in the New World, debate remains regarding the object's authenticity, dating, and cultural affiliation. To address these issues, this article details recent analyses of the CB via polynomial texture mapping (PTM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PTM revealed new details that have resulted in a new epigraphic drawing of the block's incised text and allowed for improved identification of several constituent signs. Spectrometric analysis confirmed that the chemical composition of the CB matrix is consistent with serpentine and identified a uniform patina on its surface, which provided additional contextual data. SEM micrographs of polymer replica molds taken from the incised text evidence manufacturing traces that correspond to lapidary techniques observed on other Formative-period Olmec objects of secure provenience. Results assist in clarifying the archaeological contexts of the object and confirm that in terms of symbols, material, and manufacture the CB conforms to other Formative-period Olmec objects, supporting the object's authenticity, dating, and cultural affiliation.
Although many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. ‘Core health care’ refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. ‘Other care’ is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills. In such a definition, ‘other care’ does not necessarily mean being funded or governed differently. The aims of the study were: (1) using a standard classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long Term Care, DESDE-LTC) to identify ‘core health’ and ‘other care’ services provided to adults with mental health problems; and (2) to investigate the balance of care by analysing the types and characteristics of core health and other care services.
The study was conducted in eight selected local areas in eight European countries with different mental health systems. All publicly funded mental health services, regardless of the funding agency, for people over 18 years old were identified and coded. The availability, capacity and the workforce of the local mental health services were described using their functional main activity or ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) as the standard for international comparison, following the DESDE-LTC system.
In these European study areas, 822 MTCs were identified as providing core health care and 448 provided other types of care. Even though one-third of mental health services in the selected study areas provided interventions that were coded as ‘other care’, significant variation was found in the typology and characteristics of these services across the eight study areas.
The functional distinction between core health and other care overcomes the traditional division between ‘health’ and ‘social’ sectors based on governance and funding. The overall balance between core health and other care services varied significantly across the European sites. Mental health systems cannot be understood or planned without taking into account the availability and capacity of all services specifically available for this target population, including those outside the health sector.
There is a need of more quantitative standardised data to compare local Mental Health Systems (MHSs) across international jurisdictions. Problems related to terminological variability and commensurability in the evaluation of services hamper like-with-like comparisons and hinder the development of work in this area. This study was aimed to provide standard assessment and comparison of MHS in selected local areas in Europe, contributing to a better understanding of MHS and related allocation of resources at local level and to lessen the scarcity in standard service comparison in Europe. This study is part of the Seventh Framework programme REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care in Europe) project.
A total of eight study areas from European countries with different systems of care (Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain) were analysed using a standard open-access classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services for Long Term Care in Europe, DESDE-LTC). All publicly funded services universally accessible to adults (≥18 years) with a psychiatric disorder were coded. Care availability, diversity and capacity were compared across these eight local MHS.
The comparison of MHS revealed more community-oriented delivery systems in the areas of England (Hampshire) and Southern European countries (Verona – Italy and Girona – Spain). Community-oriented systems with a higher proportion of hospital care were identified in Austria (Industrieviertel) and Scandinavian countries (Sør-Trøndelag in Norway and Helsinki-Uusimaa in Finland), while Loiret (France) was considered as a predominantly hospital-based system. The MHS in Suceava (Romania) was still in transition to community care.
There is a significant variation in care availability and capacity across MHS of local areas in Europe. This information is relevant for understanding the process of implementation of community-oriented mental health care in local areas. Standard comparison of care provision in local areas is important for context analysis and policy planning.
High-precision pulsar timing is central to a wide range of astrophysics and fundamental physics applications. When timing an ensemble of millisecond pulsars in different sky positions, known as a pulsar timing array (PTA), one can search for ultra-low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs) through the spatial correlations that spacetime deformations by passing GWs are predicted to induce on the pulses’ times-of-arrival (TOAs). A pulsar-timing model, requires the use of a solar-system ephemeris (SSE) to properly predict the position of the solar-system barycentre, the (quasi-)inertial frame where all TOAs are referred. Here, I discuss how while errors in SSEs can introduce correlations in the TOAs that may interfere with GW searches, one can make use of PTAs to study the solar system. I discuss work done within the context of the European Pulsar Timing Array and the International Pulsar Timing Array collaborations. These include new updates on the masses of planets from PTA data, first limits on masses of the most massive asteroids, and comparisons between SSEs from independent groups. Finally, I discuss a new approach in setting limits on the masses of unknown bodies in the solar system and calculate mass sensitivity curves for PTA data.
Precision agriculture (PA) requires reasonably homogeneous areas for site-specific management. This work explores the applicability of digital terrain classes obtained from a digital elevation model derived from UAV-acquired images, to define management units in in a relative flat area of about 6 ha. Elevation, together with other terrain variables such as: slope degree, profile curvature, plan curvature, topographic wetness index, sediment transport index, were clustered using the Fuzzy Kohonen Clustering Network (FKCN). Four terrain classes were obtained. The result was compared with a map produced by a classification of soil properties previously interpolated by ordinary kriging. The results suggest that areas for site-specific management can be defined from terrain classes based on environmental covariates, saving time and cost in comparison with interpolation of soil variables.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
For the first time, we used computer simulations to study lift forces on two static disks placed side-by-side within a two-dimensional granular flow and found them to be either repulsive or attractive depending on the flow velocity and separation between the disks. Our simulations results reveal that differences in the flow velocity between the disks and outside of that region are closely correlated with the lift force. We propose an empirical function for the lift force based on this correlation and our dimensional analysis. The specific region where the measured velocity exhibits this correlation suggests that attractive lift is not a Bernoulli-like effect. Instead, we speculate that it might be explained by a force balance based on Coulomb’s theory of passive failure in a Mohr–Coulomb material. Our results confirm that repulsive lift is due to the jamming of particles flowing between the disks.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a new instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been constructed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a 600-night radial-velocity survey targeting 300 M dwarfs with sufficient precision to detect terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1. The wavelength calibration will be done with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps, and with Fabry-Pérot etalons.
Supraglacial meltwater lakes trigger ice-shelf break-up and modulate seasonal ice-sheet flow, and are thus agents by which warming is transmitted to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. To characterize supraglacial lake variability we perform a comparative analysis of lake geometry and depth in two distinct regions, one on the pre-collapse (2002) Larsen B ice shelf, Antarctica, and the other in the ablation zone of Paakitsoq, a land-terminating region of the Greenland ice sheet. Compared to Paakitsoq, lakes on the Larsen B ice shelf cover a greater proportion of surface area (5.3% cf. 1%), but are shallower and more uniform in area. Other aspects of lake geometry (e.g. eccentricity, degree of convexity (solidity) and orientation) are relatively similar between the two regions. We attribute the notable difference in lake density and depth between ice-shelf and grounded ice to the fact that ice shelves have flatter surfaces and less distinct drainage basins. Ice shelves also possess more stimuli to small-scale, localized surface elevation variability, due to the various structural features that yield small variations in thickness and which float at different levels by Archimedes’ principle.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) will conduct a radial-velocity survey of ~ 300 M dwarfs with the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. The CARMENES instrument is currently under construction; it consists of two independent échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range 0.55 – 1.7μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs and the fiber input are designed with a goal of 1m/s radial velocity precision using simultaneous calibration with emission-line lamps.