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Although many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. ‘Core health care’ refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. ‘Other care’ is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills. In such a definition, ‘other care’ does not necessarily mean being funded or governed differently. The aims of the study were: (1) using a standard classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long Term Care, DESDE-LTC) to identify ‘core health’ and ‘other care’ services provided to adults with mental health problems; and (2) to investigate the balance of care by analysing the types and characteristics of core health and other care services.
The study was conducted in eight selected local areas in eight European countries with different mental health systems. All publicly funded mental health services, regardless of the funding agency, for people over 18 years old were identified and coded. The availability, capacity and the workforce of the local mental health services were described using their functional main activity or ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) as the standard for international comparison, following the DESDE-LTC system.
In these European study areas, 822 MTCs were identified as providing core health care and 448 provided other types of care. Even though one-third of mental health services in the selected study areas provided interventions that were coded as ‘other care’, significant variation was found in the typology and characteristics of these services across the eight study areas.
The functional distinction between core health and other care overcomes the traditional division between ‘health’ and ‘social’ sectors based on governance and funding. The overall balance between core health and other care services varied significantly across the European sites. Mental health systems cannot be understood or planned without taking into account the availability and capacity of all services specifically available for this target population, including those outside the health sector.
There is a need of more quantitative standardised data to compare local Mental Health Systems (MHSs) across international jurisdictions. Problems related to terminological variability and commensurability in the evaluation of services hamper like-with-like comparisons and hinder the development of work in this area. This study was aimed to provide standard assessment and comparison of MHS in selected local areas in Europe, contributing to a better understanding of MHS and related allocation of resources at local level and to lessen the scarcity in standard service comparison in Europe. This study is part of the Seventh Framework programme REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care in Europe) project.
A total of eight study areas from European countries with different systems of care (Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain) were analysed using a standard open-access classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services for Long Term Care in Europe, DESDE-LTC). All publicly funded services universally accessible to adults (≥18 years) with a psychiatric disorder were coded. Care availability, diversity and capacity were compared across these eight local MHS.
The comparison of MHS revealed more community-oriented delivery systems in the areas of England (Hampshire) and Southern European countries (Verona – Italy and Girona – Spain). Community-oriented systems with a higher proportion of hospital care were identified in Austria (Industrieviertel) and Scandinavian countries (Sør-Trøndelag in Norway and Helsinki-Uusimaa in Finland), while Loiret (France) was considered as a predominantly hospital-based system. The MHS in Suceava (Romania) was still in transition to community care.
There is a significant variation in care availability and capacity across MHS of local areas in Europe. This information is relevant for understanding the process of implementation of community-oriented mental health care in local areas. Standard comparison of care provision in local areas is important for context analysis and policy planning.
High-precision pulsar timing is central to a wide range of astrophysics and fundamental physics applications. When timing an ensemble of millisecond pulsars in different sky positions, known as a pulsar timing array (PTA), one can search for ultra-low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs) through the spatial correlations that spacetime deformations by passing GWs are predicted to induce on the pulses’ times-of-arrival (TOAs). A pulsar-timing model, requires the use of a solar-system ephemeris (SSE) to properly predict the position of the solar-system barycentre, the (quasi-)inertial frame where all TOAs are referred. Here, I discuss how while errors in SSEs can introduce correlations in the TOAs that may interfere with GW searches, one can make use of PTAs to study the solar system. I discuss work done within the context of the European Pulsar Timing Array and the International Pulsar Timing Array collaborations. These include new updates on the masses of planets from PTA data, first limits on masses of the most massive asteroids, and comparisons between SSEs from independent groups. Finally, I discuss a new approach in setting limits on the masses of unknown bodies in the solar system and calculate mass sensitivity curves for PTA data.
Supraglacial meltwater lakes trigger ice-shelf break-up and modulate seasonal ice-sheet flow, and are thus agents by which warming is transmitted to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. To characterize supraglacial lake variability we perform a comparative analysis of lake geometry and depth in two distinct regions, one on the pre-collapse (2002) Larsen B ice shelf, Antarctica, and the other in the ablation zone of Paakitsoq, a land-terminating region of the Greenland ice sheet. Compared to Paakitsoq, lakes on the Larsen B ice shelf cover a greater proportion of surface area (5.3% cf. 1%), but are shallower and more uniform in area. Other aspects of lake geometry (e.g. eccentricity, degree of convexity (solidity) and orientation) are relatively similar between the two regions. We attribute the notable difference in lake density and depth between ice-shelf and grounded ice to the fact that ice shelves have flatter surfaces and less distinct drainage basins. Ice shelves also possess more stimuli to small-scale, localized surface elevation variability, due to the various structural features that yield small variations in thickness and which float at different levels by Archimedes’ principle.
Precision agriculture (PA) requires reasonably homogeneous areas for site-specific management. This work explores the applicability of digital terrain classes obtained from a digital elevation model derived from UAV-acquired images, to define management units in in a relative flat area of about 6 ha. Elevation, together with other terrain variables such as: slope degree, profile curvature, plan curvature, topographic wetness index, sediment transport index, were clustered using the Fuzzy Kohonen Clustering Network (FKCN). Four terrain classes were obtained. The result was compared with a map produced by a classification of soil properties previously interpolated by ordinary kriging. The results suggest that areas for site-specific management can be defined from terrain classes based on environmental covariates, saving time and cost in comparison with interpolation of soil variables.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
For the first time, we used computer simulations to study lift forces on two static disks placed side-by-side within a two-dimensional granular flow and found them to be either repulsive or attractive depending on the flow velocity and separation between the disks. Our simulations results reveal that differences in the flow velocity between the disks and outside of that region are closely correlated with the lift force. We propose an empirical function for the lift force based on this correlation and our dimensional analysis. The specific region where the measured velocity exhibits this correlation suggests that attractive lift is not a Bernoulli-like effect. Instead, we speculate that it might be explained by a force balance based on Coulomb’s theory of passive failure in a Mohr–Coulomb material. Our results confirm that repulsive lift is due to the jamming of particles flowing between the disks.
The σ Orionis cluster (~3 Myr, 350 pc) is an ideal site to investigate the early evolution of substellar (brown dwarf and planetary mass) objects. To date, the cluster photometric and spectroscopic sequence of free-floaters is known for a wide mass range from 1 M⊙ down to roughly 3 MJup. The substellar domain covers spectral types that go from mid-M classes to the recently defined “methane” T-types, i.e., surface temperatures between ~3000K and 800 K. We derive a rising initial substellar mass function in the mass interval of 150–5 MJup (dN/dM ~ M-α, with α = 0.9 ± 0.4). We also find evidence for a extension of this mass function toward lower masses down to 2–3 MJup. This indicates that the population of isolated planetary mass objects with masses below the deuterium burning threshold is rather abundant in the cluster.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a new instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been constructed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a 600-night radial-velocity survey targeting 300 M dwarfs with sufficient precision to detect terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1. The wavelength calibration will be done with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps, and with Fabry-Pérot etalons.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) will conduct a radial-velocity survey of ~ 300 M dwarfs with the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. The CARMENES instrument is currently under construction; it consists of two independent échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range 0.55 – 1.7μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs and the fiber input are designed with a goal of 1m/s radial velocity precision using simultaneous calibration with emission-line lamps.
The objective of the present work was to study the differences in the fatty acid (FA) composition of raw sheep milk fat under commercial milk production conditions throughout lactation, in two consecutive years. Particular attention was placed on the C18:2cis-9,trans-11 isomer, C18:1trans-11 acid, and unsaturated FA as the feeding regimen of 10 commercial flocks of latxa dairy sheep changed from indoor feeding to part-time grazing conditions (from early spring) as traditionally practiced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Farms located at an altitude of between 600 and 700 m, in two different geographical areas with different rainfall were selected. Milk samples were collected monthly from late January (indoor feeding) until mid-, or end of, June (outdoor feeding), during two consecutive years. In spite of some interannual variability (most likely due to large differences in rainfall), the evolution of individual FA throughout lactation was comparable between years, indicating that it was reproducible under commercial milk production conditions. The average concentrations of C18:2cis-9,trans-11 isomer and C18:1trans-11 acid in milk from the commercial flocks increased about 200% during the transition period (end of March or early April until May), from indoor feeding (late January or early February until the end of March) to the outdoor period (early May to mid-June), remaining constant during the outdoor period (27·53 ± 9·32 μmol/g fat and 71·58 ± 20·53 μmol/g fat, respectively). Non-atherogenic FA comprised approximately 50% of all saturated FA at any time during lactation, whereas the milk atherogenicity index decreased significantly during the outdoor period. The Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble milk fraction did not appear to be influenced by feeding management. The FA composition of cheeses made during the second year with milk from the indoor or outdoor periods reflected those of the corresponding milks. A principal components analysis clearly showed that differences in the milk FA composition were primarily due to outdoor grazing, with very little contribution from the geographical zone or the year.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument under construction for the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is a five-year exoplanet survey targeting 300 M stars with the completed instrument. The CARMENES hardware consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s−1 employing a simultaneous calibration with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps.
Lanthana-supported Ni and Co catalysts were investigated by “operando” techniques (XAS and APPES) for methane reforming reactions. The samples were prepared by the “solid phase crystallization” method (spc), where the precursors La(Ni1-xCox)O3 contains homogeneously distributed metals (Ni, Co) in the crystal structure (perovskite), which, on further reduction, result in the formation of catalytic system Ni1-xCox/La2O3. The monometallic samples (NiLaO3, CoLaO3) have been compared with a bimetallic system of an intermediate composition Ni0.5Co0.5LaO3. This “operando” study has allowed us to obtain important conclusions about the bimetallic particles and the metal-support interactions. The data revealed the formation of bimetallic particles (NiCo); on these ones, the Ni avoids the Co oxidation during the reaction. However, this protection does not induce an improvement in the activity, which presents an intermediate behaviour between Ni/La2O3 and Co/La2O3. These bimetallic particles form a pseudo-alloy with the surface enriched in cobalt (under reduced conditions), resulting nearly in a core-shell structure (Ni@Co).
Uncertainty in logic programming has been widely investigated in the last decades, leading to multiple extensions of the classical logic programming paradigm. However, few of these are designed as extensions of the well-established and powerful Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) scheme for CLP. In a previous work we have proposed the proximity-based qualified constraint logic programming (SQCLP) scheme as a quite expressive extension of CLP with support for qualification values and proximity relations as generalizations of uncertainty values and similarity relations, respectively. In this paper we provide a transformation technique for transforming SQCLP programs and goals into semantically equivalent CLP programs and goals, and a practical Prolog-based implementation of some particularly useful instances of the SQCLP scheme. We also illustrate, by showing some simple – and working – examples, how the prototype can be effectively used as a tool for solving problems where qualification values and proximity relations play a key role. Intended use of SQCLP includes flexible information retrieval applications.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention.
Detailed and reliable understanding of past climate change is a key ingredient in unravelling how climate has influenced life on earth and will continue to do so in the future. Palaeoclimatology and climate modelling have both made rapid strides over the past decades, and there has been fruitful two-way interaction between the two fields. The application of climate models to palaeoclimates has proved useful both in interpreting palaeoclimate proxy data and in testing the robustness and generality of climate models. Here, we give an overview of the current state of climate modelling and review recent progress in understanding deep-time climate change, with emphasis on problems where climate models have played a salient role. By suitably adjusting the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases, climate models can be made to replicate many key climatic transitions in the earth's history. However, important discrepancies remain between modelled climates and proxy reconstructions, particularly on the warm end of the spectrum.
Climate science deals with reconstructing and explaining the long-term mean and variability of physical conditions in the earth's envelope. A striking feature emerging from such analysis is the vast range of timescales on which there is significant variability. Part of this variability, including the diurnal and annual cycles, is periodic and predictable, but mostly it is random and unpredictable. We know from direct experience that the weather changes from hour to hour, from day to day, and from year to year.