To establish the frequency of infectious aetiology in Mexican adult patients with cervical lymphadenopathies (CLAs), 87 consecutive patients with enlarged cervical lymphatic nodes, HIV negative and without anti-tuberculous treatment, were selected from a tertiary-level speciality concentration hospital. Histopathological studies, investigation of acid-fast bacilli, cultures in Löwenstein–Jensen and Mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) media, and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with IS6110-based primers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were performed in resected lymphatic nodes. Non-infectious aetiology corresponded to 45 cases (52%). Tuberculosis was suspected in 42 cases (48%) by histology and confirmed positive results were obtained by staining in 8 (19%), by culture in 23 (55%), and by PCR in 34 (81%) patients. All were confirmed after therapeutic success. In addition to the epidemiological transition process occurring in Mexico, tuberculosis remains an important cause of CLA. Histopathology with confirmatory studies including PCR can detect tuberculous aetiology.