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Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
In this paper, we characterize a high repetition-rate regenerating plasma mirror produced by the thin film of liquid formed when two laminar streams collide. The use of a flowing liquid film is inexpensive and the interaction surface refreshes automatically, avoiding buildup of on-target debris. The composition of the liquid material and the relative angle of the film-generating nozzles was optimized for this application. Spectra measured in reflection from a water-based plasma mirror showed a blue shift but an optical reflectivity of up to 30%. The thickness of the film was found to be of the order of 2
m, and the stability of the reflected spot was
mrad. The reflected beam profile was highly distorted but stable. Further optimization of the nozzles to affect the fluid flow should enable significant improvements in control of the fluid films and increase in the reflectivity of these mirrors.
In 2016, the US FDA issued an industry guidance document “Quality Attribute Considerations for Chewable Tablets” which describes the quality attributes to be considered when developing chewable tablets. It includes recommendations on selection of acceptance criteria for measuring palatability (having a taste acceptable to the patient or has adequate masking). These data are now recommended as part of ANDA submissions. Palatability is a known positive contributing factor to drug adherence and persistence. We summarize here palatability data for a new amphetamine extended-release tablet (Dyanavel XR® Extended Release Tablet; AMPH ER TAB).
This was a 2-arm preplanned secondary analysis from a comparative bioavailability study: single-dose AMPH ER TAB 20 mg chewed under fasting (Treatment A) and fed (Treatment B) conditions. Subjects rated the palatability of AMPH ER TAB (Treatments A+B) through a 5-question palatability questionnaire. The questions included in the palatability questionnaire were as follows:
1. Oral sensation/mouth feel of the drug product
2. Taste of the drug product
3. How strong is the taste?
4. Aftertaste of the product
5. How strong is the aftertaste?
Subjects completed the questionnaire within 10 minutes from the time of drug administration, which was evaluated and scored according to the rubric below:
Q1, Q2, Q4: palatability- Very unpleasant (score of 1), Unpleasant (2), No sensation or mouthfeel (3), Pleasant (4), and Very pleasant (5)
Q3, Q5 (Taste/aftertaste strength): Very strong (score of 1), Strong (2), Moderate (3), Mild (4), No aftertaste (5).
Scores of 1-2 for both categories were Negative; score of 3 was Neutral, and 4-5 were Positive.
35 subjects comprised the palatability dataset (completed one question on the questionnaire). In the palatability analysis, for treatments A and B, most of the subjects rated the oral sensation/mouth feel of AMPH ER TAB (Question 1) and the taste of AMPH ER TAB (Question 2) as positive (pleasant to very pleasant) (70.1% and 83.6%, respectively).
When evaluating taste strength (Question 3): 43.3% rated the strength as positive (mild/no taste) and 43.3% of subjects rated the strength as neutral (moderate taste). Also, 82.1% rated the aftertaste of AMPH ER TAB (Question 4) as positive (pleasant/very pleasant) and 52.2% rated the strength of the aftertaste as positive (mild/no taste).
Most subjects rated the oral sensation and taste as pleasant or very pleasant, whether chewed under fasted conditions or after a meal. With respect to the taste strength, most subjects rated it as moderate (chewed under fasted conditions) or mild/no taste (chewed after a meal). Aftertaste was rated as pleasant or very pleasant in most subjects, with the strength as moderate (chewed under fasted conditions) or mild/no aftertaste (chewed after a meal). AMPH ER Tablets provided an overall pleasant taste and mouthfeel experience for patients.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
We describe and analyse an outbreak of measles that affected Belgium early 2017. In total, 289 cases were reported, mostly (53%) in people 15 years or older. For 133 (46%) vaccination status was unknown and a further 117 (41%) were not vaccinated. According to national guidelines, 83 of the unvaccinated cases (29% of total cases) should have received minimum one dose of vaccine, but did not. One in five cases (21%) did not present with the classical triad of fever, rash and any of coryza, conjunctivitis or cough. Rash was the most sensitive symptom, being absent in only six cases. A large proportion of cases (125/289, 43%) required hospitalisation. In hospitalised patients, the most commonly observed complications were hepatic disorders (present in 58/125 hospitalised patients, 46%). Thirty-six of the cases (12%) were in healthcare workers and nosocomial spread contributed importantly to the outbreak. Older age at presentation, altered clinical presentations and presence of complications like hepatitis can delay the correct diagnosis of measles. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in any individual presenting with rash. If the elimination target is to be reached, catch-up vaccination campaigns should be intensified and target young adults and health care workers.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean and cotton provided growers a new POST active ingredient to include in weed management programs. The technology raises concerns regarding potential 2,4-D off-target movement to sensitive vegetation, and spray droplet size is the primary management factor focused on to reduce spray particle drift. The objective of this study was to investigate the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity, and particle drift potential of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline pre-mixture (Enlist Duo®) applications with two commonly used venturi nozzles in a low-speed wind tunnel. Applications with the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger DV0.1 (291 µm), DV0.5 (544 µm), and DV0.9 (825 µm) values compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (250, 464, and 709 µm, respectively), and slower average droplet velocity (8.1 m s−1) compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (9.1 m s−1). Nozzle type had no influence on drift deposition (P = 0.65), drift coverage (P = 0.84), and soybean biomass reduction (P = 0.76). Although the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger spray droplet size, the slower spray droplet velocity could have influenced the nozzle particle drift potential. As a result, both TDXL11004 and AIXR11004 nozzles had similar spray drift potential. Further studies are necessary to understand the impact of droplet velocity on drift potential at field scale and test how different tank solutions, sprayer configurations, and environmental conditions could influence the droplet size and velocity dynamics and consequent drift potential in pesticide applications.
Evaluate the relative bioavailability of single-dose amphetamine extended-release tablet (AMPH ER TAB) 20 mg, swallowed whole or chewed, and amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS) 2.5 mg/mL; evaluate food effect on AMPH ER TAB.
Healthy volunteers (18–55 years) were randomized to 1 dose of AMPH ER TAB 20 mg swallowed (fasted), chewed (fed/fasted), or 20 mg AMPH EROS (fasted). A crossover study design was used. Plasma samples were collected each period predose and at time points to 60 hours postdose. d- and l-amphetamine were measured and pharmacokinetic (PK) was calculated (90% confidence intervals of the ratios of the plasma levels) for AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax. Comparative relative bioavailability between formulations was determined when ratios were within 80% and 125%. Safety was also assessed.
Thirty-two subjects completed the study. AMPH ER TAB swallowed versus AMPH EROS (fasted): for d- and l-amphetamine, the total and peak exposure was similar: d: AUC0-t: 100.68% to 108.08%, AUC0-∞: 101.47% to 109.52%, Cmax: 98.10% to 103.17%; l: AUC0-t: 100.31% to 108.57%, AUC0-∞: 101.27% to 111.09%, Cmax: 98.2% to 103.37%. For d- and l-amphetamine when the tablet is swallowed whole, Tmax was 5.00 hours (with a range of 2.00–9.00 hours). AMPH ER TAB chewed versus AMPH EROS (fasted): for d- and l-amphetamine, the total and peak exposure was similar: d: AUC0-t: 99.23% to 106.62%, AUC0-∞: 99.58% to 107.59%, Cmax: 99.91% to 105.14%; l: AUC0-t: 98.16% to 106.35%, AUC0-∞: 98.44% to 108.11%, Cmax: 99.53% to 104.75%. For d- and l-amphetamine when the tablet has been chewed, Tmax was 5.00 hours (with a range of 3.00-7.00 hours). PK results were similar for patients in the fasted and fed groups, indicative of no presence of food effect. No serious adverse events (AEs) were reported, overall AE profiles between the tablet and oral suspension were comparable without any unanticipated safety concerns.
Single doses of AMPH ER TAB for both d- and l-amphetamine demonstrated comparable bioavailability to a 20 mg dose of AMPH EROS, 2.5 mg/mL under fasted conditions when chewed and swallowed whole, and demonstrated equivalent peak and overall exposure without apparent food effect. AMPH ER TAB was well-tolerated and consistent with adverse events noted in other amphetamine formulations.
Brominated flame retardants (BFR) are primarily used as flame retardant additives in insulating materials. These lipophilic compounds can bioaccumulate in animal tissues, leading to human exposure via food ingestion. Although their concentration in food is not yet regulated, several of these products are recognised as persistent organic pollutants; they are thought to act as endocrine disruptors. The present study aimed to characterise the occurrence of two families of BFRs (hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)) in hen eggs and broiler or pig meat in relation to their rearing environments. Epidemiological studies were carried out on 60 hen egg farms (34 without an open-air range, 26 free-range), 57 broiler farms (27 without an open-air range, 30 free-range) and 42 pig farms without an open-air range in France from 2013 to 2015. For each farm, composite samples from either 12 eggs, five broiler pectoral muscles or three pig tenderloins were obtained. Eight PBDE congeners and three HBCDD stereoisomers were quantified in product fat using gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry, or high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The frequencies of PBDE detection were 28% for eggs (median concentration 0.278 ng/g fat), 72% for broiler muscle (0.392 ng/g fat) and 49% for pig muscle (0.403 ng/g fat). At least one HBCDD stereoisomer was detected in 17% of eggs (0.526 ng/g fat), 46% of broiler muscle (0.799 ng/g fat) and 36% of pig muscle (0.616 ng/g fat). Results were similar in concentration to those obtained in French surveillance surveys from 2012 to 2016. Nevertheless, the contamination of free-range eggs and broilers was found to be more frequent than that of conventional ones, suggesting that access to an open-air range could be an additional source of exposure to BFRs for animals. However, the concentration of BFRs in all products remained generally very low. No direct relationship could be established between the occurrence of BFRs in eggs and meat and the characteristics of farm buildings (age, building materials). The potential presence of BFRs in insulating materials is not likely to constitute a significant source of animal exposure as long as the animals do not have direct access to these materials.
Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) history have high rates of performance validity test (PVT) failure. The study aimed to determine whether those with scores in the invalid versus valid range on PVTs show similar benefit from psychotherapy and if psychotherapy improves PVT performance.
Veterans (N = 100) with PTSD, mild-to-moderate TBI history, and cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month post-treatment. Veterans were randomly assigned to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or a novel hybrid intervention integrating CPT with TBI psychoeducation and cognitive rehabilitation strategies from Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART). Performance below standard cutoffs on any PVT trial across three different PVT measures was considered invalid (PVT-Fail), whereas performance above cutoffs on all measures was considered valid (PVT-Pass).
Although both PVT groups exhibited clinically significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, the PVT-Pass group demonstrated greater symptom reduction than the PVT-Fail group. Measures of post-concussive and depressive symptoms improved to a similar degree across groups. Treatment condition did not moderate these results. Rate of valid test performance increased from baseline to follow-up across conditions, with a stronger effect in the SMART-CPT compared to CPT condition.
Both PVT groups experienced improved psychological symptoms following treatment. Veterans who failed PVTs at baseline demonstrated better test engagement following treatment, resulting in higher rates of valid PVTs at follow-up. Veterans with invalid PVTs should be enrolled in trauma-focused treatment and may benefit from neuropsychological assessment after, rather than before, treatment.
There is an emerging consensus in developmental psychopathology that irritable youth are at risk for developing internalizing problems later in life. The current study explored if irritability in youth is multifactorial and the impact of irritability dimensions on psychopathology outcomes in adulthood.
We conducted exploratory factor analysis on irritability symptom items from a semi-structured diagnostic interview administered to a community sample of adolescents (ages 14–19; 42.7% male; 89.1% white). The analysis identified two factors corresponding to items from the mood disorders v. the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (Leibenluft and Stoddard) sections of the interview. These factors were then entered together into regression models predicting psychopathology assessed at age 24 (N = 941) and again at age 30 (N = 816). All models controlled for concurrent psychopathology in youth.
The two irritability dimensions demonstrated different patterns of prospective relationships, with items from the ODD section primarily predicting externalizing psychopathology, items from the mood disorder sections predicting depression at age 24 but not 30, and both dimensions predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms.
These results suggest that the current standard of extracting and compositing irritability symptom items from diagnostic interviews masks distinct dimensions of irritability with different psychopathological outcomes. Additionally, these findings add nuance to the prevailing notion that irritability in youth is specifically linked to later internalizing problems. Further investigation using more sensitive and multifaceted measures of irritability are needed to parse the meaning and clinical implications of these dimensions.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a longitudinal twin study that recruited over 16,000 twin-pairs born between 1994 and 1996 in England and Wales through national birth records. More than 10,000 of these families are still engaged in the study. TEDS was and still is a representative sample of the population in England and Wales. Rich cognitive and emotional/behavioral data have been collected from the twins from infancy to emerging adulthood, with data collection at first contact and at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 21, enabling longitudinal genetically sensitive analyses. Data have been collected from the twins themselves, from their parents and teachers, and from the UK National Pupil Database. Genotyped DNA data are available for 10,346 individuals (who are unrelated except for 3320 dizygotic co-twins). TEDS data have contributed to over 400 scientific papers involving more than 140 researchers in 50 research institutions. TEDS offers an outstanding resource for investigating cognitive and behavioral development across childhood and early adulthood and actively fosters scientific collaborations.
Refractory depression is a major contributor to the economic burden of depression. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is an unevaluated new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression, but it is not yet known whether the additional expense of RO DBT is good value for money.
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU alone in people with refractory depression (trial registration: ISRCTN85784627).
We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised trial evaluating RO DBT plus TAU versus TAU alone for refractory depression in three UK secondary care centres. Our economic evaluation, 12 months after randomisation, adopted the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services. It evaluated cost-effectiveness by comparing the net cost of RO DBT with the net gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), estimated using the EQ-5D-3L measure of health-related quality of life.
The additional cost of RO DBT plus TAU compared with TAU alone was £7048 and was associated with a difference of 0.032 QALYs, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £220 250 per QALY. This ICER was well above the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) upper threshold of £30 000 per QALY. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that RO DBT had a zero probability of being cost-effective compared with TAU at the NICE £30 000 threshold.
In its current resource-intensive form, RO DBT is not a cost-effective use of resources in the UK NHS.
Declaration of interest
R.H. is co-owner and director of Radically Open Ltd, the RO DBT training and dissemination company. D.K. reports grants outside the submitted work from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). T.L. receives royalties from New Harbinger Publishing for sales of RO DBT treatment manuals, speaking fees from Radically Open Ltd, and a grant outside the submitted work from the Medical Research Council. He was co-director of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and May 2015 and is married to Erica Smith-Lynch, the principal shareholder and one of two directors of Radically Open Ltd. H.O'M. reports personal fees outside the submitted work from the Charlie Waller Institute and Improving Access to Psychological Therapy. S.R. provides RO DBT supervision through her company S C Rushbrook Ltd. I.R. reports grants outside the submitted work from NIHR and Health & Care Research Wales. M. Stanton reports personal fees outside the submitted work from British Isles DBT Training, Stanton Psychological Services Ltd and Taylor & Francis. M. Swales reports personal fees outside the submitted work from British Isles DBT Training, Guilford Press, Oxford University Press and Taylor & Francis. B.W. was co-director of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and February 2015.
Individuals with depression often do not respond to medication or psychotherapy. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is a new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression.
To compare RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) for refractory depression with TAU alone (trial registration: ISRCTN 85784627).
RO DBT comprised 29 therapy sessions and 27 skills classes over 6 months. Our completed randomised trial evaluated RO DBT for refractory depression over 18 months in three British secondary care centres. Of 250 adult participants, we randomised 162 (65%) to RO DBT. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), assessed masked and analysed by treatment allocated.
After 7 months, immediately following therapy, RO DBT had significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 5.40 points on the HRSD relative to TAU (95% CI 0.94–9.85). After 12 months (primary end-point), the difference of 2.15 points on the HRSD in favour of RO DBT was not significant (95% CI –2.28 to 6.59); nor was that of 1.69 points on the HRSD at 18 months (95% CI –2.84 to 6.22). Throughout RO DBT participants reported significantly better psychological flexibility and emotional coping than controls. However, they reported eight possible serious adverse reactions compared with none in the control group.
The RO DBT group reported significantly lower HRSD scores than the control group after 7 months, but not thereafter. The imbalance in serious adverse reactions was probably because of the controls' limited opportunities to report these.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The South China Sea (SCS) is a biodiversity hotspot, however, most biodiversity surveys in the region are confined to shallow water reefs. Here, we studied the benthic habitat and fish assemblages in the upper mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; 30–40 m) and SWRs (8–22 m) at three geographic locations (Luzon Strait; Palawan; and the Kalayaan Group of Islands) in the eastern SCS (also called the West Philippine Sea) using diver-based survey methods. Mean coral genera and fish species richness ranged from 17–25 (per 25 m2) and 11–17 (per 250 m2) in MCEs, respectively; although none of these were novel genera/species. Coral and fish assemblages were structured more strongly by location than by depth. Location differences were associated with the variability in benthic composition, wherein locations with higher hard coral cover had higher coral genera richness and abundance. Locations with higher algae and sand cover had higher diversity and density of fish herbivores and benthic invertivores. Fishing efforts may also have contributed to among-location differences as the highly exploited location had the lowest fish biomass. The low variation between depths may be attributed to the similar benthic composition at each location, the interconnectivity between depths due to hydrological conditions, fish motility, and the common fishing gears used in the Philippines that can likely extend beyond SWRs. Results imply that local-scale factors and anthropogenic disturbances probably dampen across-depth structuring in coral genera and fish species assemblages.
Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
Introduction: Women experiencing complications of early pregnancy frequently seek care in the emergency department (ED), as most have not yet established care with an obstetrical provider. The primary objective of this study was to explore the services available (ED management, ultrasound access, and follow-up care) for ED patients experiencing early pregnancy loss or threatened early pregnancy loss in Ontario hospitals. Methods: The emergency medicine chiefs of 71 Ontario hospital EDs with an annual census of more than 30,000 ED patient visits in 2017 were invited to complete a 30-item, online questionnaire using modified Dillman methodology. These hospitals constitute greater than 85% of the annual ED visits in Ontario, creating a sample reflective of the services available to most women older than 18 years old seeking care for early pregnancy complications in the province. Results: Respondents from 63 EDs across Ontario completed the survey (response rate 88.7%). Of the EDs surveyed, 34 (54.0%) reported they did not have access to early pregnancy clinic services for women who presented to the ED with early pregnancy complications that were safe to discharge home. At these hospitals, it was found that patients were followed up in 14 (41.2%) EDs for the same complications including pregnancy of unknown location and threatened abortion. Respondents also stated that radiologist-interpreted ultrasound was only available to 22 (34.9%) of hospital sites 24 hours a day, 7 days per week for women with early pregnancy complications. Of hospital site respondents, 55 (87.3%) reported point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) use in the ED for patients with early pregnancy complications, and 27 (49.1%) reported the ED had access to transvaginal ultrasound probes for POCUS assessment by emergency physicians. Additionally, the proportion of ED physicians who were certified as Canadian Emergency Ultrasound independent practitioners ranged from 10% to 100%. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the reliance of some hospitals on the ED to provide ongoing follow-up care to patients experiencing complications of early pregnancy. The lack of clinical resources and specialized personnel in Ontario hospital EDs makes supporting these women longitudinally unrealistic, exposing them to undue risk and complications.