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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Self-assembly, a process in which molecules, polymers, and particles are driven by local interactions to organize into patterns and functional structures, is being exploited in advancing silicon electronics and in emerging, unconventional electronics. Silicon electronics has relied on lithographic patterning of polymer resists at progressively smaller lengths to scale down device dimensions. Yet, this has become increasingly difficult and costly. Assembly of block copolymers and colloidal nanoparticles allows resolution enhancement and the definition of essential shapes to pattern circuits and memory devices. As we look to a future in which electronics are integrated at large numbers and in new forms for the Internet of Things and wearable and implantable technologies, we also explore a broader material set. Semiconductor nanoparticles and biomolecules are prized for their size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties and for their solution-based assembly and integration into devices that are enabling unconventional manufacturing and new device functions.
The metamorphic history of the Mesoarchean Amikoq Layered Complex within the Akia terrane of SW Greenland was characterised by electron microprobe mineral data and detailed petrography on 12 representative samples, integrated with zircon U–Pb geochronology and petrology. The complex intruded into a >3004 Ma supracrustal association now consisting of granoblastic metabasites with subordinate quartz-rich gneiss. Supracrustal host rocks contain a relict high-temperature assemblage of orthopyroxene–clinopyroxene (± pigeonite exsolution lamellae, exsolved at ~975–1010°C), which is interpreted to pre-date the Amikoq intrusion. Cumulate to granoblastic-textured rocks of the main Amikoq Layered Complex range modally from leuconorite to melanorite, orthopyroxenite to harzburgite/dunite and rare hornblende melagabbro. Observed mineralogy of main complex noritic lithologies is essentially relict igneous with orthopyroxene–biotite and hornblende–plagioclase thermometers yielding temperatures of ~800–1070°C. An anatectic zircon megacryst from a patchy quartzo–feldspathic leucosome hosted in an orthopyroxene-dominated Amikoq rock reflects local anatexis at peak metamorphic P–T conditions and yields an intrusion minimum age of 3004 ± 9 Ma. Field observations indicate local anatexis of orthopyroxene-dominated lithologies, possibly indicating a post-intrusion peak temperature of >900°C. The last preserved stages of retrogression are recorded in paragneiss plagioclase–garnet, biotite–garnet and host rock ilmenite–magnetite pairs (≤3 kbar and ~380–560°C).
The Amikoq Complex intruded a MORB-like crustal section and the former remained relatively undisturbed in terms of modal mineralogy. Preservation of igneous textures and mineralogy are related to an anhydrous, high-grade metamorphic history that essentially mimics igneous crystallisation conditions, whereas local high-strain zones acted as fluid pathways resulting in hydrous breakdown of igneous minerals. There is no evidence of equilibration of the intrusion at sub-amphibolite-facies conditions.
Few studies have examined burnout in psychosocial oncology clinicians. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the prevalence and severity of burnout in psychosocial clinicians who work in oncology settings and the factors that are believed to contribute or protect against it.
Articles on burnout (including compassion fatigue and secondary trauma) in psychosocial oncology clinicians were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Web of Science Core Collection.
Thirty-eight articles were reviewed at the full-text level, and of those, nine met study inclusion criteria. All were published between 2004 and 2018 and included data from 678 psychosocial clinicians. Quality assessment revealed relatively low risk of bias and high methodological quality. Study composition and sample size varied greatly, and the majority of clinicians were aged between 40 and 59 years. Across studies, 10 different measures were used to assess burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, in addition to factors that might impact burnout, including work engagement, meaning, and moral distress. When compared with other medical professionals, psychosocial oncology clinicians endorsed lower levels of burnout.
Significance of results
This systematic review suggests that psychosocial clinicians are not at increased risk of burnout compared with other health care professionals working in oncology or in mental health. Although the data are quite limited, several factors appear to be associated with less burnout in psychosocial clinicians, including exposure to patient recovery, discussing traumas, less moral distress, and finding meaning in their work. More research using standardized measures of burnout with larger samples of clinicians is needed to examine both prevalence rates and how the experience of burnout changes over time. By virtue of their training, psychosocial clinicians are well placed to support each other and their nursing and medical colleagues.
Behavioral determinants with the largest effects are often those related to the environments in which behaviors occur. This suggests the merits of a shift in focus of changing behavior at scale away from interventions based on deliberation and decision-making and toward interventions that involve changing cues – physical, digital, social, and economic – in environments. This chapter focuses on changing cues in small-scale physical environments – sometimes known as choice architecture or nudge interventions. Despite attracting much interest, these interventions have been little explored from a theoretical perspective. Exploring the mechanisms by which some of these interventions exert their effects provides a starting point. Examining evidence of three interventions – increasing availability of healthier food options, reducing glass size, and putting warning labels on food and alcohol products – suggests no single theory explains their effects. The mechanisms by which these interventions affect behavior change also necessitate different levels of explanation and demand a theoretical framework that applies at different levels. Recognizing the distinction between model-free and model-based learning and behavior may be central to this. Advancing knowledge on changing behavior by changing environments requires robustly designed field studies to estimate effect sizes, complemented by laboratory studies testing mechanisms to optimize interventions and develop theoretical understanding.
Adolescent girls are at risk for both macro- and micronutrient deficiencies affecting growth, maternal and child health. This study assessed the impact of an adolescent-girl-tailored nutritional education curriculum on nutritional outcomes, including knowledge, dietary behaviour, anthropometry and anaemia.
A cluster-randomised evaluation was conducted with two study arms: girls in mentor-led weekly girls’ groups receiving sexual and reproductive health and life-skills training assigned to an age-appropriate nutritional curriculum and control girls in the weekly girls’ groups without the nutritional education. The primary analysis was intent-to-treat (ITT) generalised least squares regression. Secondary analysis using two-stage, instrumental-variables estimation was also conducted.
The intervention and evaluation were conducted in urban and rural areas across four of ten provinces in Zambia.
In total, 2660 girl adolescents aged 10–19 years were interviewed in 2013 (baseline) and annually through 2017.
ITT results indicate that exposure to the nutritional educational programme did not meaningfully change outcomes for adolescents or their children. Intervention adolescents were no more likely to correctly identify healthy foods (P = 0·51) or proper infant-feeding practices (P = 0·92); were no less likely to be stunted (P = 0·30) or underweight (P = 0·87) and no less likely to be anaemic (P = 0·38). Outcomes for children of intervention participants were not improved, including being breastfed (P = 0·42), stunted (P = 0·21), wasted (P = 0·77) or anaemic (P = 0·51).
Even a high-quality nutritional educational intervention tailored to adolescents within an empowerment programme does not assure improved nutritional outcomes; adolescent preferences, resource control and household dynamics require consideration in the context of nutritional educational programmes.
Lovén's Law described the position of larger basicoronal ambulacral plates in echinoids. The smaller basicoronal plates form first in ontogeny. We restate Lovén's Law to describe the position of first ambulacral plates using Carpenter's ambulacra and left (L) or right (R) as: AR, BL, CR, DL, ER, with EA the pair of ambulacra both identical and adjacent. First ambulacral plates of the Cambrian edrioasteroid, Walcottidiscus, code identically. The transition from a tri-radiate 1-1-1 pattern to the 2-1-2 ambulacral pattern of Walcottidiscus and other pentaradiate Paleozoic echinoderms results in Lovén's Law. This provides an hypothesis for the origin of Lovén's Law and predicts its widespread occurrence among echinoderm classes.
The ‘BD different’ pattern of primary brachioles in pentaradiate glyptocystitoid Rhombifera results from subterminal branching of the ambulacra. The ontogenetic sequence was triradiate, then lateral ambulacra bifurcated, and finally second brachioles developed. Positions of second brachioles of pentaradiate glyptocystitoids code as AR, BL, CR, DL, ER. Other examples of Lovén's Law occur in Diploporita, Ophiuroidea, Edrioasteroidea, Edrioblastoidea, Holothuroidea, Ophiocistioidea, and Bothriocidaris. Our working hypothesis is that Lovén's Law arose with pentaradiality. An objective test requires a reliable independent landmark across all classes, which does not exist currently. Our hypothesis is only parsimonious if Lovén's Law arose just once in echinoderm evolution and is widespread within the phylum. So far, both conditions appear to be met, but edrioasteroid first ambulacral cover plates commonly exhibit an alternative Lovén-like pattern of AL, BL, CR, DL, ER, with AB the identical adjacent ambulacra.
While recent research points to the potential benefits of clinical intervention before the first episode of psychosis, the logistical feasibility of this is unclear.
To assess the feasibility of providing a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in an inner city area where engagement with mental health services is generally poor.
Following a period of liaison with local agencies to promote the service, referrals were assessed and managed in a primary care setting. Activity of the service was audited over 30 months.
People with prodromal symptoms were referred by a range of community agencies and seen at their local primary care physician practice. Over 30 months, 180 clients were referred; 58 (32.2%) met criteria for an at risk mental state, most of whom (67.2%) had attenuated psychotic symptoms. Almost 30% were excluded due to current or previous psychotic illness, of which two-thirds were in the first episode of psychosis. The socio-demographic composition of the 'at risk' group reflected that of the local population, with an over-representation of clients from an ethnic minority. Over 90% of suitable clients remained engaged with the service after 1 year.
It is feasible to provide a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in a deprived inner city area with a large ethnic minority population.
In the Philippines, morbidity control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is done through mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelmintics to school-age children (SAC). In 2013, the Philippines was devastated by the deadliest cyclone ever recorded, Typhoon Haiyan. The study aimed to understand the impact of Typhoon Haiyan on the MDA of anthelmintics to SAC in the provinces of Capiz and Iloilo in the Philippines from the perspectives of local health and education officials.
The study was conducted in the municipalities of Panay and Pilar in Capiz and the municipalities of Estancia and Sara in Iloilo, areas that were devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. Qualitative, semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 16 total participants, which included officials of the Department of Health, Department of Education, and concerned local government units. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded in an open, iterative manner. Codes were reviewed to identify patterns and themes.
Participants described the following themes: (1) their perception that the typhoon had no effect on the MDA program or on resources necessary to complete the program; (2) the program’s simple design allowed for 1-time administration to a pre-assembled population; (3) the program allowed a sense of community cohesiveness; (4) the program served as a vehicle for altruism, particularly regarding helping needy children, in this time of calamity.
Our informants perceived that the MDA program in Region VI was not affected by Typhoon Haiyan. They attributed the resilience to the program’s simple procedure, attitudes of altruism, program importance, and community cohesiveness. Despite Typhoon Haiyan’s mass destruction of infrastructure and livelihood leading to incredible challenges, mobilization of the community allowed for the continuation and successful implementation of the MDA program. The experience of Region VI may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries prone to natural disasters.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
We used a combination of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, and stratigraphic data from cores collected along the southern margin of the Green Bay Lobe (GBL) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to provide new information on the timing and dynamics of the end of advance of the GBL and the dynamics of the ice sheet while very near its maximum position. Coring at multiple sites along the margin of the GBL indicate that ice had reached a stable position near its maximum extent by 24.7 ka; that ice advanced several kilometers to the Marine Isotope Stage 2 maximum position sometime shortly after 21.2 ka; and that ice remained at or beyond that position through the time interval represented by an OSL age estimate of 19.2 ± 3.2 ka. The timeline developed from these chronological data is internally consistent with, and further refines, AMS radiocarbon ages and OSL age estimates previously published for the southern margin of the GBL. It also provides new chronological control on the expansion of the GBL from its late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 extent to its MIS 2 maximum.
Surface melt on the coastal Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) determines the viability of its ice shelves and the stability of the grounded ice sheet, but very few in situ melt rate estimates exist to date. Here we present a benchmark dataset of in situ surface melt rates and energy balance from nine sites in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica, seven of which are located on AIS ice shelves. Meteorological time series from eight automatic and one staffed weather station (Neumayer), ranging in length from 15 months to almost 24 years, serve as input for an energy-balance model to obtain consistent surface melt rates and energy-balance results. We find that surface melt rates exhibit large temporal, spatial and process variability. Intermittent summer melt in coastal DML is primarily driven by absorption of shortwave radiation, while non-summer melt events in the eastern AP occur during föhn events that force a large downward directed turbulent flux of sensible heat. We use the in situ surface melt rate dataset to evaluate melt rates from the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2 and validate a melt product from the QuikSCAT satellite.
Reduced inflammatory signaling (IL-1RI-/-) alters metabolic responses to dietary challenges (1). Inflammasome deficiency (e.g. IL-18-/-, Asc-/-) can modify gut microbiota concomitant with hepatosteatosis; an effect that was transferable to wild-type (WT) mice by co-housing (2). Taken together, this evidence suggests that links between diet, microbiota and IL-1RI-signaling can influence metabolic health. Our aim was to determine whether IL-1RI-mediated signaling interacted with the gut microbiome to impact metabolic tissue functionality in a diet-specific fashion. Male WT (C57BL/J6) and IL-1RI-/- mice were fed either high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal) or low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal) for 24 weeks and were housed i) separately by genotype or ii) with genotypes co-housed together (i.e. isolated vs shared microbial environment; n = 8–10 mice per group). Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion response (1.5 g/kg i.p.), gut microbiota composition and caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were assessed. Liver and adipose tissue were harvested and examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, cholesterol and metabolic markers (Fasn, Cpt1α, Pparg, Scd1, Dgat1/2), using histology, gas-chromatography and RT-PCR, respectively. Statistical analysis included 1-way or 2-way ANOVA, where appropriate, with Bonferroni post-hoc correction. Co-housing significantly affected gut microbiota composition, illustrated by clustering in PCoA (unweighted UniFrac distance) of co-housed mice but not their single-housed counterparts, on both HFD and LFD. The taxa driving these differences were primarily from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Single-housed WT had lower hepatic weight, TAG, cholesterol levels and Fasn despite HFD, an effect lost in their co-housed counterparts, who aligned more to IL-1RI-/- hepatic lipid status. Hepatic Cpt1α was lowest in co-housed WT. Adipose from IL-1RI-/- groups on HFD displayed increased adipocyte size and reduced adipocyte number compared to WT groups, but greater lipogenic potential (Pparg, Scd1, Dgat2) alongside a blunted IL-6 response to pro-inflammatory stimuli (~32%, P = 0.025). Whilst caecal SCFA concentrations were not different between groups, single-housed IL-1RI-/- adipocytes showed greatest sensitivity to SCFA-induced lipogenesis. Interestingly, differences in tissue functionality and gut microbiome occurred despite unaltered glucose tolerance; although there was a trend for phenotypic transfer of body weight via co-housing. For all endpoints examined, similar genotype/co-housing effects were observed for both HFD and LFD with the greatest impacts seen in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, while the gut microbiome may be an important consideration in dietary interventions, these results question the magnitude of its impact in relation to the IL-1RI-dependent immunometabolism-glucose homeostasis axis.
The origin and development of the Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom is described on the occasion of the publication of the 100th volume. Papers in the Journal demonstrate how the techniques and approaches to the study of the marine environment have evolved over the 120 years of publication. The early papers provided a baseline description of the marine environment and of marine communities that allowed the effects of later perturbations of the environment to be determined. Both the early papers and the long time series of records have proved to be particularly relevant as marine scientists try to predict the long-term results of climatic and anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystem. The Journal has now become increasingly international, with most papers coming from outside Europe.
New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
Individuals with depression often do not respond to medication or psychotherapy. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is a new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression.
To compare RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) for refractory depression with TAU alone (trial registration: ISRCTN 85784627).
RO DBT comprised 29 therapy sessions and 27 skills classes over 6 months. Our completed randomised trial evaluated RO DBT for refractory depression over 18 months in three British secondary care centres. Of 250 adult participants, we randomised 162 (65%) to RO DBT. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), assessed masked and analysed by treatment allocated.
After 7 months, immediately following therapy, RO DBT had significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 5.40 points on the HRSD relative to TAU (95% CI 0.94–9.85). After 12 months (primary end-point), the difference of 2.15 points on the HRSD in favour of RO DBT was not significant (95% CI –2.28 to 6.59); nor was that of 1.69 points on the HRSD at 18 months (95% CI –2.84 to 6.22). Throughout RO DBT participants reported significantly better psychological flexibility and emotional coping than controls. However, they reported eight possible serious adverse reactions compared with none in the control group.
The RO DBT group reported significantly lower HRSD scores than the control group after 7 months, but not thereafter. The imbalance in serious adverse reactions was probably because of the controls' limited opportunities to report these.